Qualitative exploration of health and well-being perceptions of swim coaches

Authors: Krista M. Kezbers1, 2,*, Bridget M. Miller1, and Jamie C. Clark3

1School of Community Health Sciences, Counseling and Counseling Psychology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA
2School of Community Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Tulsa, OK, USA
3School of Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA

*The primary author completed this work while affiliated with Oklahoma State University. The primary author is now affiliated with the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center.

Corresponding Author:
Krista M. Kezbers, PhD, DipACLM, ACSM-CPT, ACSM-EIM
4502 E. 41st Street
Tulsa, OK, 74135
krista-kezbers@ouhsc.edu
405-519-1050

Krista M. Kezbers, PhD, DipACLM, ACSM-CPT, ACSM-EIM is a Research Associate in the School of Community Medicine at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center in Tulsa, OK. Her research interests focus on the health and well-being of sports coaches, lifestyle medicine, and exercise is medicine. Krista has over 10 years of swim coaching experience ranging from high school teams to national-level club teams and athletes.

Bridget M. Miller, PhD is an Associate Professor, Joan Donelson Jacques Endowed Professor of Health Promotion, and Health Education and Promotion Program Direction at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, OK. Her research interests include: the prevention of obesity and other chronic diseases through the promotion of physical activity and the cognitive mediators within the exercise-mood relationship.   

Jamie C. Clark, MS has a master’s degree in Exercise Science and at the time of the study was a PhD student in Health and Human Performance at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, OK. Her research interest includes sport burnout, post-collegiate transition and sport support relationships with parents and coaches. Jamie has over 10 years of volleyball coaching experience.

Qualitative exploration of health and well-being perceptions of swim coaches

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The sports coach profession encompasses many non-traditional working characteristics, such as early morning and late evening hours. Literature regarding the health and well-being of sports coaches has been mostly limited to psychological components, such as stress and burnout, but little has focused on the physical health of coaches. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences on health and well-being within the coaching profession. Methods: A qualitative interpretative phenomenological analysis approach was used for this study. Six focus groups were conducted at a swim conference using a semi-structured question guide. Transcriptions of each focus group were used by a 3-person research team to individually code salient words and phrases. Researchers met to reconcile codes and determine themes. Results: Twenty-three swim coaches, mostly male (73.9%), participated in the focus groups. From the data, six themes were identified: 1) Health and well-being definitions, 2) Former athlete transition to coaching, 3) Coaching challenges, 4) Health correlates, 5) Healthy eating barriers, and 6) Reasons for coaching. Conclusions: Coaches identified a number of different components of the profession that impact health and well-being and potentially increase health risks. Of emphasis was the steady

decline in health experienced by athletes as they leave their sports and enter the coaching world. Despite the many challenges that coaching poses, coaches expressed a deep love for their profession. Applications in Sport: This research provides important information for those considering a career in coaching and the impacts, both positive and negative, on their health and well-being. Coaches, teams, and organizations can explore this data for future points of intervention and areas to provide training and education to coaches, not only improve their health and well-being, but also to minimize any potential negative aspects of the coaching profession.

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2021-02-15T10:32:31-06:00February 26th, 2021|Sports Coaching|Comments Off on Qualitative exploration of health and well-being perceptions of swim coaches

Student Success: An Exploratory Examination About Male Athletes Perceptions of Coaching Behaviors in Middle School

Authors: Tucker, Raymond & Black, Willie

Corresponding Author:
Raymond Tucker, D.S.M., CFSC, CSCS * D, CSAC, FMS, USATF, USAW
Assistant Professor of Kinesiology
University of Houston at Victoria
3007 N. Ben Wilson
Victoria, Texas 77901
Phone: (361)-570-4381
TuckerR1@uhv.edu

Raymond Tucker, D.S.M., CFSC, CSCS*D, CSAC, USATF, USAW is an Assistant Professor of Kinesiology at the University of Houston in Victoria, Texas. His research interests focus on leadership and coaching, and program design to improve athletic performance.

Willie J. Black, Jr. Ed.D.  is an Assistant Professor of Kinesiology at the University of Houston in Victoria, Texas. His research interests focus on leadership, physical education pedagogy, and social justice in physical education.

