Latest Articles

College Football’s Bottom-Line Impact: Exploring the Relationship of Football Performance on Athletic Finances for Division I Institutions Today

July 23rd, 2021|Research, Sports Management|

Authors: Spencer D. Wyld1 and David C. Wyld2

1 Walton College of Business, Department of Finance, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, USA
2 Department of Management & Business Administration, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond, LA, USA

Corresponding Author:
David C. Wyld, DBA
47042 Scott Drive
Hammond, LA 70401
dwyld@selu.edu
985-789-2127

Spencer D. Wyld, M.B.A., is a doctoral candidate in finance in the Walton College of Business at the University of Arkansas with a focus on the financial aspects of energy, infrastructure, and transportation.

David C. Wyld, D.B.A., serves as the Merritt Professor of Management at Southeastern Louisiana University. His research interests involve the intersection of technology, society, sports and business.

College Football’s Bottom-Line Impact: Exploring the Relationship of Football Performance on Athletic Finances for Division I Institutions Today

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study examines a heretofore unaddressed area in both sport and economics literature, looking at the relationship between on-the-field college football team performance and the financial performance of university athletic operations overall. Methods: The researchers, building upon prior research employing econometrics to sports analysis, utilized data spanning 2005-2018 for 106 Division I college athletic programs to examine how specific aspects of offensive, defensive, and overall team football performance related to four measures of overall athletic department financial performance  (donor contributions, corporate sponsorships, ticket sales, and profit).  Results: Based on three separate regression analyses, the study found that while institutional and state control variables were important in explaining overall differences in universities’ athletic department performance in terms of donor contributions, corporate sponsorships and ticket sales, some football-specific factors were found to have significance as well. Overall, college athletic departments that had teams which produced exciting football on the field (with scoring and with a lack of turnovers) were found to be better performing off the field financially in contributing to the overall success of their university’s athletic programs.  Conclusions: The present research demonstrates for the first time how – and how much – on-field football team performance can play a role in athletic operations overall from a financial standpoint. The researchers go on to analyze directions – and challenges – for future research in this area, especially considering the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic for college sports operations. Applications in Sport: For athletic departments and athletic administrators, the findings in the present research provide new insights on what donors, sponsors, and fans of their football programs value in terms of on-field performance of their respective university’s football team.

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The Impact of Need Satisfaction on College Athlete Burnout

June 25th, 2021|Research, Sports Management|

Authors: Rachel Daniels, MS, Dr. Joel Cormier, Dr. Jonathan Gore, and Dr. Ellen McMahan

Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY, USA

Corresponding Author:
Rachel Daniels, MS,
Eastern Kentucky University
512 Lancaster Avenue
Richmond, KY, 40475
606-872-2791
Rachelbdaniels@outlook.com

Rachel Daniels is a certified athletic trainer and graduate of the MS in Exercise and Sport Science program at Eastern Kentucky University. Her professional interests include sports psychology, health education, and durable medical equipment services. She resides in Louisville, Kentucky.

Joel Cormier, PhD is an Associate Professor of Exercise and Sport Science at the Eastern Kentucky University in Richmond, KY. His research interests focus on leadership, organizational behavior, athlete development and the overall study of college sport.

Dr. Jonathan Gore is a Professor of Psychology at Eastern Kentucky University in Richmond, KY. His research focuses on goal motivation, self-concept, and culture.

Dr. Ellen McMahan is an Assistant Professor of Exercise and Sport Science at the Eastern Kentucky University in Richmond, KY. Her research interests are job satisfaction, employee engagement, and burnout, as well as lifelong fitness.

The Impact of Need Satisfaction of College Athlete Burnout

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that may contribute to burnout in athletes by determining the direction and strength of a relationship between burnout, athlete identity and need satisfaction. Participants (N=60) consisted of 43 male (71.67%) and 17 female (28.33%) athletes. Individuals were aged 18-22 (M=19.40, SD=1.06). Correlation analysis and comparison of means were conducted. Results of this study suggested there was a significant and negative relationship between the autonomy and competence components of need satisfaction and burnout. To manage or prevent burnout, sports professionals should focus on supporting autonomy and competence rather than reinforcing athletic identity. Creating a team culture of group decision-making and abundant opportunities to demonstrate athletic ability could effectively combat developing burnout symptoms in athletes.

