Latest Articles

Coincidence anticipation timing requirements across different stimulus speeds in various sports: A pilot study

November 17th, 2023|Research, Sports Studies|

Authors: Haneol Kim

Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI, 54601, USA

Haneol Kim
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
124 Mitchell Hall, La Crosse, WI 54601
Cell: 765-586-5878

Haneol Kim is a faculty member in the Department of Exercise and Sport Science at University of Wisconsin-La Crosse. His areas of research interest include biomechanics, motor control and learning in sports.

Coincidence anticipation timing requirements across different stimulus speeds in various sports: A pilot study


The ability of coincidence anticipation timing is directly related to athletic performance in sports, and anticipation timing requirements vary according to the sports type. This case study aimed to investigate the coincidence anticipation timing of male university athletes in various sports across different stimulus speeds such as slow (3 mph), moderate (6 mph), and fast (9 mph). Nineteen university athletes from soccer (n = 5), tennis (n = 7), and volleyball (n = 7) participated voluntarily in this study and were compared to non-athletes (n = 6). All participants pressed the button when the light stimulus arrived at the target location of a Bassin anticipation timer to assess anticipation timing accuracy in terms of constant, absolute, and variable errors. A speed effect in constant error (p < 0.001) and a group by speed interaction in variable error (p = 0.044) were found. However, no significant difference was found in absolute error. In conclusion, coincidence anticipation timing requirements are different across sports types. Racket sports such as tennis might be more beneficial to improving anticipation timing skills than other sports or non-athletes.

Keywords: sports performance, anticipation timing accuracy, athletes, male


Coach experiences during a pandemic: Navigating change in a challenging environment

November 10th, 2023|Research, Sport Education|

Authors: Todd Layne1, Kelly Simonton2, Jamie Brunsdon1, & Marko Pavolic1

1College of Health Sciences, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA
2Division of Kinesiology and Health, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA

Corresponding Author:

Todd Layne, PhD
495 Zach Curlin St.
Memphis, TN, 38152

Todd Layne, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Physical Education Teacher Education at the University of Memphis in Memphis, TN. His research program examines the use of the sport education model as well as coaching effectiveness.

Kelly Simonton, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Physical Education Teacher Education at the University of Wyoming in Laramie, WY. His research focus revolves around achievement motivation in physical education and physical activity, specifically as it relates to student and teacher emotions and their motivational effects.

Jamie Brunsdon, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Physical Education Teacher Education at the University of Memphis in Memphis, TN. Dr. Brunsdon’s research interests are largely focused on teacher/faculty socialization and applied ethics.

Coach experiences during a pandemic: Navigating change in a challenging environment


The purpose of this study was to understand coaches’ response via their day-to-day experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic from the lens of coaching during the COVID-19 national health pandemic. This study utilized qualitative analysis via two zoom-call recorded interviews. A total of nine current head coaches (middle and high school) of teams that participated in the 2021 spring season were involved. Data were analyzed using standard interpretive techniques. Final analysis resulted in general themes that reflected perceptions of the coaches. Themes included (a) new purpose, (b) extra preparation, (c) mixed emotions, (d) creating connections during isolation, and (e) finding relief in helping hands. Coaches are faced with challenges each season. With the recent COVID-19 pandemic, coaches experienced difficulties never seen before. Coaches learned to adapt and respond to situations with a goal of togetherness as a team and competing again. These experiences will prepare coaches for future unexpected changes that can occur within a typical sport season.

Key words: coach, emotion, COVID-19 pandemic


Associations Between Game Outcome, Game Location, and Wellness in Division I Women’s Lacrosse Athletes

November 3rd, 2023|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|

Authors: Sarah L. Grace,1 Abigail P. Cooley,1 Jennifer A. Bunn2, Paula Parker1

1 Department of Exercise Science, Campbell University, Buies Creek, NC, USA

2 Department of Kinesiology, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX, USA


Paula Parker, Ed.D
PO Box 414,
Buies Creek, NC 27506

Sarah L. Grace is an undergraduate student at Campbell University. She is studying Biology and plans to attend Dental School upon graduation.

Abigail P. Cooley is a recent graduate of Campbell University. She earned her Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Humanities in December 2022 and plans to attend Medical School.

Jennifer A. Bunn, PhD, FACSM, is an Associate Dean in the College of Health Sciences and a faculty member in the Department of Kinesiology at Sam Houston State University. Her areas of research interest include physiological factors affecting female collegiate athlete performance.

Paula Parker, EdD, CMPC, is an Associate Professor and Chair in the Department of Exercise Science at Campbell University. Her areas of research interest include psychological factors affecting female collegiate athlete performance.

