College Selection of Female Student-Athletes: Are the Factors Stable Over Time?

Authors: Peter S. Finley and Jeffrey J. Fountain

H. Wayne Huizenga College of Business and Entrepreneurship, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA

Corresponding Author:
Peter S. Finley, Ph.D.
Carl DeSantis Building
3301 College Avenue
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314
pfinley@nova.edu
954-262-8115

Peter S. Finley, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Sport and Recreation Management with the H. Wayne Huizenga College of Business and Entrepreneurship at Nova Southeastern University. His research interests include issues in college and youth sports.

Jeffrey J. Fountain, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Sport and Recreation Management with the H. Wayne Huizenga College of Business and Entrepreneurship at Nova Southeastern University. His research interests include issues in college sports, with a focus on financial issues and economic issues.

College Selection of Female Student-Athletes: Are the Factors Stable Over Time?

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aimed to apply means-end theory to determine whether the factors that drive college selection by female student-athletes were stable over an extended time at one university. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted by two researchers with a population of 25 NCAA Division II female student-athletes at one university. Results: It was determined that eight attributes, eight consequences, and four values that were previously identified continued to be important drivers of college selection, suggesting that the criteria upon which college selection hinges are highly stable. Two additional factors emerged; the team itself and the opportunity to have personal improvement outside of sports were identified variables in the college selection process for this population. Conclusions: Previous research on college selection of student-athletes lacks any empirical replication or confirmation studies that examine a similarly defined population at the same university, as researchers instead sample different populations or apply different methods or surveys in each study. This research, by establishing the constancy of the factors, can be used by practitioners as they implement strategies for successful recruitment efforts and base those efforts on appealing to the values of the recruits. Applications in Sport: It is vital to recognize how prospective student-athletes choose to matriculate to a given university. Most notably, understanding that satisfying the values of achievement, belonging, fun and enjoyment, and security are as key to college selection as they were over a decade ago is essential and can assist coaches and recruiters in using their time and resources more efficiently as they work to attract prospects that best fit their programs.

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2021-08-13T15:39:37-05:00August 27th, 2021|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on College Selection of Female Student-Athletes: Are the Factors Stable Over Time?

The COVID-19 Pandemic and the stress it put on College Athletics

Authors: Matthew J. Williams1, Devin M. Mathis 2

1Department of Education, The University of Virginia’s College at Wise, Wise, VA, USA
2Senior Student, The University of Virginia’s College at Wise, Wise, VA, USA

Corresponding Author:
G. Andrew Williams M.A. M.S.
96 Los Olmos
Green Valley, AZ 85614
parktaylorplace@aol.com
520 668-4701

Matthew J. Williams D.S.M., M.B.A., M.S. is an Associate Professor of Sport Management at The University of Virginia’s College at Wise. His areas of research interests include NASCAR, COVID-19, college athletics, professional sports, and sports management issues.

Devin M. Mathis is currently a senior student majoring in Business and Sport Management at The University of Virginia’s College at Wise. Devin’s area of research interest is the COVID-19 Pandemic and the effect it has had on college athletics. 

The COVID-19 Pandemic and the stress it put College Athletics

ABSTRACT

In the early spring of 2020, the COVID-19 Pandemic invaded the United States and brought not only the economy to a stand-still, but college athletics as well. When all spring college sports were halted, along with the NCAA Men’s Basketball Tournament, it created a loss of revenue for college athletics. This forced college presidents and athletic directors to abandon their old business models in order to restructure their athletic budgets, thus moving both college presidents and athletic directors into uncharted waters.  Before the COVID-19 Pandemic college athletics had a problem of long-term debt, offering too many sports, employing too many athletic staff, and paying an extraordinary amount in coach’s salary. Because of the Pandemic, college presidents, and athletic directors were forced to make drastic changes that consisted of salary cuts, elimination of sports, and athletic personnel in order to stay afloat. It will take years for athletic budgets to get back to the pre-pandemic era.

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2021-08-13T12:56:33-05:00August 13th, 2021|Commentary, Sports Management|Comments Off on The COVID-19 Pandemic and the stress it put on College Athletics

College Football’s Bottom-Line Impact: Exploring the Relationship of Football Performance on Athletic Finances for Division I Institutions Today

Authors: Spencer D. Wyld1 and David C. Wyld2

1 Walton College of Business, Department of Finance, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
2 Department of Management & Business Administration, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA, USA

Corresponding Author:
David C. Wyld, DBA
47042 Scott Drive
Hammond, LA 70401
dwyld@selu.edu
985-789-2127

Spencer D. Wyld, M.B.A., is a doctoral candidate in finance in the Walton College of Business at the University of Arkansas with a focus on the financial aspects of energy, infrastructure, and transportation.

David C. Wyld, D.B.A., serves as the Merritt Professor of Management at Southeastern Louisiana University. His research interests involve the intersection of technology, society, sports and business.

College Football’s Bottom-Line Impact: Exploring the Relationship of Football Performance on Athletic Finances for Division I Institutions Today

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study examines a heretofore unaddressed area in both sport and economics literature, looking at the relationship between on-the-field college football team performance and the financial performance of university athletic operations overall. Methods: The researchers, building upon prior research employing econometrics to sports analysis, utilized data spanning 2005-2018 for 106 Division I college athletic programs to examine how specific aspects of offensive, defensive, and overall team football performance related to four measures of overall athletic department financial performance  (donor contributions, corporate sponsorships, ticket sales, and profit).  Results: Based on three separate regression analyses, the study found that while institutional and state control variables were important in explaining overall differences in universities’ athletic department performance in terms of donor contributions, corporate sponsorships and ticket sales, some football-specific factors were found to have significance as well. Overall, college athletic departments that had teams which produced exciting football on the field (with scoring and with a lack of turnovers) were found to be better performing off the field financially in contributing to the overall success of their university’s athletic programs.  Conclusions: The present research demonstrates for the first time how – and how much – on-field football team performance can play a role in athletic operations overall from a financial standpoint. The researchers go on to analyze directions – and challenges – for future research in this area, especially considering the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for college sports operations. Applications in Sport: For athletic departments and athletic administrators, the findings in the present research provide new insights on what donors, sponsors, and fans of their football programs value in terms of on-field performance of their respective university’s football team.

