Predictive Modeling of 4th Down Conversion in Power 5 Conferences: Football Data Analytics

Authors: Joshua Blinkoff1, Michael Voeller1, Scottie Graham2 and Jeffrey Wilson3

1Barrett Honors College, Arizona State University Tempe, AZ
2Arizona State University, Sun Devils Athletics, Tempe, AZ
3Department of Economics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ

Corresponding Author:
Jeffrey R. Wilson, BA, MS, PhD
Department of Economics CPCOM 465D
Arizona State University/Tempe AZ 85287
jeffrey.wilson@asu.edu
480-213-4460

Dr. Jeffrey Wilson is a Professor of Statistics and the Faculty Athletics Representative to the PAC-12 and NCAA. His research includes binary logistic regression models and hierarchical data with random effects.

Predictive Modeling of 4th Down Conversion in Power 5 Conferences: Football Data Analytics

ABSTRACT

Purpose

In the sport of football, coaches are faced with critical decisions at different times in the game. Often the coach makes the decision based on a gut feeling or the advice of an assistant. However, if each decision can be supplemented with data, it is possible to increase the chances of success. This paper uses data (2015-18) from the games played between the 65 teams in Division I in the Power 5 conferences of the NCAA, to present a prediction model useful for 4th down determinations.

Methods

A predictive logistic regression model is used in the determination of 4th down options. In particular, a model based on a logistic regression model with random effects, capable of predicting the likelihood of converting on 4th down decision is presented. The adequacy of the model is estimated through calibration, discrimination, and bootstrap samples.

Results

Distance-to-go, pass or run, line of scrimmage, and the week of season are significant factors in predicting a successful 4th down with team as a random effect.

Conclusion

The paper demonstrates the use of analytics to increase the decision-making in football. It increases the precision in decision making by 36% in these data.

Applications in Sport

Teams can use the model to facilitate similar decisions in other parts of the game. This can also be used in the recruiting of players.

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2020-07-06T11:39:04-05:00August 14th, 2020|Research, Sports Management, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Predictive Modeling of 4th Down Conversion in Power 5 Conferences: Football Data Analytics

The Coronavirus and Sport Management Pedagogy: Developing Student Learning Opportunities Based on Participatory Sport Businesses Impacted by the Pandemic

Author: Michael J. Diacin

Corresponding Author:
Michael J. Diacin, Ph.D.
University of Indianapolis
1400 E. Hanna Ave.
Indianapolis, IN 46227
diacinm@uindy.edu
317-791-5703

Michael J. Diacin is an Associate Professor in the Department of Kinesiology, Health, and Sport Sciences. His research interests include sport management education and curriculum.

The Coronavirus and Sport Management Pedagogy; Developing Student Learning Opportunities Based on Participatory Sport Businesses Impacted by the Pandemic

Abstract

The presence of the Coronavirus and subsequent mandates to suspend operations has affected ownership, employees, and customers of community-based sport and recreation focused business. When operations resume, these businesses will aim to accomplish objectives of attracting new and repeat customers. These businesses will need to create messages in order to reassure consumers and create incentives in order to entice customers to return. The purpose of this essay is to articulate challenges community-based sport and recreation businesses will face when permission to resume operations is granted and propose tactics that could be utilized in order to rebuild the customer base. In addition, this pandemic provides an authentic learning opportunity for students in sport communication/management programs. As a result, suggestions for developing a learning opportunity for students based on community-based sport and recreation business affected by Coronavirus related shutdowns will be offered.

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2020-07-06T10:37:10-05:00July 15th, 2020|Sports Management|Comments Off on The Coronavirus and Sport Management Pedagogy: Developing Student Learning Opportunities Based on Participatory Sport Businesses Impacted by the Pandemic

Local sport club structures and their effect on athletic performance: The relationship between formalization and athletic performance in swimming

Authors: Douglas Wharam, Ed. D., Sandra Geringer, Ed. D., Roch King, Ph. D., Mickey Kerr, DSM

Corresponding Author:
Doug Wharam, Ed.D.
222 25th Avenue North
Nashville, TN 37203
fdwharam@students.ussa.edu
703-472-1658

Doug Wharam is the Associate Head Coach of the Nashville Aquatic Club in Nashville, Tennessee, and a three-time USA Swimming National Team and four-time USA Swimming National Junior Team coach. 

Dr. Sandra Geringer is the Director of Recreation Management and Sports Studies at the United States Sports Academy. 

Dr. Roch King is the chair of Sports Coaching at the United States Sports Academy. 

Dr. Mickey Kerr is the Associate Dean of the School of Exercise and Sport Science at University of Mary Hardin-Baylor.

Local sport club structures and their effect on athletic performance:  the relationship between formalization and athletic performance in swimming

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study applies an organizational structure perspective to athletic performance in competitive swimming in the United States. This research examines via survey the top USA Swimming clubs in the country as defined by their Club Excellence Program ranking. The Club Excellence Program is a voluntary program administered by USA Swimming that ranks teams based on the achievements of their elite 18 years and younger performers. The research focused on collecting contextual variables and structural variables relating to formalization. The relationship between the level of club formalization and elite athletic performance was examined.

