Sitting Time and Physical Activity Comparison between Student Athletes and Non-Athletes: A Pilot Study

Authors: Adam J. Swartzendruber, Karen A. Croteau

Corresponding Author:
Adam J. Swartzendruber
Saint Joseph’s College of Maine
Department of Sport and Exercise Science
278 Whites Bridge Rd.
Standish, ME 04062
aswartzendruber@sjcme.edu
207-893-7667

Adam J. Swartzendruber is an Assistant Professor of Sport and Exercise Science at Saint Joseph’s College of Maine.

Karen A. Croteau is Professor and Department Chair of Sport and Exercise Science at Saint Joseph’s College of Maine

Sitting Time and Physical Activity Comparison between Student Athletes and Non-Athletes: A Pilot Study

ABSTRACT

Sitting time among young college athletes may be greater than or equal to individuals considered inactive and not meeting Physical Activity (PA) recommendations. Meeting or exceeding PA guidelines alone may not be enough to overcome the deleterious cardiometabolic effects of high sitting time. In part, this may be made evident by an independent relationship between sitting time and PA. Data from 163 full-time college students aged 18-24 were collected. Mean sitting times and Light PA (LPA) were analyzed for differences between athletes and non-athletes. Correlation analysis was completed to determine the relationship between exercise time and sitting time. Mean daily sitting time was 10.96 ± 2.98 hours, and as a percentage of total wake time, 58.86 ± 0.08% of wake time was spent sitting. No statistically significant difference in mean sitting time, in minutes, was shown between athletes (M = 629.91 min., SD = 171.657) and non-athletes (M = 677.76, SD = 182.506), as the mean difference was M = -47.854, 95% CI [-110.216, 14.508], t(129) = -1.518, p = .131, d = .27. There was no significant correlation between daily sitting time and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) time, rs (54) = .195, p = 0.154. Next, there was no significant difference in daily LPA between athletes (M = 102.45, SD = 75.209) and non-athletes (M = 111.87, SD = 100.481) in minutes, as the mean difference was M = -9.414, 95% CI [-41.204, 22.377], t(129) = -.586, p = .541, d = .10. These outcomes support previous studies showing that athletes can be highly active and highly sedentary because of the independent relationship between MPVA time and sitting time. Research must continue with other athletic populations, preferably using accelerometry, and include the collection of cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers to determine the potential for athletes to be at risk despite their high activity level.

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2020-06-01T08:35:00-05:00July 10th, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Sitting Time and Physical Activity Comparison between Student Athletes and Non-Athletes: A Pilot Study

Assessing the Outcomes of a Brief Nutrition Education Intervention Among Division I Football Student-Athletes at Moderate Altitude

Authors: Sam T. Lawson, Julia C. Gardner, Mary Jo Carnot, Samuel S. Lackey, Nanette V. Lopez, and Jay T. Sutliffe

Corresponding Author:
Jay Sutliffe, PD, RD
Flagstaff AZ, 86011
Jay.sutliffe@nau.edu
928-523-7596

Sam T. Lawson is an undergraduate research assistant and student at Northern Arizona University.

Julia C. Gardner is a research coordinator with the PRANDIAL Lab at Northern Arizona University. Mary Jo Carnot is professor of Counseling, Psychological Sciences, and Social Work at Chadron State College in Chadron, NE.

Samuel S. Lackey is the Head Strength and Conditioning Coach at Northern Arizona University.

Nanette V. Lopez is Assistant Professor in Health Sciences at Northern Arizona University.

Jay T. Sutliffe is Professor of Nutrition and Foods and the Director of the PRANDIAL Lab at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, AZ.

