Assessment of readiness of Lebanese Gyms and Sport Facilities according to ISO-97.220 – Sports equipment and facilities

Authors: Siham El Rafei1, Mohammad Nassereddine 2, Ali Hammoud 3, Adel Olleik4
1,2,3 Faculty of Sciences, Lebanese University, Beirut, LB
4GATES Company, Beirut, LB

Corresponding Author:
Siham El Rafei, MS
Lebanon- Tripoli-Tripoli- 1301

Siham El Rafei, MS, has a MS degree in Healthcare and Quality Management, and a certificate in Pilates. She is the owner of a  Pilates studio, Physiopilateslb, in Tripoli, Lebanon.

Mohammad Nasseriddine, PhD, is currently an Assistant Professor at the Lebanese University in Beirut.

Ali Hammoud, PhD, is currently an Assistant Professor at the Lebanese University in the Biomedical and Bioinformatic Department, in Beirut..

Adel Olleik, MPH, DBA, worked as a CEO, consultant, auditor, and trainer in more than 250 healthcare organizations in Lebanon. He is currently running his own consultation firm, GATES, in Beirut, LB.

Assessment of readiness of Lebanese Gyms and Sport Facilities according to ISO-97.220 – Sports equipment and facilities


It is very difficult to mitigate all the risks involved in utilizing a fitness center. For this reason, ISO-97.220 – Sports equipment and facilities established the international safety standards that should be included in the sport facilities. The purpose of this survey is to assess the degree of readiness of Lebanese gyms according to these standards.78.67% of the gyms affirmed that they used international safety standards while preparing the sport facility. Correspondingly, only 60% of the gyms have a written emergency response policy and procedure and only 66.67% of the gyms conduct a safety audit inspection. Nevertheless, 84% of them have a preventative maintenance program and 92% of them have a system for removal of damaged or broken equipment.

2020-07-16T15:52:16-05:00October 23rd, 2020|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on Assessment of readiness of Lebanese Gyms and Sport Facilities according to ISO-97.220 – Sports equipment and facilities

Pay to Play in the NCAA: A Data Driven Playbook on How to Compensate Athletes

Author: Cameron Van, J.D.

Contributing Author:
Cameron Van, J.D.
University of California, Davis School of Law, Davis CA

400 Mrak Hall Drive, Davis, CA 95616
Phone Number: (650) 740-2235

Cameron Van is a recent UC Davis School of Law Graduate with a focus on the intersection of business and the law.


This article offers the NCAA a reputable, repeatable, and reasonable formula for a student-athlete revenue scheme that will ensure its competitive edge in an ever-encroaching market. The NCAA uses amateurism to restrict artificially the compensation of student athletes’ compensation to “cost of tuition,” at best. It is precisely this reason that more athletes are finding alternative ways to capitalize on their talents. As a result, this amateurism scheme is not Pareto Efficient. Pareto efficiency is reached when a situation cannot be modified in a way that would have one party better off without making another party worse off. Notably, Pareto efficiency does not imply equality, equity, or fairness, rather simply that there could be no economic changes that would better off the overall system. Here, this article explores a rare occurrence where the system can be made both more efficient and equal by increasing the supply of revenue generators – the athletes. This article will build upon Stocz formula for deriving a student-athlete’s salary, as well as give examples of what such a salary would look like for said athletes.

2020-07-16T11:29:28-05:00October 16th, 2020|Contemporary Sports Issues, Research|Comments Off on Pay to Play in the NCAA: A Data Driven Playbook on How to Compensate Athletes

Comparison of Four Stretching Protocols on Short-Term Power

Authors: Joni M. Boyd, PhD, CSCS*D; Janet R. Wojcik, PhD; Alice J. McLaine, PhD; Zachary Hartman, MS, ATC; and Malik McGill

Corresponding Author:
Joni M. Boyd, PhD, CSCS*D
216 L West Center
Rock Hill, SC 29732

Joni M. Boyd is an Associate Professor of Exercise Science & Coaching at Winthrop University.
Janet R. Wojcik is a Professor and Coordinator of Exercise Science at Winthrop University.
Alice J. McLaine is an Assistant Professor and Coordinator of Athletic Training at Winthrop University.
Zachary Hartman is an athletic trainer in Rock Hill, SC.
Malik McGill is a physical therapy student in Charleston, SC.

