Eras of ERA

Author: Douglas J. Jordan1

1Department of Business Administration, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA, USA

Corresponding Author:
Douglas J. Jordan
3663 Primrose Avenue
Santa Rosa, CA 95407
jordand@sonoma.edu
707-206-0563

Douglas J. Jordan, PhD, is a Professor of Business Administration at Sonoma State University in Rohnert Park, California. In addition to his professional interest in corporate finance and investments, he is a member of the Society for American Baseball Research and does research on baseball related topics.

Eras of ERA

ABSTRACT

This paper examines and analyzes the average ERA in major-league baseball each season between 1871 and 2019. The data shows that the maximum average ERA of 5.33 occurred in 1894 after the pitching distance was increased to 60 feet 6 inches in 1893. The lowest average ERA of 2.19 occurred in 1874 and the overall average ERA across baseball history is 3.74. From a current perspective, the overall average ERA of almost exactly 4.0 since 1920 is a more useful benchmark given the significant changes that were taking place as the game evolved over its first fifty years.

The data is used to divide baseball history into different pitching eras based on the similarity of average ERA across different time periods. For example, the overall average ERA for the years 1921-1928 was 4.05. This era is designated the Most of the Twenties Era. The lowest overall average ERA of 2.82 occurred during the appropriately named Deadball Era (1904-1919). Not surprisingly, the offensive explosion that occurred during the 1990s shows up in the average ERA data. The overall average ERA between 1994 and 2009 (designated the Camden Yards Era) was the highest for any era in baseball history, 4.46. In terms of understanding how pitching has evolved, these data driven pitching era designations are an improvement over other ways of dividing baseball history because the variation in average ERA over the time periods (measured using standard deviation) is smaller than the variation in average ERA during traditional historic eras.

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2020-09-08T10:42:01-05:00December 18th, 2020|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on Eras of ERA

A Review of Student-Athlete Responses to Team Sport Eliminations by NCAA Division I Schools

Authors:  Mark Mitchell and Rob Montgomery

Corresponding Author:
Mark Mitchell, DBA
Professor of Marketing
Associate Dean, Wall College of Business
NCAA Faculty Athletics Representative (FAR)
Coastal Carolina University
P. O. Box 261954
Conway, SC  29528
mmitchel@coastal.edu
(843) 349-2392

Mark Mitchell, DBA is Professor of Marketing at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, SC.
Rob Montgomery, DBA is Professor of Marketing at the University of Evansville (IN).

A Review of Student-Athlete Responses to Team Sport Eliminations by NCAA Division I Schools

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted the budgets of college athletic departments at all levels.  In response, some institutions have elected to eliminate specific team sports.  This study examines how student-athletes respond when their schools announce the intent to eliminate their sports.  The NCAA transfer portal can be used to identify the responses of affected student-athletes.  For the team eliminations made in Spring/Summer 2020, the affected student-athletes tended to enter the NCAA transfer portal to attempt to find a new school to meet their athletic and academic goals. The actions were taken even though most schools announce the intent to honor the scholarships of affected student-athletes even with the elimination of their sports.  Over 40% of NCAA Division I and II student-athletes receive partial or no athletic aid. These students are paying tuition and fees while competing in their sports.  As schools study the possible elimination of team sports, they must be mindful to consider the total cost of eliminating a sport and not simply the reduction in the athletic budget.  The presence of partial scholarships may make it advantageous to continue such sports to retain those student-athletes and the tuition and fees they pay.

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2020-11-20T09:15:58-06:00December 1st, 2020|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on A Review of Student-Athlete Responses to Team Sport Eliminations by NCAA Division I Schools

Assessment of readiness of Lebanese Gyms and Sport Facilities according to ISO-97.220 – Sports equipment and facilities

Authors: Siham El Rafei1, Mohammad Nassereddine 2, Ali Hammoud 3, Adel Olleik4
1,2,3 Faculty of Sciences, Lebanese University, Beirut, LB
4GATES Company, Beirut, LB

Corresponding Author:
Siham El Rafei, MS
Lebanon- Tripoli-Tripoli- 1301
0096176881705
rafeisiham@gmail.com

Siham El Rafei, MS, has a MS degree in Healthcare and Quality Management, and a certificate in Pilates. She is the owner of a  Pilates studio, Physiopilateslb, in Tripoli, Lebanon.

Mohammad Nasseriddine, PhD, is currently an Assistant Professor at the Lebanese University in Beirut.

Ali Hammoud, PhD, is currently an Assistant Professor at the Lebanese University in the Biomedical and Bioinformatic Department, in Beirut..

Adel Olleik, MPH, DBA, worked as a CEO, consultant, auditor, and trainer in more than 250 healthcare organizations in Lebanon. He is currently running his own consultation firm, GATES, in Beirut, LB.