Student Success:  An Exploratory Examination About Male Athletes Perceptions of Coaching Behaviors in Middle School

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate male athletes’ perception of the behavior exhibited by coaches in the treatment of their athletes. Data was collected using the Leadership Scale for Sports consisting of forty items describing a specific behavior a coach could exhibit based on the five dimensions of leadership, which are autocratic, democratic, positive feedback, social support, and training and instruction. This study compares (total N = 170) 8th-grademale athletes who participated in team sports at the same middle school. Results of the Friedman test rank the values in the following order democratic 3.93, autocratic 3.65, social support 3.59, positive feedback 1.94, training and instruction 1.89. The results of the Friedman show there was a statistically significant difference in at least one of the five dimensions of leadership. A series of pairwise comparisons to pinpoint where the differences lie was conducted by performing a series of Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test using a Bonferroni adjustment to the p-value. Because we made 10 comparisons, we need to divide 0.05/10 = 0.005. Results of the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test show a statistically significant difference at the 0.005 level between democratic, training instruction, autocratic, training instruction, social support, training instruction, positive feedback, democratic behavior, positive feedback, autocratic behavior, and positive feedback, social support. For this study, the researcher will be focusing on democratic, training instruction, autocratic, training instruction, social support, training instruction. Results of the data display 8th-grademale athletes perceive their coaches to emphasize the (LSS) dimensions of democratic, autocratic, and social support, compared to training and instruction. This study does not conclude which behavior styles of leadership are superior to the success of participating in a middle school athletic program. What follows is the basis for this study, procedures used to conduct the research, an analysis of the data, conclusions, application in sport, and finally, recommendations for further research on this topic.

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2020-08-12T11:48:43-05:00December 4th, 2020|Research, Sports Coaching|Comments Off on Student Success: An Exploratory Examination About Male Athletes Perceptions of Coaching Behaviors in Middle School

Recreational sport opportunities for youth with disabilities: Perspectives of recreation directors in New England

Authors: James MacGregor1, Deb Risisky2, Kevin McGinniss1

1 Department of Recreation, Tourism and Sport Management, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
2 Department of Public Health, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Corresponding Author:
James MacGregor, EdD
Department of Recreation, Tourism, and Sport Management
Southern Connecticut State University
501 Crescent Street
New Haven, CT 06514
Office: 203.392.6385
macgregorj1@southernct.edu

James MacGregor, EdD, is an Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Recreation, Tourism, and Sport Management. His research areas include inclusion and recreation, disability studies, and sport leadership development.

Deb Risisky, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Public Health. Her research is in evaluation of adolescent health programs, youth violence, and educational success of youth.

Kevin McGinniss, EdD, is an Assistant Professor and Director of Sport Management in the Department of Recreation, Tourism, and Sport Management. His research is in intercollegiate athletics and disability sports.

Recreational Sport Opportunities for Youth with Disabilities

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Inclusive recreation practices are one of the most recognized means of providing recreational sport opportunities for youth with disabilities. Municipal recreation departments are responsible for ensuring opportunities to partake in youth sport programs. This study evaluates the extent to which recreation departments are providing inclusive recreational sport opportunities to individuals with disabilities.

Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional design mail survey to gather data from recreation directors across New England. The two dependent variables for this study are provision of inclusive services and perceived challenges to providing those services. The independent variables include director recreation/sport education, years as a director, and community size. Analysis included univariate, bivariate, and ANOVA for the quantitative data. Qualitative data were reviewed for commonalities.

Results: There were 136 respondents for a response rate of 34.8%. Most (85%) directors noted their agency provided some inclusive recreation. Areas of success included accessible facilities and accommodations/modifications. Areas of needed improvement included staff training and providing transportation for individuals with disabilities. The only significant factor was years as a Director (F=4.315; p=0.016). The multiple comparison test found statistical significance between those with the fewest years of experience (x̄=22.14) and highest experience (x̄=19.57). The top challenges in providing inclusive recreational sport was additional expense, and the lack of training for the provision of these services.

Conclusions: Without director support, inclusive recreation can be difficult to achieve. Director support, including making inclusion an agency priority, reflecting inclusion in the agency’s mission, and hiring practices was imperative to facilitating an inclusive recreation environment and program. Financial concerns and need for staff training are the biggest obstacles to providing inclusive recreational sport programming.

Applications in Sport: Training of recreation and youth sport staff members, including those that aspire to be directors, can have a great impact on opening opportunities for inclusive recreational sports. University academic recreation and sport management programs need to embed the principles and practices of inclusion into their curriculum. In-service training can be an important tool to increase inclusion offerings to the community, increasing the amount of staff members who can facilitate increased opportunities for inclusive recreational sport.

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2020-11-04T11:00:04-06:00November 17th, 2020|Research, Sports Coaching|Comments Off on Recreational sport opportunities for youth with disabilities: Perspectives of recreation directors in New England

NCAA Head Coach Satisfaction with Athletic Trainers: Influence of Individual Athletic Trainer Characteristics and Team Factors

Authors: Whitney Larson, M.S., ATC, Alyson Dearie, Ed.D., ATC, Larissa True, Ph.D., Brian Richardson, Ph.D., and Erik Lind, Ph.D.

