Differences in activity patterns between adult and U-21 major league players

Authors: Uri Harel1, Lael Gershgoren2 ,  Eli Carmeli1

1Department of Physical Therapy, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel 
2School of Behavioral Sciences, The College of Management, Rishon-Lezion, Israel 

Corresponding Author:
Eli Carmeli
Email: ecarmeli@univ.haifa.ac.il
Tel: + 972507393454
Fax: + 97248288140

Uri Harel B.E.d, MA in Exe. Physiology is an athletic trainer in Maccabi Haifa Soccer Club in Israel. He plans and writes the exercise programs for major league adult and U-21 soccer players. 

Lael Gershgoren, PhD is faculty member at the The Academic College of Tel Aviv-Yaffo, expert in Sport Psychology.

Eli Carmeli PT, PhD, is faculty member at the Department of Physical Therapy, University of Haifa, ISRAEL, expert in movement performance.

Differences in activity patterns between adult and U-21 major league players


The purpose of this study was to measure differences in activity patterns between major league adult and U-21 soccer players. Four U-21 players and four adult team players were evaluated using a repeated measures technique. All eight players were affiliated with the Maccabi Haifa Soccer Club from the Israeli professional and U-21 major leagues, depending on the player’s age. GPS sensors were attached to the players during five consecutive games to identify patterns regarding running distance and speed according to the field positions. There was no significant difference in the total running distances covered by two age groups; however, when measuring high running speed, an advantage was observed for the adult group in comparison to the U-21 in general and between players playing in the same position. These findings provide valuable knowledge that may serve the principle of training specificity. First, it may assist practitioners adjust specific intensity levels to players depending on their position on the field and physical function. Moreover, it can serve coaches in transitioning U-21 players to the adult team by progressively adjusting their physical capacities to those needed at the adult level.

2020-07-15T10:42:50-05:00September 10th, 2020|Sport Education|Comments Off on Differences in activity patterns between adult and U-21 major league players

Scientific Epistemology for Physical Education Fundamental Movement Skills Prerequisites

Authors: Robert P. Narcessian and Janet M. Leet

Corresponding Author:
Robert P. Narcessian, EdM
St. Joseph’s Health and Regional Medical Center
Department of Orthopedics
703 Main Street
Paterson, NJ 07503
201-612-0695; 973-754-2950

Robert P.Narcessian is a faculty member and research consultant in the Department of Orthopedics, and the primary investigator of the study

Janet M. Leet, President
Sub5, Inc.
508 S. Evanston Avenue
Arlington, IL 60004

Janet M. Leet is a coach and the co-investigator of the study at St. Joseph’s Regional Medical Center

Scientific Epistemology for Physical Education Fundamental Movement Skills Prerequisites


A scientific epistemology, using a systems thinking qualitative methodology for translating practice into theory, integrates mathematical and dynamical systems concepts with belief systems that are presented in this original research of unique prerequisites for fundamental movement skills (FMS) in physical education as illustrated with running. FMS prerequisites demonstrate that FMS are neither fundamental nor reliable screentests conducted on individuals by physical education teachers, coaches, and healthcare practitioners for performance readiness evaluations or injury risk assessments. FMS prerequisites identify and assess eliminating the hypothetical set of worst first moves, assess the integrity of their respective coordinative structures, and assess performers’ beliefs (i.e., preferred behaviors) with the objective to provide a new direction for researching injury risk and performance readiness. The researchers illustrate this new method with participants for FMS prerequisites in running and squatting to provide insight for the observer-performer interaction. A new observer-performer classification and non-epistemic modeling show what is known with self-discovery strategies that detect hidden skills at the observable level using four independent tasks. There were 297 participants in kindergarten through high school (213 females and 84 males; mean 14.5 years; range 5 to 17 years) and 21 participants from the community at large (15 females and 6 males; mean 31.4 years, range 12 to 94 years). A variety of running strategies of different degrees of configured complexity from which to run were self-selected and observed as preferred with and without practice or intervention. An idealized 2-joint planar multi-joint mechanism (MJM) was used to assess individual skill with respect to adding and removing constraints. Findings are presented for strategies, trends, and transitions of preferred behavior including observables that reveal hidden skills including a visual search of a hidden skill with world record Olympian sprint performances. FMS prerequisites are theorized for future study with an inverted U-model and a leading MJM hypothesis; and they provide the rudiments for injury risk assessments and performance readiness evaluations approaching optimal health biomechanically in the very early detection of flawed gross motor skill development before manifesting into the signs and symptoms of injury or poor performance.

2020-06-02T13:42:34-05:00April 3rd, 2020|Sport Education, Sports Coaching|Comments Off on Scientific Epistemology for Physical Education Fundamental Movement Skills Prerequisites

Voice Health in Pre-Service Physical Education Majors: A Pilot Study

Authors: Marty Marra, Ed. D., Kellyn Hall, Ph. D., and Fred J. Cromartie, Ed. D.