Assessing the Outcomes of a Brief Nutrition Education Intervention Among Division 1 Football Student-Athletes at Moderate Altitude

Abbreviations
HEI: healthy eating index
g: grams
mg: milligrams
oz: ounces
kcal: kilocalories
std.: standard
DGA: Dietary Guidelines for Americans
USDA: United States Department of Agriculture
RDA: recommended dietary allowance
RM: repetition maximum

ABSTRACT

College students are notorious for having poor quality diets and student-athletes are no exception. Collegiate football student-athletes often fail to meet overall energy requirements necessary to meet activity demands (65). The research herein assessed diet quality, body composition and physical performance of selected student athletes following completion of a brief, 8-week nutrition education intervention. The participants consisted of 55 Division I collegiate football players, aged 18-24 years (mean age 19.8±1.2yrs). Results indicated that group education sessions on nutrition had minimal impact on outcomes, perhaps due to the voluntary nature of the training. However, independent of the intervention, there were significant changes across time for the total scores on the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015), strength performance measures, and total body water. Participants with higher HEI-2015 scores versus lower scores did not differ on strength performance or body composition outcomes. Specific nutrients, including sodium, protein, and solid fats negatively impacted strength performance, especially for the bench press measures. At moderate altitudes, athletes may struggle to maintain sufficient hydration (41). In this study, athletes with higher hydration levels (based on total body water and extracellular water) improved performance from pre to post assessments of strength performance in bench press, back squat, and power clean. The results highlight the importance of nutrition on athletic performance, especially the negative impact of unhealthy choices. Educational sessions on nutrition designed to improve eating habits may need to consider social influences, including everyday eating situations, via a combination of group and individualized approaches.

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2020-06-01T08:19:54-05:00July 3rd, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Assessing the Outcomes of a Brief Nutrition Education Intervention Among Division I Football Student-Athletes at Moderate Altitude

Validity of 3-D Markerless Motion Capture System for Assessing Basketball Dunk Kinetics – A Case Study

Authors: Dimitrije Cabarkapa1, Andrew C. Fry1 and Eric M. Mosier2

  1. Jayhawk Athletic Performance Laboratory, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS
  2. Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, MO

Corresponding Author:
Dimitrije Cabarkapa, MS, CSCS, NSCA-CPT, USAW
1301 Sunnyside Avenue, Lawrence, KS 66045
University of Kansas
E-mail: dcabarkapa@ku.edu
Phone: +1 (785) 551-3882

Validity of 3-D Markerless Motion Capture System for Assessing Basketball Dunk Kinetics – A Case Study

ABSTRACT

Basketball is one of the most popular international sports, but the current sport science literature does not directly address on-court performance such as force and power during a game. This case study examined the accuracy of a three-dimensional markerless motion capture system (3-D MCS) for determining the biomechanical characteristics of the basketball dunk. A former collegiate (NCAA Division-I) basketball player (age=26 yrs, height=2.08 m, weight=111.4 kg) performed 30 maximum effort dunks utilizing a two-hands, no-step, two-leg jumping approach. A uni-axial force plate (FP) positioned under a regulation basket sampled data at 1000 Hz. Additionally, a 3-D MCS composed of eight cameras placed 3.7 m high surrounding the recording area collected data at 50 Hz, from which ground reaction forces were derived using inverse dynamics. The dunks were analyzed by both systems for peak force and peak power. Peak force (X±SD) was similar (p<0.05) for both systems (FP= 2963.9±92.1 N, 3-D MCS= 3353.2±255.9 N), as was peak power (FP= 5943±323, 3-D MCS= 5931±700 W). Bland-Altman plots with 95% confidence intervals for both force and power indicated all measurements made with the 3-D MCS accurately assessed peak force and peak power during a basketball dunk as performed in the current study. These data provide strength and conditioning professionals with a better understanding of the magnitude of forces and powers that athletes experience during a basketball game, as well as validate use of a novel technology to monitor athletes’ progress and optimize overall athletic performance.

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2020-05-06T09:16:36-05:00June 19th, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Validity of 3-D Markerless Motion Capture System for Assessing Basketball Dunk Kinetics – A Case Study

Local sport club structures and their effect on athletic performance: The relationship between formalization and athletic performance in swimming

Authors: Douglas Wharam, Ed. D., Sandra Geringer, Ed. D., Roch King, Ph. D., Mickey Kerr, DSM

Corresponding Author:
Doug Wharam, Ed.D.
222 25th Avenue North
Nashville, TN 37203
fdwharam@students.ussa.edu
703-472-1658

Doug Wharam is the Associate Head Coach of the Nashville Aquatic Club in Nashville, Tennessee, and a three-time USA Swimming National Team and four-time USA Swimming National Junior Team coach. 