Assessment of readiness of Lebanese Gyms and Sport Facilities according to ISO-97.220 – Sports equipment and facilities

ABSTRACT

It is very difficult to mitigate all the risks involved in utilizing a fitness center. For this reason, ISO-97.220 – Sports equipment and facilities established the international safety standards that should be included in the sport facilities. The purpose of this survey is to assess the degree of readiness of Lebanese gyms according to these standards.78.67% of the gyms affirmed that they used international safety standards while preparing the sport facility. Correspondingly, only 60% of the gyms have a written emergency response policy and procedure and only 66.67% of the gyms conduct a safety audit inspection. Nevertheless, 84% of them have a preventative maintenance program and 92% of them have a system for removal of damaged or broken equipment.

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2020-07-16T15:52:16-05:00October 23rd, 2020|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on Assessment of readiness of Lebanese Gyms and Sport Facilities according to ISO-97.220 – Sports equipment and facilities

Predictive Modeling of 4th Down Conversion in Power 5 Conferences: Football Data Analytics

Authors: Joshua Blinkoff1, Michael Voeller1, Scottie Graham2 and Jeffrey Wilson3

1Barrett Honors College, Arizona State University Tempe, AZ
2Arizona State University, Sun Devils Athletics, Tempe, AZ
3Department of Economics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ

Corresponding Author:
Jeffrey R. Wilson, BA, MS, PhD
Department of Economics CPCOM 465D
Arizona State University/Tempe AZ 85287
jeffrey.wilson@asu.edu
480-213-4460

Dr. Jeffrey Wilson is a Professor of Statistics and the Faculty Athletics Representative to the PAC-12 and NCAA. His research includes binary logistic regression models and hierarchical data with random effects.

Predictive Modeling of 4th Down Conversion in Power 5 Conferences: Football Data Analytics

ABSTRACT

Purpose

In the sport of football, coaches are faced with critical decisions at different times in the game. Often the coach makes the decision based on a gut feeling or the advice of an assistant. However, if each decision can be supplemented with data, it is possible to increase the chances of success. This paper uses data (2015-18) from the games played between the 65 teams in Division I in the Power 5 conferences of the NCAA, to present a prediction model useful for 4th down determinations.

Methods

A predictive logistic regression model is used in the determination of 4th down options. In particular, a model based on a logistic regression model with random effects, capable of predicting the likelihood of converting on 4th down decision is presented. The adequacy of the model is estimated through calibration, discrimination, and bootstrap samples.

Results

Distance-to-go, pass or run, line of scrimmage, and the week of season are significant factors in predicting a successful 4th down with team as a random effect.

Conclusion

The paper demonstrates the use of analytics to increase the decision-making in football. It increases the precision in decision making by 36% in these data.

Applications in Sport

Teams can use the model to facilitate similar decisions in other parts of the game. This can also be used in the recruiting of players.

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2020-10-06T08:27:33-05:00August 14th, 2020|Research, Sports Management, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Predictive Modeling of 4th Down Conversion in Power 5 Conferences: Football Data Analytics

The Coronavirus and Sport Management Pedagogy: Developing Student Learning Opportunities Based on Participatory Sport Businesses Impacted by the Pandemic

Author: Michael J. Diacin

Corresponding Author:
Michael J. Diacin, Ph.D.
University of Indianapolis
1400 E. Hanna Ave.
Indianapolis, IN 46227
diacinm@uindy.edu
317-791-5703

Michael J. Diacin is an Associate Professor in the Department of Kinesiology, Health, and Sport Sciences. His research interests include sport management education and curriculum.

The Coronavirus and Sport Management Pedagogy; Developing Student Learning Opportunities Based on Participatory Sport Businesses Impacted by the Pandemic

Abstract

The presence of the Coronavirus and subsequent mandates to suspend operations has affected ownership, employees, and customers of community-based sport and recreation focused business. When operations resume, these businesses will aim to accomplish objectives of attracting new and repeat customers. These businesses will need to create messages in order to reassure consumers and create incentives in order to entice customers to return. The purpose of this essay is to articulate challenges community-based sport and recreation businesses will face when permission to resume operations is granted and propose tactics that could be utilized in order to rebuild the customer base. In addition, this pandemic provides an authentic learning opportunity for students in sport communication/management programs. As a result, suggestions for developing a learning opportunity for students based on community-based sport and recreation business affected by Coronavirus related shutdowns will be offered.

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2020-07-06T10:37:10-05:00July 15th, 2020|Sports Management|Comments Off on The Coronavirus and Sport Management Pedagogy: Developing Student Learning Opportunities Based on Participatory Sport Businesses Impacted by the Pandemic
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