Positive and Negative Events Predict Burnout and Engagement in Athletes and Non-Athletes

Authors: Donna Webster Nelson, Merry J. Sleigh, & Alyssa M. Nelson

Corresponding Author:
Donna Webster Nelson, Ph.D.
801 Oakland Avenue
Rock Hill SC, 29733
nelsond@winthrop.edu
803-323-2636

Positive and Negative Events Predict Burnout and Engagement in Athletes and Non-Athletes

ABSTRACT

The researchers compared predictors of engagement and burnout in adolescent athletes and non-athletes by focusing on daily positive and negative performance-related events (e.g., performing well in team practice) and interpersonal events (e.g., sharing a laugh with teammates). Participants were recent high school graduates who retrospectively reported participation in high school sports or heavy investment in alternate activities (e.g., marching band). The athletes and non-athletes were similar in how many hours they practiced and competed each week, frequency of activity-related travel, and performance level. In addition, the two groups did not differ in the extent to which their high school identity and self-esteem were based on their participation. Results revealed no overall differences between the two groups on engagement or burnout. For both groups, positive performance events predicted activity engagement (characterized by dedication, vigor and enthusiasm).  However, the experiences of athletes versus non-athletes differentially predicted burnout (marked by emotional and physical exhaustion). In athletes, burnout related to both performance and interpersonal events. In non-athletes, burnout was only related to performance events. In addition, burnout was positively associated with coach focus on winning (a situation more common for athletes) and negatively associated with coach focus on fun (a situation more common for non-athletes). These findings indicate that experiencing positive and negative events is a precursor for engagement and burnout in high school athletes and non-athletes. Promoting positive (relative to negative) events during training, practice, competitions or performances could enhance benefits and prevent maladaptive outcomes of participation in extracurricular activities. Positive social interactions may be particularly important for preventing burnout in adolescent athletes.

(more…)
2019-03-01T09:13:45-05:00March 1st, 2019|Research, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Positive and Negative Events Predict Burnout and Engagement in Athletes and Non-Athletes

Student-Athletes vs. Athlete-Students: The academic success, campus involvement, and future goals of Division I student athletes who were university bound compared to those who would not have attended a university had they not been an athlete.

Authors: Brenda L. Vogel, Jeff Kress, and Daniel R. Jeske

Corresponding Author:
Jeff Kress, Ph.D.
Department of Kinesiology
1250 Bellflower Blvd. – MS 4901, HHS2-103
Long Beach, CA 90840
jeff.kress@csulb.edu
949-375-3958

Brenda L.Vogel is a Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice and the Director of the School of Criminology, Criminal Justice, and Emergency Management at California State University, Long Beach. She served as the CSULB NCAA Faculty Athletics Representative from 2007-2015.

Jeff Kress is an Associate Professor in the Department of Kinesiology at California State University, Long Beach and teaches in the area of Physical Education Teacher. His research interests have been in the area of sport performance enhancement through psychological methods.

Daniel Jeske is a Professor, in the Department of Statistics at the University of California, Riverside.  He has served as the UCR NCAA Faculty Athletics Representative. He is an elected Fellow of the American Statistical Associationand an Elected Member of the International Statistical Institute. He has published over 100 peer-reviewed journal articles and is a co-inventor on 10 U.S. Patents and is currently the Editor-in-Chief of The American Statistician.

Student-Athletes vs. Athlete-Students: The academic success, campus involvement, and future goals of Division I student athletes who were university bound compared to those who would not have attended a university had they not been an athlete.

ABSTRACT

This study examined the differences between two groups of Division I student athletes: those who would have attended a 4-year university regardless of their participation in athletics and those who would not have attended a 4-year university had it not been for the opportunity afforded them through their athletic ability.  The researchers examined a number of academic factors including GPA, participation in intensive academic experiences, class participation and preparation, perception of academic experience, importance of graduation, major selection, and participation in extracurricular activities, future goals, and identification as an athlete or student. The data from the NCAA’s Growth, Opportunities, Aspirations and Learning of Students in College (GOALS) survey that was administered to a nationwide, random sample of NCAA student athletes in 2006 are discussed. Our results suggest that there were significant differences between the two groups in several of the domains measured.  For example, our findings suggest that student athletes who identify as athletes first and students second think less about academics when choosing a college, are less likely to major in mathematics and science, are less likely to select a major to prepare for graduate school or a specific career, have lower GPAs, are less likely to participate in classes, are less likely to be involved in extracurricular activities, are less willing to sacrifice on athletics participation for academics, feel graduation is less important to them and to their families, and believe becoming a professional athlete is more likely. Implications for the NCAA and college athletics programs are discussed.

(more…)
2019-02-21T15:03:34-05:00February 21st, 2019|Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Student-Athletes vs. Athlete-Students: The academic success, campus involvement, and future goals of Division I student athletes who were university bound compared to those who would not have attended a university had they not been an athlete.