Dr. Sandra Geringer is the Director of Recreation Management and Sports Studies at the United States Sports Academy. 

Dr. Roch King is the chair of Sports Coaching at the United States Sports Academy. 

Dr. Mickey Kerr is the Associate Dean of the School of Exercise and Sport Science at University of Mary Hardin-Baylor.

Local sport club structures and their effect on athletic performance:  the relationship between formalization and athletic performance in swimming

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study applies an organizational structure perspective to athletic performance in competitive swimming in the United States. This research examines via survey the top USA Swimming clubs in the country as defined by their Club Excellence Program ranking. The Club Excellence Program is a voluntary program administered by USA Swimming that ranks teams based on the achievements of their elite 18 years and younger performers. The research focused on collecting contextual variables and structural variables relating to formalization. The relationship between the level of club formalization and elite athletic performance was examined.

Surveys were collected via Survey Monkey and were distributed to 241 teams who appeared on the 2018 and 2019 USA Swimming Club Excellence list. There were 128 responses received, a response rate of 52.6% and 121 cases were selected for analysis. A Spearman’s rho correlation was run to assess the correlation between the total formalization score a club attained and their Club Excellence ranking. There was no statistically significant correlation between the ranked data of Club Excellence Ranking and Total Dimension score, rs(112) = .113, p = .237. A multiple regression analysis was run to determine whether the survey questions could predict Club Excellence ranking.  The multiple regression model statistically significantly predicted Club Excellence ranking, F(21, 90) = 1.824, p < .05, adj. R2 = .135. Variables that added statistically significance to the prediction included: Does your club have formal work plans? Does your club have a policies and procedures manual? and How often are athlete training programs, progress, and competition plans evaluated?

The results are relevant for coaches and team administrators and suggest the existence of a positive relationship between elements of organizational formalization and athletic performance within the sample. USA Swimming club teams, as well as other local sport clubs wanting to have athletes perform at a consistently high level should assess their current level of formalization and determine whether it meets the baselines established in this survey.

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2020-05-06T09:04:25-05:00June 12th, 2020|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on Local sport club structures and their effect on athletic performance: The relationship between formalization and athletic performance in swimming

Relative age effect-enhanced physical fitness reference standards for Turkish youths who live in Istanbul

Authors: Nuri Topsakal

Corresponding Author:
Nuri Topsakal, PhD
Duzce University Faculty of Sport Sciences,
Department of Coaching Education, Istanbul, Turkey
Mailing address: Duzce Universitesi Spor Bilimleri Fakültesi Konuralp Yerleşkesi 
Merkez/DÜZCE
81620
Telephone: +90 544 308 25 03
Fax: + 90 (380) 542 1365
Email: topsakal.nuri@gmail.com

Nuri Topsakal is an assistant professor for the University of Düzce Faculty of Sport Science. His areas of research interest are Sports & Exercise Science and Sport Performance.

Relative age effect-enhanced physical fitness reference standards for Turkish youths who live in Istanbul

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to form physical fitness reference standards based on the relative age and gender variables of Turkish female and male children between the ages of 7 and 13.

Methods: The sample of this study consisted of 13,863 children (nfemale = 5580; nmale = 8283), between the ages of 7 and 13 from 32 districts of Istanbul. The relative age factor (formed by dividing a one-year period into four subgroups) was considered in the formation of norm tables, which were based on anthropometric measurements and motor tests according to gender. All percentile values were calculated according to gender and age quarter group, with all percentile tables including 5th to 95th percentile values.

Results: The physical fitness parameters of the male and female children improved as they aged. Only the females at certain ages (11-13 years) showed no improvements in BMI, 10-20m sprint, and standing long jump values.

Conclusion: This study formed percentile norm tables that had values ranging between 5 and 95 by using the anthropometric and physical fitness test results obtained based on the standard values related to gender and relative age of Turkish children between the ages of 7 and 13.

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2020-05-29T09:22:15-05:00May 29th, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Relative age effect-enhanced physical fitness reference standards for Turkish youths who live in Istanbul