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On the Development and Application of an Expected Goals Model for Lacrosse

Authors: Bret R. Myers, Ph.D.1, Michael Burns2, Brian Q. Coughlin3, Edward Bolte4

1Department of Management and Operations, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA
2Villanova School of Business, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA
3Department of Athletics, Villanova University, Villanova PA, PA, USA
4Department of Athletics, Villanova University, Villanova PA, PA, USA

Corresponding Author:
Bret R. Myers, Ph.D.
800 E Lancaster Avenue
Villanova, PA 19085
bret.myers@villanova.edu
(804) 357-5876

Bret R. Myers, Ph.D. is a Professor of Practice in the Department of Management and Operations in the Villanova School of Business. His research interests focus on sports analytics, specifically, in the areas of team evaluation and managerial decision-making. He is also an Analytics Consultant for the Columbus Soccer Club of Major League Soccer

Michael Burns is an MBA Candidate and Graduate Research Fellow at Villanova School of Business.  Michael is also the Director of Operations for the Men’s Soccer team at Villanova University.   

Brian Q. Coughlin is the Director of Men’s Lacrosse Operations at Villanova and also has both a BBA and MBA from Villanova School of Business. Brian is also a Data Analyst at goPuff.  

Edward Bolte is a student at Villanova University and student manager on the Lacrosse team. Edward is majoring in Civil Engineering

On the Development and Application of an Expected Goals Model for Lacrosse

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to develop and apply an Expected Goals metric in lacrosse for team evaluation. Expected Goals is a metric that is used to represent the likelihood of a shot being a goal. The metric has gained traction in both soccer and hockey and has proven to add information and value in both team and player evaluations in both sports respectively. Like in soccer and hockey, the Expected Goals model for lacrosse in this paper is developed using logistic regression.  Specifically, two metrics are created through this technique: 1) The standard Expected Goals model (xG) based on characteristics of the scoring opportunity before the shot is taken and 2) Post-shot Expected Goals (xGOT) which is updated to reflect whether or not the shot is on target.

Results: In terms of development, the logistic regression models used for the development of the xG and xGOT models both yield high levels of significance for fit (p < 0.001). The xG and xGOT metrics have higher correlations to team winning percentage (0.65 and 0.75) than their counterpart statistics of shots and shots on target. In terms of application, teams in the sample that had more xG than their opponents won 73% of the time as opposed to winning only 65% of the time when they outshoot their opponents. Similarly, teams in the sample that had more xGOT than their opponents won 71% of the time as opposed to only 62% of the time when they have more shots on target than their opponents. The evidence in this study suggests that using Expected Goals as a measure of attacking performance adds both value and information that can be useful for team evaluation.

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2021-08-20T13:33:17-05:00September 17th, 2021|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on On the Development and Application of an Expected Goals Model for Lacrosse

The effects of an ocean surfing course intervention on spirituality and depression

Authors: Michael Amrhein1, Harald Barkhoff2, and Elaine M. Heiby3

1Independent Researcher
2Department of Kinesiology & Exercise Sciences, University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo, Hilo, HI, USA
3Department of Psychology, The University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI, USA

Corresponding Author:

Harald Barkhoff, PhD
Dean College of Health Sciences and Human Services
California State University, Monterey Bay
100 Campus Center, Ocean Hall A, Rm. 101
Seaside, CA 93955

hbarkhoff@csumb.edu

(831) -582-5458

Michael Amrhein, Ph.D., is a licensed clinical psychologist in Maryland and Hawaiʻi, and an independent researcher who graduated from the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa in 2016. His research interests focus on the intersection of sports psychology and spirituality, and he currently works full-time as a clinical practitioner in Ellicott City, Maryland.

Harald Barkhoff, Ph.D., is a tenured Professor and current Chair for the Department of Kinesiology & Exercise Sciences at University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo. His areas of research interest include the role of spirituality in sport and exercise, particularly of ocean sports in indigenous environments. 

Elaine M. Heiby, Ph.D., is a Professor Emerita of Psychology at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa. Her research areas include culturally sensitive psychological assessment, mood disorders, health and sports psychology, spirituality, and scope of practice issues.