Study on professional football players – factors in recovery and preparation and performance markers during scheduled training session

Authors:Tatyana Dzimbova, Hristo Nikolov, Radoslav Mavrevski, Stefan Kapralov

Corresponding Author:
Assoc. prof. Tatyana Dzimbova, PhD
66 Ivan Michailov Str.
Blagoevgrad, 2700 Bulgaria
tania_dzimbova@abv.bg
+359898939285

Study on professional football players – factors in recovery and preparation and performance markers during scheduled training session

ABSTRACT

Purpose. The purpose of the present study is to estimate if the athletes can satisfy their energy needs by diet, if they are well hydrated before training, and if the training is effective.

Methods. Ten players of the football team in the B professional league participated in the study (age 23.44 ± 5.98 years, weight 70.64 ± 4.57 kg, height 176.4 ± 7.35 cm; ±SD). Their body composition was analyzed with the Body Composition Analyzer IoI 353 and they completed food questionnaires. Blood lactate concentrations were determined using the biochemical analyzer BIOSEN – C Line, EKF Diagnostic. The heart rates of the subjects are recorded using the activePULS, MEDION AG. Data was processed using SPSS and Graphpad Prism software.

Results. According to the data obtained from the food questionnaires all subjects received the necessary amount of energy to fully meet their energy needs. From the multiple linear regression, it is seen that the highest value has the standardized coefficient in front of the carbohydrate intake which means that it has the greatest influence (about 65%) on total energy intake. The heart rates of participants in the study range from 78 to 90% of the predicted maximum, i.e., high intensity. Differences in blood lactate concentration before and after exercise are significant, evidence of effective performance on training.

Conclusions. We can conclude that according to the nutrition questionnaire the athletes received a sufficient amount of macronutrients and sufficient amount of energy for their training needs. The change in blood lactate concentrations and heart rate during training is indicative of the responsible attitude of the players, and therefore the target endurance is most likely to be achieved.

Applications in Sport. Reported methods could be a useful tool for coaches to track the recovery and preparation of the athletes in season and to evaluate their performance during a scheduled training session.

(more…)
2019-01-10T14:36:51-05:00January 17th, 2019|Research, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Study on professional football players – factors in recovery and preparation and performance markers during scheduled training session

International Students Participating in Campus Recreational Sport

Authors:James Allen and Robert Lyons

Corresponding Author: James Allen, PhD
Blair College of Health
Queens University of Charlotte
1900 Selwyn Avenue
allenj5@queens.edu
704-337-2426

James Allen is an Associate Professor at Queens University of Charlotte.

Robert Lyons is an Associate Professor at Queens University of Charlotte.

International Students Participating in Campus Recreational Sport

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between cultural heritage and sport participation behavior (11,22,24). Not far from this notion, yet underrepresented in the literature, is the review of international students participating in campus recreational sport. Specifically, the impact of cultural identity on campus recreational sport participation patterns. Campus recreational sport programming has the potential to assist international students with acclimating to their new environment. Therefore, it is essential for administrators of campus recreational sport to recognize the cultural dynamics among international students and their participation behavior. A sample of international students attending universities in the United States was obtained and 8.2% of those targeted (N=242) responded to the survey. Findings indicated that international students use their campus recreational sport participation in a variety of ways. While some utilize their sport participation to maintain their cultural identity, others use it to cross cultural boundaries and acclimate to a new multi-cultural environment. Others expressed elements of exclusion and marginalization pertaining to campus recreational sport programs. Implications of the findings are discussed.

(more…)
2019-01-10T14:12:32-05:00January 3rd, 2019|Research, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on International Students Participating in Campus Recreational Sport

The Working Alliance and Satisfaction with the Coach-Athlete relationship among Norwegian elite swimmers

Authors: F. Moen(1), R. Anstensen(1), M. Hrozanova(2), T. C. Stiles(3)

Corresponding Author:
Frode Moen, PhD
Department of Education and Lifelong learning, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway
frode.moen@ntnu.no
+47 93 24 87 50

Frode Moen is a mental trainer for elite athletes and coaches at the Norwegian Olympic Sports Center in the Mid-Norway region, where he also is the manager. He is also an associate professor at the Department of Lifelong Learning and Education at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology where his research focuses on coaching in business, coaching in sport, communication, performance psychology, athlete burnout, attention, motivation, education, and relationship issues.

1) Centre for Elite Sports Research, Department of Education and Lifelong Learning, Faculty of Social and Educational Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
2) Centre for Elite Sports Research, Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
3) Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social and Educational Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

The Working Alliance and Satisfaction with the Coach-Athlete relationship among Norwegian elite swimmers

ABSTRACT
The current study investigates how the three dimensions of the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI); bond, goal and task, uniquely explain the perceived satisfaction among Norwegian swimmers with their coach-athlete relationships. The current study uses regressions analysis to investigate the research question and the analysis shows that only the bond dimension uniquely explains the swimmers’ satisfaction with their relationships with their coaches. Bond explains 50% of the variance in athletes’ satisfaction with their coaches. The results are discussed in regard of applied implications and possible future research. (more…)

2018-10-29T14:44:22-05:00November 15th, 2018|Research, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on The Working Alliance and Satisfaction with the Coach-Athlete relationship among Norwegian elite swimmers