The Impact of Need Satisfaction on College Athlete Burnout

Authors: Rachel Daniels, MS, Dr. Joel Cormier, Dr. Jonathan Gore, and Dr. Ellen McMahan

Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY, USA

Corresponding Author:
Rachel Daniels, MS,
Eastern Kentucky University
512 Lancaster Avenue
Richmond, KY, 40475
606-872-2791
Rachelbdaniels@outlook.com

Rachel Daniels is a certified athletic trainer and graduate of the MS in Exercise and Sport Science program at Eastern Kentucky University. Her professional interests include sports psychology, health education, and durable medical equipment services. She resides in Louisville, Kentucky.

Joel Cormier, PhD is an Associate Professor of Exercise and Sport Science at the Eastern Kentucky University in Richmond, KY. His research interests focus on leadership, organizational behavior, athlete development and the overall study of college sport.

Dr. Jonathan Gore is a Professor of Psychology at Eastern Kentucky University in Richmond, KY. His research focuses on goal motivation, self-concept, and culture.

Dr. Ellen McMahan is an Assistant Professor of Exercise and Sport Science at the Eastern Kentucky University in Richmond, KY. Her research interests are job satisfaction, employee engagement, and burnout, as well as lifelong fitness.

The Impact of Need Satisfaction of College Athlete Burnout

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that may contribute to burnout in athletes by determining the direction and strength of a relationship between burnout, athlete identity and need satisfaction. Participants (N=60) consisted of 43 male (71.67%) and 17 female (28.33%) athletes. Individuals were aged 18-22 (M=19.40, SD=1.06). Correlation analysis and comparison of means were conducted. Results of this study suggested there was a significant and negative relationship between the autonomy and competence components of need satisfaction and burnout. To manage or prevent burnout, sports professionals should focus on supporting autonomy and competence rather than reinforcing athletic identity. Creating a team culture of group decision-making and abundant opportunities to demonstrate athletic ability could effectively combat developing burnout symptoms in athletes.

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2021-06-21T09:40:44-05:00June 25th, 2021|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on The Impact of Need Satisfaction on College Athlete Burnout

You play like a girl? Gender and image in high school yearbooks

Author: Heather Van Mullem1

1Division of Movement and Sport Sciences, Lewis-Clark State College, Lewiston, ID, USA

Corresponding Author:
Heather Van Mullem, PhD
500 8th Avenue
Lewiston, ID 83501
hivanmullem@lcsc.edu
208-792-2781

Heather Van Mullem, PhD is a Professor of Kinesiology and Health at Lewis-Clark State College in Lewiston, ID. Her research interests focus on gender issues in sport, specifically representations of female athletes in the media.

You play like a girl? Gender and image in high school yearbooks

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to explore how male and female student-athletes were portrayed in images included in two high school’s yearbooks published between 1920-2020. Photos in yearbooks, gathered from the high schools and a community library, were analyzed for their presentation of athletic competence, using presence on court, in uniform, and in action shots as indicators (2). In images of one person, males (M = 3.750, SD = 7.776) were statistically portrayed in passive shots more often than females (M = 2.030, SD = 3.724); t (2,913) = 6.335, p = .000. In comparison, females (M = 5.260, SD = 10.412) were statistically portrayed in active shots more often than males (M = 4.440, SD = 8.646); t (4,722) = -2.946, p = .003. Males (M = 7.550, SD = 11.094) were also statistically portrayed in uniform more often than females (M = 6.810, SD = 10.974); t (7,083) = 2.791, p = .005. Finally, males (M = 1.720, SD = 5.029) were statistically portrayed more often off court than females (M = 1.100, SD = 2.729); t (1,417) = 2.512, p = .012. In comparison, in images of two or more people, males (M = 6.400, SD = 9.589) were statistically portrayed in active shots more often than females (M = 4.640, SD = 7.852); t (6,190) = 7.544, p = .000. Males (M = 8.800, SD = 11.807) and were also statistically portrayed on court more often than females (M = 6.960, SD = 10.704); t (8,818) = 7.478, p = .000. In contrast, females (M = 1.350, SD = 1.989) were statistically portrayed off court more often than males (M = 1.070, SD = 1.763); t (1,329) = -2.705, p = .007. Finally, males (M = 9.570, SD = 12.410) were statistically more likely to be portrayed in uniform when compared to females (M = 8.000, SD = 11.516); t (9,814) = 6.385, p = .000. This study’s findings are, overall, consistent with previous research which indicates that male athletes, when compared to female athletes, are more commonly presented as competent athletes. Athletic and yearbook administrators should ensure the quantity, quality, and type of yearbook photos reflect both the season of competition but also the true athletic competence of the competitors.