The effects of an ocean surfing course intervention on spirituality and depression

ABSTRACT

Although there is very little research on the psychological aspects of ocean surfing, preliminary evidence suggests that engaging in this sport has mental health benefits (2, 12). The current study, using a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental design, aims to examine the effects of a surfing course intervention on the mental health indicators of spirituality and depression. Fifty-four participants (46 new surfers and 8 regular surfers) were recruited over two semesters from four sections of a one-credit surfing course at the University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo. Participants were asked to complete a pre-test assessment at the beginning of the course examining demographics, spirituality, and depression. Participants were also asked to complete a post-test assessment at the end of the course consisting of the same measures, coupled along with a scale of spiritual surfing experiences. New surfers demonstrated a significant increase in overall levels of spirituality from pre-test to post-test. Additionally, for the entire sample of both new and regular surfers, scores on the spiritual surfing experiences scale were positively and significantly correlated with overall levels of spirituality. No significant changes were observed from pre-test to post-test on measures of depression, possibly due to a restricted range of scores. The results suggest that participating in a surfing course may contribute to an individual’s development of overall spirituality. Limitations, future research directions, and applications for sport are discussed.

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2021-09-10T13:47:03-05:00September 10th, 2021|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on The effects of an ocean surfing course intervention on spirituality and depression

American Football and COVID-19: reducing on-field exposures to respiratory particles

Authors: Taylor N. Langon1, W. Cary Hill2, Mark B. Rogers1, Mike Goforth1, Robert I. MacCuspie2, Stefan M. Duma3, and Matthew S. Hull2,3

1Sports Medicine Department, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA
2NanoSafe, Inc., Blacksburg, VA, USA
3Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA

Corresponding Author:
Matthew S. Hull, PhD
325 Stanger Street, Kelly Hall Suite 410
Blacksburg VA, 24061
mahull@vt.edu
540-449-3388

Taylor N. Langon, MS, LAT, ATC is research associate and concussion research coordinator in the Department of Sports Medicine at Virginia Tech. Her primary responsibilities include coordination of concussion research for Virginia Tech Athletics under the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium.

W. Cary Hill, PhD is currently vice president at NanoSafe, Inc. Cary’s areas of research interest include materials science and engineering, nano-enabled human health and safety technologies and testing strategies, and advanced material processing methods.

Mark B. Rogers, DO, CAQSM, FAAFP, FAOASM, is the chief medical officer at Virginia Tech and an associate professor in the Departments of Family Medicine and Osteopathic Medicine, Discipline of Sports Medicine at the Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine (VCOM). Mark oversees administration and delivery of care to Virginia Tech student athletes.

Mike Goforth, MS, LAT, ATC, is associate athletics director for sports medicine at Virginia Tech. Mike oversees the healthcare needs of all student-athletes and organizes all trainers and doctors while supervising all other healthcare-related services offered at Virginia Tech.

Robert I. MacCuspie, PhD, is director of regulatory and testing services at NanoSafe, Inc. Rob’s areas of research interest include nanotechnology and multifunctional materials, responsible commercialization of advanced technologies, and safe use of nano enabled products.

Stefan M. Duma, PhD, is Harry C. Wyatt Professor, Biomedical Engineering and Mechanics, and Director, Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS) at Virginia Tech. Stefan’s areas of research interest include injury and impact biomechanics, and innovative methods for measuring the safety of athletes, occupants, and consumers.

Matthew S. Hull, PhD, is research scientist, Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS), at Virginia Tech, and president/founder of NanoSafe, Inc. Matthew’s areas of research interest include applications and implications of converging technologies, environmental nanotechnology, and occupational health and safety.   

American Football and COVID-19: reducing on-field exposures to respiratory particles

ABSTRACT

American football poses unique challenges to protecting the health of athletes both on and off the field. While off-field activities likely pose the greatest risk of COVID-19 transmission among members of the same team, on-field activities may pose transmission risks from one team to another. The findings of this study suggest that, when used in well-ventilated outdoor environments, helmet modifications combining upper and lower visors may help reduce on-field respiratory transmission risks with relatively minimal effects on athletic performance. These findings may offer practical insights to team physicians and athletic trainers as they seek strategies to protect athletes against on-field transmission of COVID-19 in the weeks and months ahead.

