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The relation of achievement goals to sense of community in an adult recreational sports league: A multi-level perspective

Authors: Eric Legg1, Mary S. Wells2, John P. Barile3

1 School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ
2Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
3Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii, Manoa, Honolulu, HI

Corresponding Author:
Eric Legg, Ph.D.
411 N Central Ave; Suite 550
Phoenix, AZ 85015
eric.legg@asu.edu
602-496-1057

Eric Legg, Ph.D. an Associate Professor in the School of Community Resources & Development at Arizona State University in Phoenix, AZ.  His research focuses on recreational sports, and community development.

Mary S. Wells is an Associate Professor in the Department of Parks, Recreation, & Toursim at the University of Utah.  Her areas of research focus on creating sport and recreation that help youth and adults develop positively

John P. Barile is a Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Hawaii, Manoa in Honolulu, HI. His research focus on health, quality of life, and quantitative methods.

The relation of achievement goals to sense of community in an adult recreational sports league: A multi-level perspective.

ABSTRACT

Psychological sense of community (PSOC) has important positive associations with a number of other indicators of quality of life. One community where PSOC may develop is in adult recreational sports. Indeed, voluntary “communities of interest” appear to be replacing traditional geographic communities as places where individuals experience PSOC. Despite the possibility of PSOC developing within adult recreational sports, however, limited research has explored specific elements in this setting which may lead to PSOC. This study addresses that gap by assessing the relation of both individual and team-level achievement goal orientations to PSOC. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the link between achievement goal orientations at both the individual and group levels to PSOC. Researchers collected data from 155 participants, nested within 40 teams. Questions were related to achievement goal orientations and feelings of PSOC. Results suggest that individuals with individual ego orientation are less likely to develop PSOC (p=.031); however, individuals on teams with high task-orientations are more likely to develop PSOC (p=0.047), and further, the negative impact of individual ego-orientations is moderated when participating on a team with an overall high task-orientation (p=.032).  No significant relations were detected between individual task-orientation (p=.051), team-level ego orientation (p=.087), individual income (p=.449), or the number of years a participant had played on a team (p=.852) and PSOC. Results extend our understanding of the impact of achievement goal theory and PSOC, by recognizing the role of collective (team) goal orientations.

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2022-07-22T08:20:47-05:00July 22nd, 2022|Sports Management|Comments Off on The relation of achievement goals to sense of community in an adult recreational sports league: A multi-level perspective

How the Houston Astros Cheating Scandal Affected Public Trust in Major League Baseball: A Historical Research Approach

Authors: Ben Donahue

Corresponding Author:
Ben Donahue
8665 N. Farmdale Street
Spokane, WA 99208

Ben Donahue has worked for over 25 years in sports at the k-12, college, and professional levels.  His experience includes athletic director, game-day operations and guest relations, football operations, coach, and baseball scout.  Currently, he is a private-school teacher and contributing writer for brownsnation.com and profootballhistory.com

ABSTRACT

This study used historical research methods to assess how Major League Baseball (MLB) disciplined the Houston Astros in response to the cheating scandal that surfaced in 2019. Furthermore, this study examined how the public reacted to MLB’s sanctions imposed on the Astros and how those sanctions affected public trust (including media and fans). The author researched several responses from the national media and baseball fans that were made during the MLB investigation and following the league’s publicity of the selected disciplinary actions. After interpreting the public statements from various media reports, the author coded the responses into specific themes and then analyzed and interpreted the themes. This analysis was used to better understand how and why the scandal happened in the first place and the public’s visceral reaction to it.

     The results of the study show that, while cheating in baseball has long been recognized with a wink by MLB insiders; media and fans have a harsh and negative reaction to cheating. Key to these reactions is how cheating ruins the integrity of the game, how the guilty player or team benefited from their deceptive practices, how guilty parties were disciplined, and if the event was likely to happen again based on how the action was disciplined. The conclusions of this study suggest that MLB administrators should invoke harsher penalties on their players, coaches, and teams who engage in willful deceit. The consequences of lighter penalties run the risk of public alienation and loss of revenue. The applications of this study can be used by other sports organizations as a guide on how to resolve sensitive matters while upholding the integrity of the sport and appeasing their fan base.

