Evaluating the Impact of Concentrated Match Scheduling in College Volleyball during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors:  Mark Mitchell, Yoav Wachsman, and Monica Fine

Corresponding Author:
Mark Mitchell, DBA
Professor of Marketing
Associate Dean, Wall College of Business
NCAA Faculty Athletics Representative (FAR)
Coastal Carolina University
P. O. Box 261954
Conway, SC  29528
mmitchel@coastal.edu
(843) 349-2392

Mark Mitchell, DBA is Professor of Marketing at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, SC.

Yoav Wachsman, PhD is Professor of Economics at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, SC.

Monica Fine, PhD is Professor of Marketing at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, SC.

Evaluating the Impact of Concentrated Match Scheduling in College Volleyball during the COVID-19 Pandemic

ABSTRACT

Athletic conferences worked to lower the cost of delivering athletic programs while operating during the COVID-19 global pandemic. One strategy was the use of concentrated schedules for competitions. For example, the Sun Belt Conference focused on divisional play and a concentrated schedule for women’s volleyball for the 2020 season. Schools played three matches in a two-day period against the same team. This practice lowered travel costs and isolated player contact in the event of needed contact tracing as part of player safety protocols. This study evaluates the impact of this scheduling format on player performance and the overall quality of competition. Gathering data from the box scores from all Sun Belt Conference volleyball matches, the impact of player fatigue (daily and cumulative) is not present in the team statistics. Player performance and the overall quality of team play did not decline, even when playing three matches in a two-day period. Conference personnel and university athletic administrators may take comfort that their efforts to lower costs and ensure player safety during a global pandemic did not affect player performance and the overall quality of competition. It remains to be seen if this new scheduling approach will be used in the post-COVID period in women’s volleyball and possibly expanded to other sports. The need to control/lower operating costs will not disappear. This constraint may lead to the adoption of new conference scheduling formats in the future.

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2021-10-04T09:51:12-05:00October 8th, 2021|Sports Management|Comments Off on Evaluating the Impact of Concentrated Match Scheduling in College Volleyball during the COVID-19 Pandemic

On the Development and Application of an Expected Goals Model for Lacrosse

Authors: Bret R. Myers, Ph.D.1, Michael Burns2, Brian Q. Coughlin3, Edward Bolte4

1Department of Management and Operations, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA
2Villanova School of Business, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA
3Department of Athletics, Villanova University, Villanova PA, PA, USA
4Department of Athletics, Villanova University, Villanova PA, PA, USA

Corresponding Author:
Bret R. Myers, Ph.D.
800 E Lancaster Avenue
Villanova, PA 19085
bret.myers@villanova.edu
(804) 357-5876

Bret R. Myers, Ph.D. is a Professor of Practice in the Department of Management and Operations in the Villanova School of Business. His research interests focus on sports analytics, specifically, in the areas of team evaluation and managerial decision-making. He is also an Analytics Consultant for the Columbus Soccer Club of Major League Soccer

Michael Burns is an MBA Candidate and Graduate Research Fellow at Villanova School of Business.  Michael is also the Director of Operations for the Men’s Soccer team at Villanova University.   

Brian Q. Coughlin is the Director of Men’s Lacrosse Operations at Villanova and also has both a BBA and MBA from Villanova School of Business. Brian is also a Data Analyst at goPuff.  

Edward Bolte is a student at Villanova University and student manager on the Lacrosse team. Edward is majoring in Civil Engineering

On the Development and Application of an Expected Goals Model for Lacrosse

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to develop and apply an Expected Goals metric in lacrosse for team evaluation. Expected Goals is a metric that is used to represent the likelihood of a shot being a goal. The metric has gained traction in both soccer and hockey and has proven to add information and value in both team and player evaluations in both sports respectively. Like in soccer and hockey, the Expected Goals model for lacrosse in this paper is developed using logistic regression.  Specifically, two metrics are created through this technique: 1) The standard Expected Goals model (xG) based on characteristics of the scoring opportunity before the shot is taken and 2) Post-shot Expected Goals (xGOT) which is updated to reflect whether or not the shot is on target.

Results: In terms of development, the logistic regression models used for the development of the xG and xGOT models both yield high levels of significance for fit (p < 0.001). The xG and xGOT metrics have higher correlations to team winning percentage (0.65 and 0.75) than their counterpart statistics of shots and shots on target. In terms of application, teams in the sample that had more xG than their opponents won 73% of the time as opposed to winning only 65% of the time when they outshoot their opponents. Similarly, teams in the sample that had more xGOT than their opponents won 71% of the time as opposed to only 62% of the time when they have more shots on target than their opponents. The evidence in this study suggests that using Expected Goals as a measure of attacking performance adds both value and information that can be useful for team evaluation.

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2021-08-20T13:33:17-05:00September 17th, 2021|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on On the Development and Application of an Expected Goals Model for Lacrosse

College Selection of Female Student-Athletes: Are the Factors Stable Over Time?

Authors: Peter S. Finley and Jeffrey J. Fountain

H. Wayne Huizenga College of Business and Entrepreneurship, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA

Corresponding Author:
Peter S. Finley, Ph.D.
Carl DeSantis Building
3301 College Avenue
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314
pfinley@nova.edu
954-262-8115

Peter S. Finley, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Sport and Recreation Management with the H. Wayne Huizenga College of Business and Entrepreneurship at Nova Southeastern University. His research interests include issues in college and youth sports.

Jeffrey J. Fountain, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Sport and Recreation Management with the H. Wayne Huizenga College of Business and Entrepreneurship at Nova Southeastern University. His research interests include issues in college sports, with a focus on financial issues and economic issues.