Corresponding Author:
Dr. Marty Marra
Longwood University
201 High Street
Farmville, VA 23909

Dr. Marty Marra is an Assistant Professor of Health and Physical Education at Longwood University in Farmville, VA. Dr. Marra has been involved in education for 33 years and continues to research and study in the areas of pedagogy, professionalism, current trends and gender equity issues in health, physical education and athletics.

Kellyn Hall, Ph.D. CCC/SLP is a clinician, researcher, teacher, and author with over 30 years’ experience working in a variety of medical settings.  She is currently an Associate Professor in the Communication Sciences and Disorders program at North Carolina Central University where she teaches medical speech-language pathology courses. Her clinical interests are in adult and pediatric voice disorders.

Dr. Fred J. Cromartie, is the Director of Doctoral Studies at the United States Sports Academy.

Voice Health in Pre-Service Physical Education Majors: A Pilot Study


Teachers are at a higher risk for phono-traumatic voice disorders due to increased vocal demands of their profession. Previous studies suggest that training modules may be effective in educating practicing teachers about vocal hygiene and vocally abusive behaviors.

The purpose of this study was to pilot an online training module targeting student teachers before they entered their teaching professions. The goals were to provide instruction about vocal hygiene, strategies for optimal voice production, and determine the effectiveness of the training in their vocal practices in their future careers. It was hypothesized that an online educational module will increase undergraduate students’ knowledge of vocal hygiene, thereby reducing their risk of developing voice disorders in the future.

2019-11-27T08:36:50-06:00December 13th, 2019|Sport Education|Comments Off on Voice Health in Pre-Service Physical Education Majors: A Pilot Study

A Practical Evaluation of Golf Coaches’ Knowledge of Block and Random Practice

Authors: Dr. David Grecic and Mr. Brendan Ryan, MS / MA

Corresponding Author:
Brendan Ryan
1304 Denman Ct
Wesley Chapel, FL

David Grecic is a princial lecture and head of sport at the University of Central Lancashire. David joined the School of Sport, Tourism and the Outdoors in August 2008 having previously worked in a variety of sport and education settings for 15 years. He is an active coach in a variety of sports including rugby union, swimming and golf. It is here that his specialist interest lies and that drives his academic research.

Brendan Ryan is a former college coach who now works closely developing junior golfers in their pursuit of college. He is also a well-established academic, with a pair of Master’s degrees and the author of several books, published papers and popular articles.

A Practical Evaluation of Golf Coaches’ Knowledge of Block and Random Practice

The practical knowledge of golf coaches is of great interest to golfers, researchers, and the media alike. One popular element is their application of practice design and, in particular, their use of Contextual Interference (CI) through their use of random and block practice design. The study investigated the level of understanding of 69 golf coaches in the theory, use, and transference of both these methods. The main findings were that coaches had a surface level understanding of the issues, but had worrying gaps in knowledge on how to relate their practice design to long-term athlete development. Suggestions are provided on how coach learning could be provided to support this identified development need.

2018-06-13T11:07:13-05:00July 19th, 2018|Sport Education, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on A Practical Evaluation of Golf Coaches’ Knowledge of Block and Random Practice

Startup Leadership in Sports

Authors: Wanyi Tang and Rodney J. Blackman

Corresponding Author: Rodney Blackman, rblackman@ussa.edu

Wanyi Tang is a doctoral Teaching Assistant at the United States Sports Academy
Rodney J. Blackman, is an Associate Professor and Chair of Recreation Management at the United States Sports Academy

Startup Leadership in Sports

A qualitative, phenomenological document analysis approach was taken to ascertain and highlight characteristics found in successful sports startup entrepreneurs. This information was framed in a thorough review of leadership characteristics necessary for general startup company success, as reported by successful startup entrepreneurs in response to interview questions. Other sources of information valuable for interpretation and understanding of this phenomenon came from individuals known for their successes and reporting their expertise, based on experience, in magazine and journal articles, as well as information from focus groups reporting results from their findings in online formats, newsprint articles, and other popular literature. Accordingly, 4 primary dominant leadership characteristics were identified among sports startup leaders. These traits included sound decision making, recruitment and retention of workers that fit the company and become followers, maintenance of clear vision, and prioritization to keep that vision clear and being attentive to strategy – to continually strategize for success. Interestingly, it was also determined that sports startup leadership characteristics do not appear in isolation – but rather, in each case in this study, effectiveness was augmented by leaders who displayed multiple leadership characteristics linked in a variety of different ways.

2018-03-30T13:46:27-05:00April 2nd, 2018|Commentary, Contemporary Sports Issues, Sport Education|Comments Off on Startup Leadership in Sports
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