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A phenomenological exploration of constraints for varsity football student-athletes with a sport-related concussion

May 14th, 2021|Research, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|

Authors: Wahid Hamidi1, Yusuf Hamidi2, and George Karlis1  

1Department of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, 125 University pvt., Ottawa, ON, Canada, K1N 1A2
2Department of Nursing, University of Ottawa 125, University pvt., Ottawa, ON, Canada, K1N 1A2

Corresponding Author:
Wahid Hamidi, Ph.D. Candidate
125 University pvt.
Ottawa, ON, Canada
K1N 1A2
Email: whami024@uottawa.ca
Phone: 613-558-8279

Wahid Hamidi is a Ph.D. candidate in the School of Human Kinetics at the University of Ottawa, Canada. His area or research focuses on initiating and maintaining physical activity and exercise behavior, and injury prevention and concussion management in the academic and athletic settings for varsity student-athletes. He is a recipient of the University of Ottawa Admission Scholarship.

Yusuf Hamidi is a Master of Science student in the School of Nursing at the University of Ottawa, Canada. His area of research focuses on problem-solving approaches to learning barriers for undergraduate students using simulated-based learning. He is a recipient of the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program award.

George Karlis is a Full Professor in the School of Human Kinetics at the University of Ottawa, Canada. His area of research focuses on leisure, society, recreation, sport, and community development.

A phenomenological exploration of constraints for varsity football student-athletes with a sport-related concussion

ABSTRACT

Sports-related concussions are an emergent public health concern due to an increase in mortality and morbidity incident rates. The purpose of this study is to identify constraints in academic and athletic settings for varsity football student-athletes with a sport-related concussion. Twelve varsity football student-athletes from one institution who were diagnosed with a sport-related concussion took part in semi-structured interviews. This study used the social ecological model to identify intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental factors. Results suggested that varsity football student-athletes with a sport-related concussion experienced several constraining social ecological factors in the academic and athletic settings. Intrapersonal constraints related to loss of motivation, loss of social identification, stress, anxiety and depression, injury-specific issues, and internal pressure to return. Interpersonal constraints related to insufficient social support, lack of awareness and guidance on concussion knowledge, external pressure to return, and lack of academic support post-concussion. Environmental constraints related to return-to-play and return-to-learn protocols. Findings suggested that there remains a need to address constraining factors in the academic and athletic settings for varsity football student-athletes with a sport-related concussion.

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Self-efficacy in college athletics: An exploratory study

April 30th, 2021|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|

Authors: Martha G. Dettl-Rivera1, Diane L. Gill2, Erin Reifsteck2

1Physical Education, Sport and Human Performance Department, Winthrop University, Rock Hill, SC, USA
2Department of Kinesiology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USA

Corresponding Author:
Martha G. Dettl-Rivera, EdD, SCAT, ATC
116A West Center
Rock Hill, SC 29732
dettlriveram@winthrop.edu
215-264-6090

Martha G. Dettl-Rivera is an assistant professor of Athletic Training at Winthrop University in Rock Hill, SC. Her research interest includes mental health in college athletics.

Diane L. Gill is a professor in the Department of Kinesiology at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro in Greensboro, NC. Her research interests include social psychology and physical activity.

Erin Reifsteck is an assistant professor in the Department of Kinesiology at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro in Greensboro, NC. Her current research focuses on promoting lifelong physical activity and health among athletes.