Surveys were collected via Survey Monkey and were distributed to 241 teams who appeared on the 2018 and 2019 USA Swimming Club Excellence list. There were 128 responses received, a response rate of 52.6% and 121 cases were selected for analysis. A Spearman’s rho correlation was run to assess the correlation between the total formalization score a club attained and their Club Excellence ranking. There was no statistically significant correlation between the ranked data of Club Excellence Ranking and Total Dimension score, rs(112) = .113, p = .237. A multiple regression analysis was run to determine whether the survey questions could predict Club Excellence ranking.  The multiple regression model statistically significantly predicted Club Excellence ranking, F(21, 90) = 1.824, p < .05, adj. R2 = .135. Variables that added statistically significance to the prediction included: Does your club have formal work plans? Does your club have a policies and procedures manual? and How often are athlete training programs, progress, and competition plans evaluated?

The results are relevant for coaches and team administrators and suggest the existence of a positive relationship between elements of organizational formalization and athletic performance within the sample. USA Swimming club teams, as well as other local sport clubs wanting to have athletes perform at a consistently high level should assess their current level of formalization and determine whether it meets the baselines established in this survey.

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2020-05-06T09:04:25-05:00June 12th, 2020|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on Local sport club structures and their effect on athletic performance: The relationship between formalization and athletic performance in swimming

An Empirical Investigation of the Variables Influencing Contributions in NCAA Division I Athletics: A Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Kyle J. Brannigan, University of Northern Colorado & Dr. Alan L. Morse, University of Northern Colorado

Corresponding Author:
Kyle J. Brannigan
4750 W29th Street APT 1210
Greeley CO, 80634
Kbrannigan429@gmail.com
845-216-0965

Second Author:
Dr. Alan L. Morse
Butler-Hancock 261A University of Northern Colorado Sports & Exercise Science
Campus Box 118
Greeley, CO 80639
Alan.Morse@unco.edu

An Empirical Investigation of the Variables Influencing Contributions in NCAA Division I Athletics: A Quantitative Analysis

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to identify variables that influence contributions to help athletic departments become more efficient with their fundraising efforts. In addition, this study was expected to provide a better understanding of the effect each explanatory variable has on contributions. The researchers conducted a multiple linear regression, using the data, which spanned over three years (2015, 2016, and 2017), to investigate what factors influence contributions to Division I, public schools, in the Power Five conferences. A regression was conducted to clarify further the studies significance. The researchers tested for assumptions, collinearity, correlations, normality, and variance. The significant variables in the study were 1) Average announced attendance for football 2) Enrollment, 3) Football winning percentage 4) Population of Metropolitan Statistical Area or MSA, 5) Fundraising years of experience. In addition, every conference was significant with the Southeastern Conference having the largest part correlation, which demonstrated influence for each variable. Other interesting findings in this study were overall ticket sales were almost significant and Texas A&M is an influential observation because its contributions are much higher than other institutions. The results of this study may aid athletic departments in determining focus to maximize donations. As enrollment was a significant factor, the results further strengthen the case that athletic departments should be using their alumni bases even more to solicit donations. Another implication is that getting into a Power 5 conference can help your contribution levels. In addition, it is crucial for athletic departments to focus on hiring experienced directors of fundraising to guide the staff in maximizing donations. Lastly, athletic departments may want to continue using ticket sales to solicit donations. If athletic departments take into consideration variables that affect donations the most and focus on these variables, they may be able to increase overall athletic donations.

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2020-06-02T13:41:08-05:00April 17th, 2020|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on An Empirical Investigation of the Variables Influencing Contributions in NCAA Division I Athletics: A Quantitative Analysis

Impactful Corporate Social Responsibility in Major League Baseball

Authors:  Dr. Kelly L. Rhodes

Corresponding Author:
Dr. Kelly L. Rhodes
Department of Communications
Saint Francis University
169 Lakeview Drive
Loretto, PA 15940
krhodes@francis.edu
(814) 472-3379

Dr. Rhodes is an Associate Professor of Communications and chair of the Communications Department at Saint Francis University.

Impactful Corporate Social Responsibility in Major League Baseball

ABSTRACT

Purpose

In an effort to know more about what forces influence Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) decision making, the behaviors of one Major League Baseball team regarding its CSR efforts and the outcomes of those efforts were explored.

Methods

A qualitative, single, intrinsic case study methodology was employed. Three sources of data were utilized: annual community reports, newspaper articles, and five personal interviews with purposefully selected members of the organization whose work is related to CSR performance. Institutional Theory was used to provide a foundation for the study.

Results

The results of the study indicate that the organization’s leadership and motivation are significant influences in the direction of CSR efforts, and the organization’s relationship with the community and its approach to implementing initiatives impacts the process. Specifically, it can be seen that the organization’s decision making coincides with Institutional Theory.

Conclusions

The study contributes to the field and this journal by depicting the number of influences on CSR decision making and how understanding those influences allow for more effective impact on communities from the substantial amount of money that teams are spending. The study utilizes Institutional Theory to provide a framework for understanding why and how organizations respond to institutional expectations in their CSR decisions (31).

Applications in Sport

Professional sports will continue to play an important role in society as sport organizations become more like multi-national businesses (8). With the increasing commercialization of sports has come greater scrutiny from both fans and the general public. Sport has to walk a fine line to maintain the traditional elements of the games it plays while increasing its strategic behavior to compete in the business environment of professional sports.

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2020-03-04T09:28:14-06:00March 13th, 2020|Sports Management|Comments Off on Impactful Corporate Social Responsibility in Major League Baseball
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