Local sport club structures and their effect on athletic performance: The relationship between formalization and athletic performance in swimming

Authors: Douglas Wharam, Ed. D., Sandra Geringer, Ed. D., Roch King, Ph. D., Mickey Kerr, DSM

Corresponding Author:
Doug Wharam, Ed.D.
222 25th Avenue North
Nashville, TN 37203
fdwharam@students.ussa.edu
703-472-1658

Doug Wharam is the Associate Head Coach of the Nashville Aquatic Club in Nashville, Tennessee, and a three-time USA Swimming National Team and four-time USA Swimming National Junior Team coach. 

Dr. Sandra Geringer is the Director of Recreation Management and Sports Studies at the United States Sports Academy. 

Dr. Roch King is the chair of Sports Coaching at the United States Sports Academy. 

Dr. Mickey Kerr is the Associate Dean of the School of Exercise and Sport Science at University of Mary Hardin-Baylor.

Local sport club structures and their effect on athletic performance:  the relationship between formalization and athletic performance in swimming

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study applies an organizational structure perspective to athletic performance in competitive swimming in the United States. This research examines via survey the top USA Swimming clubs in the country as defined by their Club Excellence Program ranking. The Club Excellence Program is a voluntary program administered by USA Swimming that ranks teams based on the achievements of their elite 18 years and younger performers. The research focused on collecting contextual variables and structural variables relating to formalization. The relationship between the level of club formalization and elite athletic performance was examined.

Surveys were collected via Survey Monkey and were distributed to 241 teams who appeared on the 2018 and 2019 USA Swimming Club Excellence list. There were 128 responses received, a response rate of 52.6% and 121 cases were selected for analysis. A Spearman’s rho correlation was run to assess the correlation between the total formalization score a club attained and their Club Excellence ranking. There was no statistically significant correlation between the ranked data of Club Excellence Ranking and Total Dimension score, rs(112) = .113, p = .237. A multiple regression analysis was run to determine whether the survey questions could predict Club Excellence ranking.  The multiple regression model statistically significantly predicted Club Excellence ranking, F(21, 90) = 1.824, p < .05, adj. R2 = .135. Variables that added statistically significance to the prediction included: Does your club have formal work plans? Does your club have a policies and procedures manual? and How often are athlete training programs, progress, and competition plans evaluated?

The results are relevant for coaches and team administrators and suggest the existence of a positive relationship between elements of organizational formalization and athletic performance within the sample. USA Swimming club teams, as well as other local sport clubs wanting to have athletes perform at a consistently high level should assess their current level of formalization and determine whether it meets the baselines established in this survey.

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2020-05-06T09:04:25-05:00June 12th, 2020|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on Local sport club structures and their effect on athletic performance: The relationship between formalization and athletic performance in swimming

An Empirical Investigation of the Variables Influencing Contributions in NCAA Division I Athletics: A Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Kyle J. Brannigan, University of Northern Colorado & Dr. Alan L. Morse, University of Northern Colorado

Corresponding Author:
Kyle J. Brannigan
4750 W29th Street APT 1210
Greeley CO, 80634
Kbrannigan429@gmail.com
845-216-0965

Second Author:
Dr. Alan L. Morse
Butler-Hancock 261A University of Northern Colorado Sports & Exercise Science
Campus Box 118
Greeley, CO 80639
Alan.Morse@unco.edu

An Empirical Investigation of the Variables Influencing Contributions in NCAA Division I Athletics: A Quantitative Analysis

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to identify variables that influence contributions to help athletic departments become more efficient with their fundraising efforts. In addition, this study was expected to provide a better understanding of the effect each explanatory variable has on contributions. The researchers conducted a multiple linear regression, using the data, which spanned over three years (2015, 2016, and 2017), to investigate what factors influence contributions to Division I, public schools, in the Power Five conferences. A regression was conducted to clarify further the studies significance. The researchers tested for assumptions, collinearity, correlations, normality, and variance. The significant variables in the study were 1) Average announced attendance for football 2) Enrollment, 3) Football winning percentage 4) Population of Metropolitan Statistical Area or MSA, 5) Fundraising years of experience. In addition, every conference was significant with the Southeastern Conference having the largest part correlation, which demonstrated influence for each variable. Other interesting findings in this study were overall ticket sales were almost significant and Texas A&M is an influential observation because its contributions are much higher than other institutions. The results of this study may aid athletic departments in determining focus to maximize donations. As enrollment was a significant factor, the results further strengthen the case that athletic departments should be using their alumni bases even more to solicit donations. Another implication is that getting into a Power 5 conference can help your contribution levels. In addition, it is crucial for athletic departments to focus on hiring experienced directors of fundraising to guide the staff in maximizing donations. Lastly, athletic departments may want to continue using ticket sales to solicit donations. If athletic departments take into consideration variables that affect donations the most and focus on these variables, they may be able to increase overall athletic donations.