Self-efficacy in college athletics: An exploratory study

ABSTRACT

This research examined the self-efficacy scores of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) college athletic trainers from Division I and Division III Southeastern universities. Implementing mental health best practices for college athletic trainers to recognize and to refer student-athletes with mental health issues and disorders have been top priorities of the NCAA and National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA). Purpose: This research explored the influence of the USA Mental Health First Aid (MHFA-USA) course of NCAA college athletic trainers’ self-efficacy levels of college student-athletes’ mental health referrals. Methods: A survey approach was adopted to measure participant (n=8) confidence levels of referring student-athletes to qualified mental health care practitioners utilizing a valid self-efficacy scale. Results: Overall, there was improvement in self-efficacy scores immediately following the course as well as consistent improvement at the one-month follow-up survey. Conclusions: There has been no current research on mental health formal trainings of practicing athletic trainers at the NCAA level. Findings from this study were promising as NCAA college athletic trainers’ self-efficacy improved following completion of the MHFA-USA course. Application in Sports: This study offers exploratory insight of the potential training of NCAA college athletic trainers to appropriately and to confidently refer student-athletes to appropriate care. Findings suggest mental health training programs focused on improvement of confidence levels of NCAA college athletic trainers should be considered.

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The relationship between hip extensor strength and contralateral and ipsilateral hip flexor muscle length in healthy men and women

April 9th, 2021|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|

Authors: Ashley Calvillo1, Guillermo Escalante2, and Morey J. Kolber3

1Los Angeles Sunset Department of Physical Therapy, Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA, USA
2Department of Kinesiology, California State University- San Bernardino, San Bernardino, CA, USA
3Department of Physical Therapy, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA

Corresponding Author:
Guillermo Escalante, DSc, MBA, ATC, CSCS*D, CISSN
California State University- San Bernardino
Department of Kinesiology
5500 University Parkway
San Bernardino, CA 92407
(909) 537-7236
(909) 537-7085 fax
gescalan@csusb.edu

Ashley Calvillo, PT, DPT, OCS is a physical therapist at Kaiser Permanente- Sunset in Los Angeles where she focuses on treatment of orthopedic injuries. Her research interests are in the areas of orthopedic physical therapy.

Guillermo Escalante, DSc, MBA, ATC, CSCS*D, CISSN is a Dean Fellow for the College of Natural Sciences and an Associate Professor of Kinesiology at California State University- San Bernardino in San Bernardino, CA. His research interests focus on body composition, improving muscle strength/hypertrophy/sports performance, sports injury prevention/rehabilitation, and sports nutrition.  

Morey J. Kolber, PT, PhD, OCS, CSCS*D is a professor of physical therapy at Nova Southeastern University in Fort Lauderdale, FL. His research interests are in orthopedics, diagnostic imaging, and regenerative medicine.

The relationship between hip extensor strength and contralateral and ipsilateral hip flexor muscle length in healthy men and women

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the relationship between hip extensor (HE) strength to contralateral and ipsilateral hip flexor muscle length. Bilateral hip extension range of motion (ROM) was evaluated using the modified Thomas test using a hand-held goniometer in seventeen males (26 ± 7 yrs, 174.9 ± 6.72 cm, 79.4 ± 7.9 kg) and twenty-seven females (24 ± 2 yrs, 162.7 ± 6.40 cm, 67.2 ± 13.1 kg).  Participants were classified as: a) restricted hip flexors (hip extension ROM > 6° from horizontal), b) neither restricted nor normal hip flexors (hip extension ROM between 0° to 6° from horizontal), and c) normal hip flexors (hip extension ROM < 0° from horizontal). Peak isometric HE force was obtained via a Biodex dynamometer where maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was determined. Correlations were used to determine the relationship between flexor length to contralateral and ipsilateral HE relative strength. A One-way ANOVA was used to examine HE relative strength in relation to hip flexor length classified as restricted vs neither vs normal. There were no correlations between right hip flexor length and contralateral HE strength (r = -0.228, p = 0.137), right hip flexor length and ipsilateral HE strength (r = -0.241, p = 0.115), left hip flexor length and contralateral HE strength (r = -0.193, p = 0.210), and left hip flexor length and ipsilateral HE strength (r = -0.111, p = 0.472). The One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the groups for the most restricted hip flexor and contralateral HE relative strength (p = 0.179) nor for the most restricted hip flexor and ipsilateral HE relative strength (p = 0.670). No significant relationships were found between HE strength and contralateral or ipsilateral hip flexor length. Although it is commonly suggested that practitioners address hip flexor length to assist with improving gluteal muscle strength, the results of this study do not validate this clinical practice. Despite the results indicating no correlations, practitioners are encouraged to address these impairments from both a functional and performance based perspective.

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