Expanding Expected Goals Methodology in Field Hockey

Authors: Bret R. Myers1, Andrew M. Daly2

1Department of Management and Operations, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA
2Department of Athletics, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA

Corresponding Author:

Bret R. Myers, Ph.D.
1039 Smithfield LN
Downingtown, PA 19335
bret.myers@villanova.edu
(804) 357-5876

Bret R. Myers, Ph.D. is a Professor of Practice in the Department of Management and Operations in the Villanova School of Business. His research interests focus on sports analytics, specifically, in the areas of team evaluation and managerial decision-making. He is also an Analytics Consultant for the Columbus Soccer Club of Major League Soccer.

Andrew M. Daly is MIS and Business Analytics Major at Villanova University. He is also an analyst and student manager for the Villanova Field Hockey team. In this role, he has both video and data analysis responsibilities and reports directly to the coaching staff.

Expanding Expected Goals Methodology in Field Hockey

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the value of the overarching expected goals methodology in the sport of field hockey by examining performance data in NCAA Division I Field Hockey.  Expected Goals (xG), a metric used to represent the likelihood of a shot being a goal, has grown in popularity across multiple sports. The expected goals methodology involves model building through logistic regression. Specifically, two metrics are created through this technique: 1) The standard expected goals model (xG) based on characteristics of the scoring opportunity before the shot is taken and 2) Post-shot expected goals (xGOT) which is updated to reflect whether or not the shot is on target.

Results: In terms of development, the logistic regression models used for the development of the xG and xGOT models both yield high levels of significance for fit (p-values of 4.13e-26 and 2.78 e-16 respectively). In terms of application, the xG and xGOT metrics both have high correlations to goals scored when aggregating on a game-by-game basis (0.76 and 0.77 respectively). Furthermore, the metrics can enhance insights gained from matches, evidenced by additional visualizations provided in this study.

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2022-11-18T10:20:14-06:00November 18th, 2022|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on Expanding Expected Goals Methodology in Field Hockey

Ensuring the Business Sustainability of Minor League Baseball After the COVID Global Pandemic

Authors: Mark Mitchell, Jacob Voegel, and Sara Nimmo

Corresponding Author:

Mark Mitchell, DBA
Professor of Marketing
Associate Dean, Wall College of Business
NCAA Faculty Athletics Representative (FAR)
Coastal Carolina University
P. O. Box 261954
Conway, SC 29528
mmitchel@coastal.edu
(843) 349-2392

Mark Mitchell, DBA is Professor of Marketing at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, SC.

Jacob Voegel, PhD is Assistant Professor of Management at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, SC.

Sara Nimmo is a 2022 Honors Graduate of Coastal Carolina University. She served as a Marketing Intern during the 2021 season of minor league baseball, the first season after the 2020 cancelled season.

Ensuring the Business Sustainability of Minor League Baseball After the COVID Global Pandemic

ABSTRACT

The COVID global pandemic greatly impacted the sports industry as leagues had drastic budget cuts and were forced to compensate for the lost revenues. The purpose of this study is to examine the strategies used by Minor League Baseball (MiLB) teams and leagues to ensure their survival in the short-term and to sustain their operations in a post-COVID environment. Consultation with officials of a local minor league team, in addition to extensive information search, identified the strategies used by teams and leagues. A cluster analysis was then performed to classify the strategies into categories of similar topics. The results suggested teams and leagues took an “Income Statement Approach” to ensuring their survival. That is, they focused on: (a) maximizing revenue and finding new revenue sources; while (b) finding ways to reduce operating expenses. Minor league baseball teams navigated the loss of the 2020 season and the adjusted operations of the 2021 season to return to more-normal operations in the 2022 season. Lessons learned during the COVID period were applied to streamline their operations in the short-run and to ensure the sustainability of their business in the long-run. Coaches seek to develop an ‘adjust-and-adapt mentality’ in their athletes. The COVID global pandemic forced all of society to adopt this approach. Minor league baseball leagues and teams adopted this approach and they successful sustained their operations. Today, the industry continues to be a vital source of family entertainment and community pride while concurrently serving as the primary development path for the Major League Baseball (MLB) players of the future.