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2021-08-20T13:12:01-05:00July 23rd, 2021|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on College Football’s Bottom-Line Impact: Exploring the Relationship of Football Performance on Athletic Finances for Division I Institutions Today

The Impact of Need Satisfaction on College Athlete Burnout

Authors: Rachel Daniels, MS, Dr. Joel Cormier, Dr. Jonathan Gore, and Dr. Ellen McMahan

Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY, USA

Corresponding Author:
Rachel Daniels, MS,
Eastern Kentucky University
512 Lancaster Avenue
Richmond, KY, 40475
606-872-2791
Rachelbdaniels@outlook.com

Rachel Daniels is a certified athletic trainer and graduate of the MS in Exercise and Sport Science program at Eastern Kentucky University. Her professional interests include sports psychology, health education, and durable medical equipment services. She resides in Louisville, Kentucky.

Joel Cormier, PhD is an Associate Professor of Exercise and Sport Science at the Eastern Kentucky University in Richmond, KY. His research interests focus on leadership, organizational behavior, athlete development and the overall study of college sport.

Dr. Jonathan Gore is a Professor of Psychology at Eastern Kentucky University in Richmond, KY. His research focuses on goal motivation, self-concept, and culture.

Dr. Ellen McMahan is an Assistant Professor of Exercise and Sport Science at the Eastern Kentucky University in Richmond, KY. Her research interests are job satisfaction, employee engagement, and burnout, as well as lifelong fitness.

The Impact of Need Satisfaction of College Athlete Burnout

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that may contribute to burnout in athletes by determining the direction and strength of a relationship between burnout, athlete identity and need satisfaction. Participants (N=60) consisted of 43 male (71.67%) and 17 female (28.33%) athletes. Individuals were aged 18-22 (M=19.40, SD=1.06). Correlation analysis and comparison of means were conducted. Results of this study suggested there was a significant and negative relationship between the autonomy and competence components of need satisfaction and burnout. To manage or prevent burnout, sports professionals should focus on supporting autonomy and competence rather than reinforcing athletic identity. Creating a team culture of group decision-making and abundant opportunities to demonstrate athletic ability could effectively combat developing burnout symptoms in athletes.

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2021-06-21T09:40:44-05:00June 25th, 2021|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on The Impact of Need Satisfaction on College Athlete Burnout

You play like a girl? Gender and image in high school yearbooks

Author: Heather Van Mullem1

1Division of Movement and Sport Sciences, Lewis-Clark State College, Lewiston, ID, USA

Corresponding Author:
Heather Van Mullem, PhD
500 8th Avenue
Lewiston, ID 83501
hivanmullem@lcsc.edu
208-792-2781

Heather Van Mullem, PhD is a Professor of Kinesiology and Health at Lewis-Clark State College in Lewiston, ID. Her research interests focus on gender issues in sport, specifically representations of female athletes in the media.

You play like a girl? Gender and image in high school yearbooks

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to explore how male and female student-athletes were portrayed in images included in two high school’s yearbooks published between 1920-2020. Photos in yearbooks, gathered from the high schools and a community library, were analyzed for their presentation of athletic competence, using presence on court, in uniform, and in action shots as indicators (2). In images of one person, males (M = 3.750, SD = 7.776) were statistically portrayed in passive shots more often than females (M = 2.030, SD = 3.724); t (2,913) = 6.335, p = .000. In comparison, females (M = 5.260, SD = 10.412) were statistically portrayed in active shots more often than males (M = 4.440, SD = 8.646); t (4,722) = -2.946, p = .003. Males (M = 7.550, SD = 11.094) were also statistically portrayed in uniform more often than females (M = 6.810, SD = 10.974); t (7,083) = 2.791, p = .005. Finally, males (M = 1.720, SD = 5.029) were statistically portrayed more often off court than females (M = 1.100, SD = 2.729); t (1,417) = 2.512, p = .012. In comparison, in images of two or more people, males (M = 6.400, SD = 9.589) were statistically portrayed in active shots more often than females (M = 4.640, SD = 7.852); t (6,190) = 7.544, p = .000. Males (M = 8.800, SD = 11.807) and were also statistically portrayed on court more often than females (M = 6.960, SD = 10.704); t (8,818) = 7.478, p = .000. In contrast, females (M = 1.350, SD = 1.989) were statistically portrayed off court more often than males (M = 1.070, SD = 1.763); t (1,329) = -2.705, p = .007. Finally, males (M = 9.570, SD = 12.410) were statistically more likely to be portrayed in uniform when compared to females (M = 8.000, SD = 11.516); t (9,814) = 6.385, p = .000. This study’s findings are, overall, consistent with previous research which indicates that male athletes, when compared to female athletes, are more commonly presented as competent athletes. Athletic and yearbook administrators should ensure the quantity, quality, and type of yearbook photos reflect both the season of competition but also the true athletic competence of the competitors.

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2021-03-09T08:22:33-06:00March 12th, 2021|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on You play like a girl? Gender and image in high school yearbooks
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