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2022-05-25T14:45:03-05:00May 27th, 2022|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on How the Houston Astros Cheating Scandal Affected Public Trust in Major League Baseball: A Historical Research Approach

Psychosocial Impact of COVID-19 on Female Youth Competitive Cheerleaders

Authors: Reeti Douglas, Neha Tripathi, Ashley Allen, Cait Ennis, Jessica Judy, Emily Klink, and Jenelle Mrugalski7

Department of Occupational Therapy, Wingate University, Wingate, NC, USA

Corresponding Author:
Reeti Douglas, OTD, OTR/L
Department of Occupational Therapy
Wingate University
220 N Camden St
Wingate, NC 28174
r.douglas@wingate.edu
704-233-8973

Reeti Douglas OTD, OTR/L is an Assistant Professor of Occupational Therapy at Wingate in Wingate, NC.  Her research interests focus on pediatric and youth sports rehabilitation, pediatric and youth athlete mental health, and pediatric and adolescent hand rehabilitation.

Ashley Allen, Cait Ennis, Jessica Judy, Emily Klink, and Jenelle Mrugalski are doctoral students in the Occupational Therapy program at Wingate University.  Their research interests include pediatrics, mental health, and sports rehabilitation.

Psychosocial Impact of COVID-19 on Female Youth Cheerleaders

ABSTRACT

Purpose: As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, national restrictions were implemented limiting social gatherings and disrupting many facets of everyday life including sports. To gain a better understanding of how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the social and emotional wellbeing of children and adolescents in sports, the present study examined parental perspectives of female youth competitive cheerleaders during the national pandemic.

Methods: A sample of 97 parents of female youth competitive cheerleaders completed an online Qualtrics survey investigating their perspectives on the psychosocial wellbeing of their children during the COVID-19 pandemic. 

Results:  Descriptive statistics were used for the quantitative analysis to determine general findings from the survey results.  Results revealed that all age groups (5-18 years old) reported high levels of frustration (≥63.7%), all hours of training (1-14 hours a week) reported high levels of frustration (≥63.1%), and all levels of cheer (Level 1-6) reported high levels of frustration (≥62.9%). All age groups (≥67.1%), all hours of training (≥60.1), and levels 2-5 of cheer (≥ 57.1) reported high levels of feelings of loneliness during the pandemic. For all age groups, an increased interest in watching television or playing video games was reported as high (≥66.6%). Parents of level 2-6 cheerleaders (≥57.1) and cheerleaders who trained 5-14 hours a week (≥ 57.9) reported high levels of restlessness without participating in cheer activities.

Conclusions: Findings suggest that as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, female youth competitive cheerleaders experienced high levels of frustration, loneliness, and restlessness and spent more time engaging in sedentary activities rather than participating in active sports-related functions and practices.

Applications in Sports: This study found that the impacts of COVID-19 on the psychosocial wellbeing of youth athletes include increased levels of frustration, loneliness, and restlessness, which can be attributed to decreased participation in sports. The findings of this study provide data to support the importance of addressing psychosocial needs with female youth athletes and addressing the benefits of sports for leisure occupation and social participation. Implications of this study can be applied to healthcare professions and athletic departments to guide future research and programs regarding sports and youth. 

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2022-05-24T11:12:25-05:00May 20th, 2022|Research, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Psychosocial Impact of COVID-19 on Female Youth Competitive Cheerleaders

Differences in psychological skills in ultraendurance athletes and endurance athletes

Authors: Megan Meckfessel and Lindsay Ross-Stewart

Department of Applied Health, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL, USA

Corresponding Author:
Lindsay Ross-Stewart
Department of Applied Health
Campus Box 1126
Edwardsville, Illinois 62026-1126
(618) 650-2410

Megan Meckfessel, MS, is a Cross Country Coach, trainer, and Community Health Coach in O’Fallon Il. She is a marathon and ultra-distance runner.