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2022-10-14T15:02:26-05:00October 28th, 2022|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on Ensuring the Business Sustainability of Minor League Baseball After the COVID Global Pandemic

The relation of achievement goals to sense of community in an adult recreational sports league: A multi-level perspective

Authors: Eric Legg1, Mary S. Wells2, John P. Barile3

1 School of Community Resources & Development, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ
2Department of Parks, Recreation, and Tourism, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
3Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii, Manoa, Honolulu, HI

Corresponding Author:
Eric Legg, Ph.D.
411 N Central Ave; Suite 550
Phoenix, AZ 85015
eric.legg@asu.edu
602-496-1057

Eric Legg, Ph.D. an Associate Professor in the School of Community Resources & Development at Arizona State University in Phoenix, AZ.  His research focuses on recreational sports, and community development.

Mary S. Wells is an Associate Professor in the Department of Parks, Recreation, & Toursim at the University of Utah.  Her areas of research focus on creating sport and recreation that help youth and adults develop positively

John P. Barile is a Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Hawaii, Manoa in Honolulu, HI. His research focus on health, quality of life, and quantitative methods.

The relation of achievement goals to sense of community in an adult recreational sports league: A multi-level perspective.

ABSTRACT

Psychological sense of community (PSOC) has important positive associations with a number of other indicators of quality of life. One community where PSOC may develop is in adult recreational sports. Indeed, voluntary “communities of interest” appear to be replacing traditional geographic communities as places where individuals experience PSOC. Despite the possibility of PSOC developing within adult recreational sports, however, limited research has explored specific elements in this setting which may lead to PSOC. This study addresses that gap by assessing the relation of both individual and team-level achievement goal orientations to PSOC. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to examine the link between achievement goal orientations at both the individual and group levels to PSOC. Researchers collected data from 155 participants, nested within 40 teams. Questions were related to achievement goal orientations and feelings of PSOC. Results suggest that individuals with individual ego orientation are less likely to develop PSOC (p=.031); however, individuals on teams with high task-orientations are more likely to develop PSOC (p=0.047), and further, the negative impact of individual ego-orientations is moderated when participating on a team with an overall high task-orientation (p=.032).  No significant relations were detected between individual task-orientation (p=.051), team-level ego orientation (p=.087), individual income (p=.449), or the number of years a participant had played on a team (p=.852) and PSOC. Results extend our understanding of the impact of achievement goal theory and PSOC, by recognizing the role of collective (team) goal orientations.

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2022-07-22T08:20:47-05:00July 22nd, 2022|Sports Management|Comments Off on The relation of achievement goals to sense of community in an adult recreational sports league: A multi-level perspective

How the Houston Astros Cheating Scandal Affected Public Trust in Major League Baseball: A Historical Research Approach

Authors: Ben Donahue

Corresponding Author:
Ben Donahue
8665 N. Farmdale Street
Spokane, WA 99208

Ben Donahue has worked for over 25 years in sports at the k-12, college, and professional levels.  His experience includes athletic director, game-day operations and guest relations, football operations, coach, and baseball scout.  Currently, he is a private-school teacher and contributing writer for brownsnation.com and profootballhistory.com

ABSTRACT

This study used historical research methods to assess how Major League Baseball (MLB) disciplined the Houston Astros in response to the cheating scandal that surfaced in 2019. Furthermore, this study examined how the public reacted to MLB’s sanctions imposed on the Astros and how those sanctions affected public trust (including media and fans). The author researched several responses from the national media and baseball fans that were made during the MLB investigation and following the league’s publicity of the selected disciplinary actions. After interpreting the public statements from various media reports, the author coded the responses into specific themes and then analyzed and interpreted the themes. This analysis was used to better understand how and why the scandal happened in the first place and the public’s visceral reaction to it.