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2020-06-02T13:41:08-05:00April 17th, 2020|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on An Empirical Investigation of the Variables Influencing Contributions in NCAA Division I Athletics: A Quantitative Analysis

Impactful Corporate Social Responsibility in Major League Baseball

Authors:  Dr. Kelly L. Rhodes

Corresponding Author:
Dr. Kelly L. Rhodes
Department of Communications
Saint Francis University
169 Lakeview Drive
Loretto, PA 15940
krhodes@francis.edu
(814) 472-3379

Dr. Rhodes is an Associate Professor of Communications and chair of the Communications Department at Saint Francis University.

Impactful Corporate Social Responsibility in Major League Baseball

ABSTRACT

Purpose

In an effort to know more about what forces influence Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) decision making, the behaviors of one Major League Baseball team regarding its CSR efforts and the outcomes of those efforts were explored.

Methods

A qualitative, single, intrinsic case study methodology was employed. Three sources of data were utilized: annual community reports, newspaper articles, and five personal interviews with purposefully selected members of the organization whose work is related to CSR performance. Institutional Theory was used to provide a foundation for the study.

Results

The results of the study indicate that the organization’s leadership and motivation are significant influences in the direction of CSR efforts, and the organization’s relationship with the community and its approach to implementing initiatives impacts the process. Specifically, it can be seen that the organization’s decision making coincides with Institutional Theory.

Conclusions

The study contributes to the field and this journal by depicting the number of influences on CSR decision making and how understanding those influences allow for more effective impact on communities from the substantial amount of money that teams are spending. The study utilizes Institutional Theory to provide a framework for understanding why and how organizations respond to institutional expectations in their CSR decisions (31).

Applications in Sport

Professional sports will continue to play an important role in society as sport organizations become more like multi-national businesses (8). With the increasing commercialization of sports has come greater scrutiny from both fans and the general public. Sport has to walk a fine line to maintain the traditional elements of the games it plays while increasing its strategic behavior to compete in the business environment of professional sports.

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2020-03-04T09:28:14-06:00March 13th, 2020|Sports Management|Comments Off on Impactful Corporate Social Responsibility in Major League Baseball

NCAA Realignment: Impact upon University ‘Olympic’ Sports

Authors: Stephen W. Litvin, Crystal Lindner and Jillian Wilkie

Corresponding Author:
Stephen W. Litvin, DBA
Professor, School of Business
College of Charleston
66 George Street
Charleston, South Carolina 29424
litvins@cofc.edu
843-953-7317

Stephen Litvin is a professor in the School of Business of the College of Charleston.  Crystal Lindner and Jillian Wilkie are students at the College of Charleston and Research Assistants within the School’s Office of Tourism Analysis.

NCAA Realignment: Impact upon University ‘Olympic’ Sports

ABSTRACT

Conference realignment has in recent years led to a “case of intercollegiate musical chairs” (2, p. 254). This research paper looks at the issue from a new perspective.  While past research has almost exclusively focused on football, this research considers the impact that affiliation change has upon universities’ non-football sports.  The findings suggest the move has been challenging for these teams.

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2020-06-02T13:43:56-05:00January 24th, 2020|Sports Coaching, Sports Management|Comments Off on NCAA Realignment: Impact upon University ‘Olympic’ Sports

Diversifying Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in American College Athletics: The Case for Adaptive (And Other Non-Traditional) Sports

Authors: Kevin T. McGinniss, Ed.D. (Southern Connecticut State University), Demetri Goutos, B.A., M.B.A. (Yale University), and Yetsa A. Tuakli-Wosornu, M.D., M.P.H. (Yale University).

Corresponding author:
Kevin T. McGinniss, EdD
Southern Connecticut State University
501 Crescent Street, New Haven, CT USA 06515
Campus Site: Office Building 1, 108G
Phone: 203-392-8837
Email: mcginnissk1@southernct.edu

Kevin T. McGinniss, Ed.D. is an Assistant Professor, Graduate Coordinator, and Director of Sport Management at Southern Connecticut State University. Demetri Goutos, B.A., M.B.A., and Yetsa A. Tuakli-Wosornu, M.D., M.P.H. are members of an independent research lab at Yale University, dedicated to addressing inequities and unethical behavior in sport, while at the same time, using sport to address inequities and unethical behavior in society.

Diversifying Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in American College Athletics: The Case for Adaptive (And Other Non-Traditional) Sports

ABSTRACT

The popularization of adaptive sports on college campuses has incredible potential to affect real and meaningful change for students with disabilities across the country. Despite clear language promoting equality and fairness espoused by the NCAA and member universities, as well as legislation requiring equal opportunities for students with disabilities, early attempts to adopt inclusive sports strategies have all but evaporated. Another category of non-traditional sports programming, however, has taken off in recent years. eSports, or competitive video games, has seen a meteoric rise in support, investment, and growth on the collegiate athletic scene, and show that when properly motivated the NCAA and member institutions act with surprising conviction. With their proven ability to react and organize, and the need clearly defined, the NCAA must return its attention to increasing athletic opportunities for student-athletes with disabilities.

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2019-12-24T09:09:31-06:00January 10th, 2020|Commentary, Sports Management|Comments Off on Diversifying Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in American College Athletics: The Case for Adaptive (And Other Non-Traditional) Sports