College Selection of Female Student-Athletes: Are the Factors Stable Over Time?

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aimed to apply means-end theory to determine whether the factors that drive college selection by female student-athletes were stable over an extended time at one university. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted by two researchers with a population of 25 NCAA Division II female student-athletes at one university. Results: It was determined that eight attributes, eight consequences, and four values that were previously identified continued to be important drivers of college selection, suggesting that the criteria upon which college selection hinges are highly stable. Two additional factors emerged; the team itself and the opportunity to have personal improvement outside of sports were identified variables in the college selection process for this population. Conclusions: Previous research on college selection of student-athletes lacks any empirical replication or confirmation studies that examine a similarly defined population at the same university, as researchers instead sample different populations or apply different methods or surveys in each study. This research, by establishing the constancy of the factors, can be used by practitioners as they implement strategies for successful recruitment efforts and base those efforts on appealing to the values of the recruits. Applications in Sport: It is vital to recognize how prospective student-athletes choose to matriculate to a given university. Most notably, understanding that satisfying the values of achievement, belonging, fun and enjoyment, and security are as key to college selection as they were over a decade ago is essential and can assist coaches and recruiters in using their time and resources more efficiently as they work to attract prospects that best fit their programs.

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2021-08-13T15:39:37-05:00August 27th, 2021|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on College Selection of Female Student-Athletes: Are the Factors Stable Over Time?

The COVID-19 Pandemic and the stress it put on College Athletics

Authors: Matthew J. Williams1, Devin M. Mathis 2

1Department of Education, The University of Virginia’s College at Wise, Wise, VA, USA
2Senior Student, The University of Virginia’s College at Wise, Wise, VA, USA

Corresponding Author:
G. Andrew Williams M.A. M.S.
96 Los Olmos
Green Valley, AZ 85614
parktaylorplace@aol.com
520 668-4701

Matthew J. Williams D.S.M., M.B.A., M.S. is an Associate Professor of Sport Management at The University of Virginia’s College at Wise. His areas of research interests include NASCAR, COVID-19, college athletics, professional sports, and sports management issues.

Devin M. Mathis is currently a senior student majoring in Business and Sport Management at The University of Virginia’s College at Wise. Devin’s area of research interest is the COVID-19 Pandemic and the effect it has had on college athletics. 

The COVID-19 Pandemic and the stress it put College Athletics

ABSTRACT

In the early spring of 2020, the COVID-19 Pandemic invaded the United States and brought not only the economy to a stand-still, but college athletics as well. When all spring college sports were halted, along with the NCAA Men’s Basketball Tournament, it created a loss of revenue for college athletics. This forced college presidents and athletic directors to abandon their old business models in order to restructure their athletic budgets, thus moving both college presidents and athletic directors into uncharted waters.  Before the COVID-19 Pandemic college athletics had a problem of long-term debt, offering too many sports, employing too many athletic staff, and paying an extraordinary amount in coach’s salary. Because of the Pandemic, college presidents, and athletic directors were forced to make drastic changes that consisted of salary cuts, elimination of sports, and athletic personnel in order to stay afloat. It will take years for athletic budgets to get back to the pre-pandemic era.

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2021-08-13T12:56:33-05:00August 13th, 2021|Commentary, Sports Management|Comments Off on The COVID-19 Pandemic and the stress it put on College Athletics

College Football’s Bottom-Line Impact: Exploring the Relationship of Football Performance on Athletic Finances for Division I Institutions Today

Authors: Spencer D. Wyld1 and David C. Wyld2

1 Walton College of Business, Department of Finance, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
2 Department of Management & Business Administration, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA, USA

Corresponding Author:
David C. Wyld, DBA
47042 Scott Drive
Hammond, LA 70401
dwyld@selu.edu
985-789-2127

Spencer D. Wyld, M.B.A., is a doctoral candidate in finance in the Walton College of Business at the University of Arkansas with a focus on the financial aspects of energy, infrastructure, and transportation.

David C. Wyld, D.B.A., serves as the Merritt Professor of Management at Southeastern Louisiana University. His research interests involve the intersection of technology, society, sports and business.

College Football’s Bottom-Line Impact: Exploring the Relationship of Football Performance on Athletic Finances for Division I Institutions Today

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study examines a heretofore unaddressed area in both sport and economics literature, looking at the relationship between on-the-field college football team performance and the financial performance of university athletic operations overall. Methods: The researchers, building upon prior research employing econometrics to sports analysis, utilized data spanning 2005-2018 for 106 Division I college athletic programs to examine how specific aspects of offensive, defensive, and overall team football performance related to four measures of overall athletic department financial performance  (donor contributions, corporate sponsorships, ticket sales, and profit).  Results: Based on three separate regression analyses, the study found that while institutional and state control variables were important in explaining overall differences in universities’ athletic department performance in terms of donor contributions, corporate sponsorships and ticket sales, some football-specific factors were found to have significance as well. Overall, college athletic departments that had teams which produced exciting football on the field (with scoring and with a lack of turnovers) were found to be better performing off the field financially in contributing to the overall success of their university’s athletic programs.  Conclusions: The present research demonstrates for the first time how – and how much – on-field football team performance can play a role in athletic operations overall from a financial standpoint. The researchers go on to analyze directions – and challenges – for future research in this area, especially considering the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for college sports operations. Applications in Sport: For athletic departments and athletic administrators, the findings in the present research provide new insights on what donors, sponsors, and fans of their football programs value in terms of on-field performance of their respective university’s football team.

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2021-08-20T13:12:01-05:00July 23rd, 2021|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on College Football’s Bottom-Line Impact: Exploring the Relationship of Football Performance on Athletic Finances for Division I Institutions Today
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