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2021-03-09T08:22:33-06:00March 12th, 2021|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on You play like a girl? Gender and image in high school yearbooks

Concessions, traditions, and staying safe: Considering sport, food, and the lasting impact of the Covid-19 pandemic

Author: Alana N. Seaman, PhD

Corresponding Author:
Alana N. Seaman, Ph.D.
University of North Carolina Wilmington
601 South College Road
Wilmington, NC 28403-5956
910-962-7568
SeamanA@uncw.edu

Dr. Alana Seaman is an Assistant Professor of Recreation, Sports, & Tourism at the University of North Carolina Wilmington. Her research centers on heritage and tourism particularly as related to sport, food, place, and/or popular culture.

Concessions, traditions, and staying safe: Considering sport, food, and the lasting impact of the Covid-19 pandemic

ABSTRACT

Food is integral to the culture, infrastructure, and economics of sport. Sport’s unique food traditions engage spectators and athletes alike and facilitate the cultivation of social connections as well as contribute to the game day atmosphere. However, the topic has received little attention from scholars. Regardless, the Covid-19 pandemic has and will continue to disrupt the relationship between sport and food well into the future. This paper provides a review of the scant research available on food and sport and considers how each aspect of sport’s culinary landscape will be affected by Covid-19.

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2021-01-07T09:59:00-06:00January 29th, 2021|Commentary, Sports Management|Comments Off on Concessions, traditions, and staying safe: Considering sport, food, and the lasting impact of the Covid-19 pandemic

An Investigation to Determine if Sport Video Games Helps Community College Students Become Interested in Real-life Sports

Authors: Dr. Daniel Kane

Affiliations: CUNY Kingsborough Community College and United States Sports Academy  

Corresponding Author:
Dr. Daniel Kane
Danielskane@gmail.com
917-545-9179

Dr. Daniel Kane is an Assistant Professor of Tourism and Hospitality at CUNY Kingsborough Community College.  Dr. Kane is also an alumnus of the United States Sports Academy.

An Investigation to Determine if Sport Video Games Helps Community College Students Become Interested in Real-life Sports.

ABSTRACT

This study attempted to determine if community college students learned, became interested in, or play a real-life sport by playing sport video games.  The study was Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved and conducted at the City University of New York Kingsborough Community College.  A new questionnaire was developed called the Sports Video Games Questionnaire.  The researcher worked with a panel of experts and ran two pilot studies to develop the Sports Video Games Questionnaire.  A total of 101 students that have played or are currently playing sport video games participated in the study.

The results were positive and reveled that community college students felt that playing sport video games helped build a connection to real-life sports.  The majority of the subjects felt that playing sport video games taught them about the rules, real-life players or teams (in a league), and enhanced their knowledge of real-life sports.  Also, the majority of the subjects felt that sport video games helped them become a fan of a real-life sport team, a real-life sport, a real-life athlete, and increased their interest in playing a real-life sport.  Sport video games can be a tool that helps connect people to real-life sports.

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2021-01-07T09:58:50-06:00January 22nd, 2021|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on An Investigation to Determine if Sport Video Games Helps Community College Students Become Interested in Real-life Sports

Eras of ERA

Author: Douglas J. Jordan1

1Department of Business Administration, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA, USA

Corresponding Author:
Douglas J. Jordan
3663 Primrose Avenue
Santa Rosa, CA 95407
jordand@sonoma.edu
707-206-0563

Douglas J. Jordan, PhD, is a Professor of Business Administration at Sonoma State University in Rohnert Park, California. In addition to his professional interest in corporate finance and investments, he is a member of the Society for American Baseball Research and does research on baseball related topics.

Eras of ERA

ABSTRACT

This paper examines and analyzes the average ERA in major-league baseball each season between 1871 and 2019. The data shows that the maximum average ERA of 5.33 occurred in 1894 after the pitching distance was increased to 60 feet 6 inches in 1893. The lowest average ERA of 2.19 occurred in 1874 and the overall average ERA across baseball history is 3.74. From a current perspective, the overall average ERA of almost exactly 4.0 since 1920 is a more useful benchmark given the significant changes that were taking place as the game evolved over its first fifty years.

The data is used to divide baseball history into different pitching eras based on the similarity of average ERA across different time periods. For example, the overall average ERA for the years 1921-1928 was 4.05. This era is designated the Most of the Twenties Era. The lowest overall average ERA of 2.82 occurred during the appropriately named Deadball Era (1904-1919). Not surprisingly, the offensive explosion that occurred during the 1990s shows up in the average ERA data. The overall average ERA between 1994 and 2009 (designated the Camden Yards Era) was the highest for any era in baseball history, 4.46. In terms of understanding how pitching has evolved, these data driven pitching era designations are an improvement over other ways of dividing baseball history because the variation in average ERA over the time periods (measured using standard deviation) is smaller than the variation in average ERA during traditional historic eras.

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2020-09-08T10:42:01-05:00December 18th, 2020|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on Eras of ERA
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