Associations between game outcome, game location, and wellness in Division I women’s lacrosse athletes


PURPOSE: Athlete wellness—a subjective measure assessing the response to the previous day’s physiological and psychological stress—has subsequent influence on the day’s performance. Game location (i.e., home, away) is also believed to influence performance and game outcome.  The purpose of this study was to determine if game location and game day wellness were related to game outcome for a collegiate women’s lacrosse team. METHODS: Athletes (n = 34) completed a daily subjective wellness survey each morning. The survey consisted of questions related to muscle soreness, sleep quality, stress, and fatigue, with responses rated in arbitrary units (AU) using the anchors of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100, and higher scores represented positive affect. The scores of each of the four responses were averaged to calculate the overall wellness score. Individual athlete wellness scores were categorized as above or below the team mean for each game. A chi-square analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between the wellness variables and game location with the game outcome. RESULTS: The season consisted of seven losses and nine wins, with 10 games played at an away location and six games played at home. Location was not related to game outcome (p = .152), nor were any of the game day wellness sub-scores or composite score (wellness: 71.4 ± 2.7 AU, p = .614; muscle soreness: 63.8 ± 2.9 AU, p = .527; sleep: 83.0 ± 3.4 AU, p = .527; energy: 80.0 ± 1.5 AU, p = .490; stress: 65.0 ± 4.7 AU, p = .490). CONCLUSIONS: Game location, and game day wellness were not related to game outcome in Division I women’s lacrosse athletes. These findings refute previous beliefs regarding the importance of “home field advantage.” Further exploration regarding sleep quality differences in relation to game location and subsequent game outcome are warranted. APPLICATION IN SPORT: Coaches and athletes can use this information to refute previously believed notions about advantages to playing home games. Coaches can work with their athletes to ensure similar pre-game preparation on and off the field for optimal performance.

Key Words: team sports, sleep, stress


The morphological age and weighted evaluation of the neuromuscular qualities of the young player

October 31st, 2023|Research, Sports Studies|

Authors: Congedo Piero, Primo Andrea, Arienti Matteo, Galli Fabio, Gai Alessandro, Manganiello Paolo, Marinoni Dario, Micheletti Elio, Santoro Francesco, Ventura Manuel.

Leonardo da Vinci Institute, Cologno Monzese, Milan, Italy

Corresponding Author:
Primo Andrea
Leonardo da Vinci Institute, Cologno Monzese, Milan, Italy. –

Congedo Piero – master’s degree in Sports Sciences and Techniques and training of SUISM Torino; D.E.S.S. in Entrainment et Management sportif UFRSTAPS de Dijon (France). Head of physical performance at the Lugano Football Club youth sector. From 1991 to 2016 he was an athletic trainer at the Ac Milan youth sector. In 2016 responsible for the preparation of the 1st team at Palermo Calcio (Serie A). Determine the MA (Morphological Age) in order to get closer to the biological age of the young player; weighting of test performance results; trace the evolution of jumping, acceleration and agility skills between the ages of 7 and 17.

Primo Andrea – Degree in Mathematics at “Università degli Studi di Milano” obtained in 2001 Mathematical methods applied through networking techniques and economical and financial applications. Data analyst, time series, big data.

The morphological age and weighted evaluation of the neuromuscular qualities of the young player


This study aims to answer some questions concerning the aspects relating to the anthropometric and neuromuscular evaluation of the young football player.
Objectives: The points on which we try to clarify are: 1- seek an indirect criterion for determining the biological age that complements and integrates the one most, to date, adopted proposed in 2002 by Mirwald et al. (22), based on the determination of PHV and APHV, since this would seem quite reliable with subjects with normal maturation but not so much when they are late or early; 2- determine for each chronological age and for each of the tests used in the study the Gold Standard Range Improvement (GSRI) expected to know if, basically, a detected improvement can be considered Regular Improvement, i.e. attributable to the normal physical maturation process rather than Irregular Improvement, that is attributable to other factors such as training; 3-identify the ABAEI (Age Best Average Expected Improvement) of jumping ability (CMJF), 20m sprint ability and agility ability to verify the actual presence of one or more favourable moments, between 7 and 17 years , where it is easier to achieve significant improvement; 4- provide a sufficiently reliable method to interpret the results of the neuromuscular tests considered in the study without these being influenced by the degree of maturation; 5- understand if the selection criteria adopted, in a professional context such as the one we have observed, tend to favour individuals with early maturation.
Materials and methods: A sample of 827 footballers aged 7-17 and belonging to the youth sector of a professional Swiss super league club, was subjected to a longitudinal analysis, relating to some anthropometric measures (weight, height, chronological age, BMI) together with the results of three field tests (CMJF, sprint on 20m and agility). For the indirect determination of the biological age, a model was developed with which to calculate the morphological age on young players who train regularly, therefore on average thin, normal weight, starting from the measurement (twice a year) of weight, height, chronological age and BMI.
Results: From the analysis of the data, it emerged that the observed sample was found to be on average early since it reached PHV at least one year earlier than what is reported in the literature by Parizkova in 1976 and Malina et al. in 1999 (19,13). In the 7–17-year period, the average performance improvement of each of the tests administered was significant and constant (2.8% -12.8% for CMJF; 2.2% -6.4% agility; 2.02% -6.48% sprint 20m). However, CMJF and sprint 20m provided the same ABAEI (8-9 years) while for agility the ABAEI seems to coincide with the 9–10-year period. The GSRI was calculated for each age and for each of the tests considered in order to provide field technicians with a reference range that allows them to check whether the improvement obtained by their children can be classified as Regular or Irregular Improvement.
Conclusion: The analysis of the results allows us to make some interesting considerations: first, there is a tendency to favour subjects with early maturation. Starting from simple anthropometric measures, it is possible to calculate a further indirect indicator of maturation, the here proposed morphological age. Since this together with the determination of the PHV can help us to approach the biological maturation of young players and to weight the test results in relation to the degree of maturation. Finally, the ability to jump acceleration on 20m and agility naturally improve during the whole period 7-17 even if with differences depending on the age. While for the CMJF and for the agility there are no evident variations in the percentage of improvement, for the acceleration capacity the period between 8-11 years and that between 14-16 years seem to be more sensitive to improvement.