Corresponding Author:
Erik Lind, Ph.D.
1151 Professional Studies Building
Kinesiology Department
State University of New York at Cortland
Cortland, NY 13045
erik.lind@cortland.edu
(607) 753-2189

Whitney Larson is an assistant athletic trainer with the Iona College Athletic Department in New Rochelle, NY, and provides coverage for a number of the school’s athletic teams.

Dr. Alyson Dearie is the Clinical Education Coordinator with the Athletic Training program at SUNY-Cortland.

Drs. Larissa True (Exercise Science), Brian Richardson (Coaching), and Erik Lind (Sports Studies) are all with the Kinesiology Department at SUNY-Cortland.

NCAA Head Coach Satisfaction with Athletic Trainers: Influence of Individual Athletic Trainer Characteristics and Team Factors

ABSTRACT

Considerable research exists which examines the relationship between head coach-athlete and athletic trainer-athlete. However, little is known about the perceived relationship between head coach-athletic trainer, specifically satisfaction with services provided. Purpose: This study examined head coach satisfaction with athletic trainers across National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) divisions. Methods: Head coaches from a Division I, II, and III athletic department were surveyed regarding overall and dimensions of satisfaction of athletic training services. Results: No differences in Overall Satisfaction with athletic training services were noted. However, coaches assigned (a) a full-time athletic trainer reported significantly higher satisfaction in athletic trainer Knowledge/Ability than coaches with a graduate assistant and (b) a certified athletic trainer reported higher Communication scores. Moreover, Overall Satisfaction and Professionalism were different between male/female sport teams. Conclusions: Regardless of competitive level, NCAA head coaches appeared satisfied with services provided by the athletic training staff. Certain dimensions of satisfaction, however, were influenced by individual characteristics of the athletic trainer (i.e. full-time appointment; assigned certified athletic trainer). Likewise, team factors (i.e. sex of the team) also influenced satisfaction ratings with athletic training services. Applications in Sport: The findings may contribute to continued improvement of the NCAA head coach-athletic trainer relationship. Given the demands and responsibilities of each role, it is imperative to establish a trusting and positive relationship. Clearly delineating the needs and expectations both the head coach and athletic trainer are to address will only create a more productive work environment. Awareness of these findings will help inform the head coach-athletic trainer relationship by highlighting factors (e.g., access to full-time and certified athletic trainers) which can quickly facilitate the relationship. Conversely, the findings also identify potential issues (e.g., sex of the team) to address early to prevent a break down in the relationship.

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2020-08-12T10:44:29-05:00November 13th, 2020|Sports Coaching|Comments Off on NCAA Head Coach Satisfaction with Athletic Trainers: Influence of Individual Athletic Trainer Characteristics and Team Factors

COVID-19: Social Isolation and Optimism in Sport

Author: Christopher Streeter

College of Doctoral Studies, Grand Canyon University, Phoenix, AZ, USA
Department of Social Sciences, Goodwin University, East Hartford, CT, USA
Academy Coach, New England Revolution, Major League Soccer (MLS)

Corresponding Author:
Christopher Streeter
College of Doctoral Studies
Grand Canyon University
Phoenix, AZ 85017
cstreeter2@my.gcu.edu
cstreeter@goodwin.edu
413-266-0968

Christopher Streeter is a doctoral candidate at Grand Canyon University, an Adjunct Professor of Psychology at Goodwin University, and an Academy Coach for the New England Revolution of Major League Soccer. His research interests include sport psychology, coaching methodologies, motivating language theory, sociology of sport, cognitive psychology, and behavioral psychology.

COVID-19: Social Isolation and Optimism in Sport

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this discussion is to explore communicative strategies that sport practitioners can implement during this unprecedented time of social isolation as a result of COVID-19. The goal of this discussion is to frame COVID-19 social isolation mandates as opportunities for coaches and sport practitioners to maintain mental health by revisiting their commitment to their players, to their teams, and to the industry of sport. Social isolation is a fundamental safety step that can limit the spread of COVID-19. However, research links prolonged social isolation with adverse health consequences including depression, poor sleep quality, impaired executive function, accelerated cognitive decline, and increased levels of anxiety. The social isolation that COVID-19 has thrust upon the world, including the sport industry, presents a paradox: Can social isolation manifest optimism in sport? Recommendations for coaches and sport practitioners include communicative behaviors intended to deafen the social isolation created by COVID-19. Communicative approaches discussed include empathetic language, articulation of meaning and purpose, connectedness, and strategies to overcome social isolation. 

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2020-07-06T10:30:15-05:00July 8th, 2020|Sports Coaching, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on COVID-19: Social Isolation and Optimism in Sport
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