     The results of the study show that, while cheating in baseball has long been recognized with a wink by MLB insiders; media and fans have a harsh and negative reaction to cheating. Key to these reactions is how cheating ruins the integrity of the game, how the guilty player or team benefited from their deceptive practices, how guilty parties were disciplined, and if the event was likely to happen again based on how the action was disciplined. The conclusions of this study suggest that MLB administrators should invoke harsher penalties on their players, coaches, and teams who engage in willful deceit. The consequences of lighter penalties run the risk of public alienation and loss of revenue. The applications of this study can be used by other sports organizations as a guide on how to resolve sensitive matters while upholding the integrity of the sport and appeasing their fan base.

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2022-05-25T14:45:03-05:00May 27th, 2022|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on How the Houston Astros Cheating Scandal Affected Public Trust in Major League Baseball: A Historical Research Approach

Changes in Vertical Jump Height and Sprint Time During a Congested Match Schedule in Youth Female Soccer Players

Authors: Joanne Spalding¹, Andrew R. Dotterweich², Jeremy Gentles², Brandi Eveland-Sayers², Adam L. Sayers²

¹Department of Health & Human Performance, Milledgeville, United States of America
²Department of Sport, Exercise, Recreation, and Kinesiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, United States of America

Corresponding Author:
Andrew R. Dotterweich
East Tennessee State University
Department of Sport, Exercise, Recreation and Kinesiology
P.O. Box 70671
Johnson City, TN 37614
O: 423-439-5261
F: 423-439-5383
dotterwa@etsu.edu

Andy R. Dotterweich, PhD, is a Professor of Exercise Science at East Tennessee State University.  His research interests include youth sport, recreation management and policy, physical activity, long-term athlete development and community development.

Joanne Spalding, PhD, is a lecturer in Exercise Science at Georgia College and State University. Her research interests include long term athletic development and monitoring at the club, high school, and college level.

Jeremy Gentles, PhD is an Associate Professor of Sport Science and Coach Education at East Tennessee State University in Johnson City, TN. His research interests include long term athlete monitoring, biochemical responses to exercise and sport technology.

Brandi Eveland-Sayers, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Exercise Science at East Tennessee State University. Her research interests include physical literacy, exercise adherence in youth, and long term athlete development.

Adam L. Sayers, PhD, is a faculty member in Global Sport Leadership at East Tennessee State University. He is also a network professional sport scientist for the United States Soccer Federation Youth Women’s National Teams, and a national instructor for USSF Coach Education.

Changes in Vertical Jump Height and Sprint Time During a Congested Match Schedule in Youth Female Soccer Players

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine changes in jump height and sprint time and to assess the relationship between relative changes in jump height and accumulated training load during a congested match schedule in youth female soccer players. Methods: This study included data from 14 youth female soccer players who performed countermovement jump testing pre- and post-match, post-tournament, as well as sprint testing pre- and post-tournament. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to compare changes in jump height over the course of the tournament. A paired sample t-test was performed to compare sprint time between pre- and post-tournament, and Pearson product moment correlations were used to determine the relationship between percent change in jump height and accumulated training load. Results: Jump height decreased significantly (p < 0.001) between time periods during the tournament, and sprint time increased significantly (p = 0.001). There was no significant relationship between percent change in jump height and accumulated training load. Conclusion: This study found that jump height decreased over the course of the tournament and there was a significant increase in sprint time from pre- to post-tournament. Applications in Sport: These results suggest that appropriate recovery strategies and training are needed to assist players in coping with the demands of a congested youth soccer schedule.

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2022-03-10T08:29:19-06:00March 11th, 2022|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on Changes in Vertical Jump Height and Sprint Time During a Congested Match Schedule in Youth Female Soccer Players
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