Keywords: biological maturity, young player, morphological age, quality neuromuscular, sensitive phases, performance improvement, weighting of results, data anthropometric, agility, cmjf, sprint 20m


Effect of Shoulder and Hand Position on Sport-Specific Grip Force in Rock Climbers

October 20th, 2023|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|

Authors: Erika Nelson-Wong1,2,Johnathon Crawley2, Kevin Cowell3,Lena Parker2, Emily Higgins2,Stephanie Huang2,Claire Lorbiecki2,Shawn Wood2

1Department of Physical Therapy, Augustana University, Sioux Falls, SD, USA

2School of Physical Therapy, Regis University, Denver, CO USA

3The Climb Clinic, Broomfield, CO USA


Erika Nelson-Wong, PT, DPT, PhD

18770 W. 60th Ave, Golden, CO 80403, USA


Erika Nelson-Wong, PT, DPT, PhD is currently a Professor of Physical Therapy at Augustana University in Sioux Falls, SD. She was a Professor of Physical Therapy at Regis University during the time of this study. Her research interests focus on predictive factors for development of musculoskeletal disorders with an emphasis on biomechanics of movement.

Johnathon Crawley, PT, DPT, Lena Parker, PT, DPT, Emily Higgins, PT, DPT, Stephanie Huang, PT, DPT, Claire Lorbiecki, PT, DPT, and Shawn Wood, PT, DPT were student physical therapists in the School of Physical Therapy at Regis University during the time of this study and were awarded their DPT degrees in May 2022.

Kevin Cowell, PT, DPT, OCS, CSCS, FAAOMPT is the owner of The Climb Clinic and has a specialty physical therapy practice focused on injury rehabilitation and performance improvement of rock climbers of all skill levels.

Effect of Shoulder and Hand Position on Sport-Specific Grip Force in Rock Climbers


Purpose: Rock climbing has become popular as a recreational activity. Overuse injuries of fingers and hands are common due to uniquely high demands placed on these structures. Climbers adapt hand positions to match types of holds on rock climbing routes, with open-hand and half-crimp positions being most used. The primary purpose of this study was to explore differences in climbing-specific grip strength between 2 hand positions and 2 shoulder positions. Methods: Participants’ maximum isometric pull was tested on a 20mm edge climbing hold attached to a force transducer in each of 4 hand/shoulder position combinations bilaterally. 46 participants (20 female) across skill levels were included for analysis. Peak force was extracted and normalized to participants’ body weight. Mixed model ANOVAs were used to explore effects and interactions between shoulder position, hand position and skill level. Paired t-tests were used explore asymmetry between dominant and non-dominant hands. Results: Half-crimp position was stronger than open-hand position and shoulder position did not impact force production. Climbers of higher skill level had higher force production in both hand positions. Greater asymmetry was observed in climbers of higher skill in the half-crimp position only.

Conclusion: Findings support using a single shoulder position for testing finger strength versus multiple positions. Climbers of all levels should emphasize both open-hand and half-crimp training for performance and injury prevention. Applications in Sport: Shoulder position did not impact force in open-hand or half-crimp grip. Higher skill climbers produced greater force. Force was higher in half-crimp versus open-hand positions independent of skill. Climbers use open-hand and half-crimp positions and should train both for performance and injury prevention. Strength testing could include a single shoulder angle for efficiency.

Key Words: Rock Climbing, Performance, Injury Prevention, Training