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2021-08-20T11:02:03-05:00September 3rd, 2021|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on American Football and COVID-19: reducing on-field exposures to respiratory particles

College Selection of Female Student-Athletes: Are the Factors Stable Over Time?

Authors: Peter S. Finley and Jeffrey J. Fountain

H. Wayne Huizenga College of Business and Entrepreneurship, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA

Corresponding Author:
Peter S. Finley, Ph.D.
Carl DeSantis Building
3301 College Avenue
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314
pfinley@nova.edu
954-262-8115

Peter S. Finley, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Sport and Recreation Management with the H. Wayne Huizenga College of Business and Entrepreneurship at Nova Southeastern University. His research interests include issues in college and youth sports.

Jeffrey J. Fountain, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Sport and Recreation Management with the H. Wayne Huizenga College of Business and Entrepreneurship at Nova Southeastern University. His research interests include issues in college sports, with a focus on financial issues and economic issues.

College Selection of Female Student-Athletes: Are the Factors Stable Over Time?

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aimed to apply means-end theory to determine whether the factors that drive college selection by female student-athletes were stable over an extended time at one university. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted by two researchers with a population of 25 NCAA Division II female student-athletes at one university. Results: It was determined that eight attributes, eight consequences, and four values that were previously identified continued to be important drivers of college selection, suggesting that the criteria upon which college selection hinges are highly stable. Two additional factors emerged; the team itself and the opportunity to have personal improvement outside of sports were identified variables in the college selection process for this population. Conclusions: Previous research on college selection of student-athletes lacks any empirical replication or confirmation studies that examine a similarly defined population at the same university, as researchers instead sample different populations or apply different methods or surveys in each study. This research, by establishing the constancy of the factors, can be used by practitioners as they implement strategies for successful recruitment efforts and base those efforts on appealing to the values of the recruits. Applications in Sport: It is vital to recognize how prospective student-athletes choose to matriculate to a given university. Most notably, understanding that satisfying the values of achievement, belonging, fun and enjoyment, and security are as key to college selection as they were over a decade ago is essential and can assist coaches and recruiters in using their time and resources more efficiently as they work to attract prospects that best fit their programs.

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2021-08-13T15:39:37-05:00August 27th, 2021|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on College Selection of Female Student-Athletes: Are the Factors Stable Over Time?

Examination of Factors Affecting Surfski Paddler Speed

Author:
Mark R. Janas
School of Business, Management, & Technology
1315 Oakwood Avenue
Raleigh, NC 27610-2298
919-516-4057

Mark R. Janas, BS, MBA, EdD is a Professor in the School of Business, Management, & Technology at Saint Augustine’s University in Raleigh, North Carolina, where he also serves as the head coach of the cycling team and virtual sports program.  He also manages RevoRace.com, a virtual event and race management program.

Examination of Factors Affecting Surfski Paddler Speed

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine those factors most likely to affect overall surfski paddler speed.  A survey distributed among paddlers was determined to be the best tool to make this determination.  The survey included questions about average speed over a 5 kilometer paddle (in neutral conditions), stroke rate, stroke distance, craft and paddle characteristics, training habits, and paddler gender, weight, and age.  Correlation coefficients (that measure the strength of the relationship between the variable and paddler speed) were calculated for each variable against the average reported speed by the paddler.  Results: The variables that yielded the strongest positive correlation to paddler speed were stroke rate (0.750), ski length-to-width ratio (0.453), erg use (0.449), and training volume (0.430).  Paddle blade area (0.323) and distance per stroke (0.320) demonstrated modest correlation to speed. The variables that yielded the strongest negative correlation were ski weight (-0.458) and paddler age (-0.368). Years of experience (0.160) and paddler weight (-0.194) demonstrated only little influence on speed in this data set.  The results suggest that paddlers who want to improve their overall average speed could increase their stroke rate and/or training volume, transition to longer/narrower/lighter skis, and/or supplement their “on water” workouts with rowing machine sessions. 

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2021-08-13T15:09:23-05:00August 20th, 2021|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Examination of Factors Affecting Surfski Paddler Speed
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