Lindsay Ross-Stewart, PhD is an Associate Professor in the Department of Applied Health and the Director of Mental Performance for the Intercollegiate Athletics Department at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. Her research focuses on the role of self-efficacy in athletic performance.

Differences in psychological skills in ultraendurance athletes and endurance athletes

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in self-efficacy, self-motivation, and mood between ultraendurance athletes and endurance athletes. Forty-six endurance athletes and fifty-six ultraendurance athletes completed the Profile of Mood States, General Self-Efficacy Scale and Self-Motivation Inventory. The results of a MANOVA with sport type (endurance versus ultraendurance) as the independent variable and the total scores on all psychological variables and the subscales for self-motivation, mood, and self-efficacy as the dependent variables revealed a significant difference between endurance and ultraendurance athletes. The results indicated that ultraendurance athletes had higher overall motivation compared to endurance athletes. They also had higher scores for both drive and persistence. There were no differences between the groups for self- efficacy or mood. The results indicate that motivation may be the primary psychological factor differentiating between ultraendurance and endurance athletes. From an applied perspective it may be that athletes looking to make the leap from endurance sports to ultraendurance sports should focus on applied techniques for increasing motivation.

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2022-05-03T13:16:43-05:00May 6th, 2022|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Differences in psychological skills in ultraendurance athletes and endurance athletes

The Salivary Alpha-Amylase Response to Moderate Intensity Trap Bar Deadlift

Authors: Asher L. Flynn1, Jeremy Gentles2,Tyler Langford1

1Department of Sport and Exercise Science, Lincoln Memorial University, Harrogate, TN, USA
2Department of Sport, Exercise, Recreation, and Kinesiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA

Corresponding Author:
Asher L. Flynn, PhD, CSCS
117 Leopard Ln
Cumberland Gap, TN
AsherLFlynn@gmail.com
4178278827

Asher L Flynn, PhD, CSCS is an Assistant Professor of Exercise Science at Lincoln Memorial University, TN. His research interests focus on fatigue and athlete monitoring in colligate athletes, and aspects of women’s soccer performance.

Jeremy Gentles, PhD, CSCS is currently faculty member at East Tennessee State University, TN.  Jeremy’s areas of research interest include the biochemical response to exercise and sport technology.

Tyler Langford, PhD, is currently faculty member at Lincoln Memorial University, TN. Tyler’s areas of research interest include exercise testing and prescription for special populations (incomplete spinal cord injury and older adults) as well as the use of effort perception for exercise prescription.

The Salivary Alpha-Amylase Response to Moderate Intensity Trap Bar Deadlift

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the salivary alpha-amylase response to a moderate intensity, moderate volume resistance training protocol. In order to investigate this response, pre-exercise and post-exercise saliva samples were collected from 16 female collegiate soccer players during a team resistance training session with the strength and condition staff. Results: The saliva analysis revealed a significant increase in salivary alpha-amylase concentrations from pre- to post-exercise; 54.7 ± 34.7 U/mL, 100.6 ± 55.1; p = 0.002; d = 0.908; 95% CI: 0.31 – 1.48. These results indicated that a moderate intensity, moderate volume training protocol will elicit an increase in salivary alpha-amylase. Sport scientists and coaches are continually improving their ability to monitor the stress, and the athlete’s response to these stressors. Salivary alpha-amylase is a promising candidate as a rapid, non-invasive method of indicating the magnitude of stress associated with resistance training.

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2022-04-20T10:13:07-05:00April 22nd, 2022|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on The Salivary Alpha-Amylase Response to Moderate Intensity Trap Bar Deadlift
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