Comparison of Four Stretching Protocols on Short-Term Power


The purpose of the study was to compare different stretching protocols on vertical jump and long jump. Participants included 22 females and 16 males that completed four different stretching protocols in a randomized, cross-over treatment design. Protocols were performed on separate days, with at least 48 hours of rest in between. Each session began with a 5-minute self-paced jog, followed by one of the four stretching protocols: static-only stretch, dynamic-only stretch, ballistic-only stretch, and dynamic-plus-ballistic stretch. Each stretching protocol lasted for about five minutes. Either participants performed a vertical jump or long jump directly after finishing the stretching protocol, then switched testing conditions. There were no significant differences in vertical jump or long jump performance across the four conditions. Consequently, this study did not support previous research showing performance improvement after dynamic stretching.

2020-07-15T11:52:42-05:00October 9th, 2020|Research, Sports Medicine|Comments Off on Comparison of Four Stretching Protocols on Short-Term Power

The Impact of Gender on Perception of Risk During Exercise

Authors: Dr. Alexia Franzidis and Dr. Lindsey H. Schroeder

Corresponding Author:
Lindsey H. Schroeder Ed.D., LAT, ATC, CES
601 S. College Rd.
Wilmington NC, 28403-5956

Dr. Franzidis is an associate professor and program coordinator at the University of North Carolina Wilmington for the Recreation, Sport Leadership, and Tourism Management Program.

Dr. Schroeder is an assistant professor at the University of North Carolina Wilmington in the Athletic Training Program. She is a licensed and certified athletic trainer and an alumnus of the United States Sports Academy.

The impact of gender on perception of risk during exercise


An individual’s decision to engage in physical activity is driven by perceived benefits and risks. Activities that are considered risky may have limited involvement or participation. As such, understanding risk perceptions of specific physical activities is important, specifically for college students, whose engagement in physical activity decreases during their transition from high school to college. The purpose of this study was to identify college students’ preferred exercise areas within the recreation center, their exercise frequency, and their perceptions of risk and injury. The participants in the study comprised 232 college students enrolled at a mid-sized public university located in southeastern North Carolina. Students completed a survey with three sections, focusing on demographics, workout behavior, and perceived exercise risks, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 26. Most of the participants were 18 years old (32.8%) and identified as female (56.9%). Significant gender differences were found. Gender influenced the number of hours students spent working out per week, the area of the recreation center utilized, and the exercise activities conducted, the perceptions of how injuries occur, and the number of supervisors present during their workout. The findings indicate a need for further educational programming in recreation centers regarding the proper use of all fitness equipment. Such education could increase usage in all areas, as well as decrease the perceived risks of using specific pieces of equipment, especially amongst women.

2020-07-15T09:56:02-05:00September 25th, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on The Impact of Gender on Perception of Risk During Exercise

Normative Fitness Values: Among Teenage Male Competitive Hockey Players

Authors: Jordan Bent, Mark DeBeliso

Southern Utah University Department of Kinesiology and Outdoor Recreation
351 West University Blvd.
Cedar City, UT  84720

Corresponding Author:
Jordan Bent
10 Harry Street
Petawawa, ON, CA. K8H 2A4

Jordan Bent is a graduate student at Southern Utah University in Sports Conditioning and Performance.

Normative Fitness Values: An Analysis of Strength Based Characteristics in Teenage Male Competitive Hockey Players


Muscular strength, endurance and power are important attributes in many sports. Fitness testing norms are published for a variety of sports across a range of age groups and playing levels, however they do not currently exist for competitive high school aged hockey players. Purpose: This study reported lower body power (standing long jump-SLJ), upper body muscular endurance (bench press-BP and pull ups-PU), and lower body strength (3RM back squat-3RM-BSQ) data collected over three years at the beginning of each hockey season for the purpose establishing an initial set of fitness norms for competitive high school aged hockey players. Methods: Ninety-eight Canadian (U17AAA = 55; U18AAA = 43) high school male participants competing in midget AAA hockey were tested prior to the beginning of each season in September during the 2015-2017 hockey seasons with a host of fitness tests. Means, standard deviations and percentile ranks were calculated for the SLJ, maximum BP repetitions at 75% of body weight (BP-75%), PU, and 3-RM BSQ for both U17AAA and U18AAA hockey players.  Results: Means, standard deviations for each player grouping were as follows. U17AAA (SLJ=234.7±15.7, BP-75%= 9.2±5.4, PU= 9.5±4.5, 3-RM-BSQ=108.0±15.4) and U18AAA (SLJ=235.7±16.6, BP-75%=13.0±6.7, PU=10.0±5.2, 3-RM-BSQ=120.4±21.0). Conclusion: The data presented provides a preliminary set of physical performance benchmarks for coaches and players to utilize in order to develop an athletic profile for athletes aspiring to compete in hockey at the AAA level and beyond.

2020-07-15T09:45:57-05:00September 18th, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Normative Fitness Values: Among Teenage Male Competitive Hockey Players
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