Latest Articles

Stressors Associated with Professional Australian Rules Football Athletes Across a Competitive Season

April 15th, 2022|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|

Authors: Billymo Rist1, Anthea C Clarke1, Tony Glynn2, Alan J. Pearce1
1 School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA
2 Fit Mind Consulting, Spencer Street, West Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Corresponding Author:
Billymo Rist
School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA
Email: brist@latrobe.edu.au
Ph: +61 400392964

Billymo Rist is a PhD Candidate at La Trobe University in Melbourne Australia. His Research interests include biomarkers, stress, psychology of performance and neuroscience of sport and injury

Anthea Clarke, PhD, is a lecturer in sport and exercise science in the Department of Dietetics, Human Nutrition, and Sport at La Trobe University, Australia. Her research interests include applied sport science and application to team sports, and female athlete physiology.

Tony Glynn MPsych is a Performance and Clinical Psychologist with 20 years’ experience. Tony is currently performance psychologist for the Melbourne Vixens Netball Team, Victorian Sailing Team, and Tennis Australia and clinical psychologist at the Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne.

Alan J Pearce PhD is an adjunct associate professor at La Trobe University, Melbourne Australia and Director of NeuroSports Labs, Melbourne. Alan has an interest in the neuroscience of exercise and sport and injury, with over 200 publications across neurophysiology, exercise physiology and psychology of exercise.

Stressors Associated with Professional Australian Rules Football Athletes Across a Competitive Season

Abstract

Objective: This study explored psychophysiological stress in professional Australian Rules football athletes across the course of one competitive season.

Methods: A sample of eight players listed with one professional Australian football club participated in this study. Each week during the competitive season (22 weeks), players self-reported their general fatigue and sleep using a paper-based scale, as well as providing a salivary cortisol measure. Testing occurred 48-hours after competition. Participants’ weekly performance rating scores based on a points system metric of players’ data obtained during competitive matches were also recorded by the club each week.

Results: A significant inverse relationship was observed between cortisol and performance ratings, sleep and fatigue, and sleep and performance ratings. There was a significant predictive relationship observed, with cortisol levels and performance rankings (R2 = .35, F (6,74) = 7.06, p<.001). There was no significant relationship between performance and fatigue or performance and sleep.

Conclusions: This study shows a significant relationship between performance outcomes and psychophysiological stress in professional Australian football players. Professional clubs should look towards objective assessment protocols to measure athlete psychological stress to enhance current practice of self-report stress measures.

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Examining Media Framing of Openly gay NFL Player Carl Nassib

April 8th, 2022|Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|

Authors: Edward M. Kian, Ph.D.
School of Media & Strategic Communications, Oklahoma State University, OK, USA

Corresponding Author:
Edward M. Kian, Ph.D.
School of Media & Strategic Communications
Oklahoma State University
201 Paul Miller Building
Stillwater, OK 74078
edward.kian@okstate.edu
407-927-5403

Dr. Edward (Ted) M. Kian, Ph.D. is a full professor of Sports Media in the School of Media & Strategic Communications at Oklahoma State University. Dr. Kian’s research focuses on sport media, specifically examining portrayals of gender and LGBT in content, new media, attitudes and experiences of sport media members, and sport marketing.

Examining Media Framing of Openly gay NFL Player Carl Nassib

ABSTRACT

This researched examined mainstream media framing of Carl Nassib becoming the first active, established NFL player to come out as gay. Purpose: Media have historically framed the NFL as a rugged, masculine sport, but media have also been supportive of the few former professional athletes who came out as gay or bisexual. This study examined how media framed an active gay athlete in what is construed as the United States’ most masculine sport. Methods: A textual analysis was conducted to examine media framing of Nassib and his coming out in articles published in the five most popular sport-focused U.S. websites over a two-week period following his announcement. Theories on masculinity were used to guide the study. Results: Four primary themes emerged from the data, most of which showed media were very supportive of Nassib publicly coming out and hailed it as a watershed moment in American sport. Conclusions: Media were supportive of an openly gay player and contended football was ready for this announcement. Applications in Sport: Media will be supportive of the vast majority of openly gay athletes who use sport as a platform to reveal their sexual orientation, and thus coaches and sport organizations should not fear players coming out.

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The Influence of COVID-19 Upon Perceptions Of Parent Identity and Role Among Youth Sport Spectators

April 1st, 2022|Research, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|

Authors: Jerry F. Reynolds II, Kristin E. Trainor, and Matt Moore

Department of Social Work,  Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA

Corresponding Author:
Jerry F. Reynolds II, PhD, LMSW
1613 W. Riverside Ave
Muncie, IN 47304
jfreynolds@bsu.edu
765-285-1015

Jerry F. Reynolds II, PhD, LMSW is an Assistant Professor of Social Work at Ball State University in Muncie, IN. His research interests focus on family dynamics and parenting experiences in youth sport settings.

Kristin E. Trainor, PhD, LCSW is an Assistant Professor of Social Work at Ball State University.  Her research areas of interest include exploration of family dynamics and barriers to service provision in therapeutic settings.

Matt E. Moore is Chair and Associate Professor of Social Work at Ball State University. His research focuses upon the integration of social work principles in sport-based settings.

The Influence of COVID-19 Upon Perceptions of Parent Identity and Role Among Youth Sport Spectators

ABSTRACT

Parent experiences in youth sport settings during the COVID-19 pandemic are a notable and understudied phenomenon. Parents had varied experiences as a result of safety mandates and protocols that limited physical presence and engagement in their child’s sports activities. These limitations proved to be an emotional challenge for parents – balancing the responsibilities of protecting the safety of their families and providing sports experiences to promote both normalcy and acquire the life skills gained from sports participation in a fluid environment. In some instances, parents engaged in virtual spectating experiences which sought to minimize physical risks associated with COVID-19, but also did not require their physical presence to participate. Research on the virtual experience of parents is novel and from a sample of 112 parents across youth sport sectors in 18 states   how the spectating modality influenced parental roles and identities was examined. Virtual spectating experiences reflected many challenges for parents, but also prompted much gratitude for allowing continued engagement in their child’s sports activities. This exploratory research prompts larger questions urging sport-based professionals to examine the influences of spectating modalities on experiences of parents. The authors captured retrospective parent reactions to their personal spectating experience and generated a grounded theory diagram to demonstrate relationships between factors shaping the parent identity and role in this context. Implications for sport-based professionals are discussed.

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Changes in Vertical Jump Height and Sprint Time During a Congested Match Schedule in Youth Female Soccer Players

March 11th, 2022|Research, Sports Management|

Authors: Joanne Spalding¹, Andrew R. Dotterweich², Jeremy Gentles², Brandi Eveland-Sayers², Adam L. Sayers²

¹Department of Health & Human Performance, Milledgeville, United States of America
²Department of Sport, Exercise, Recreation, and Kinesiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, United States of America

Corresponding Author:
Andrew R. Dotterweich
East Tennessee State University
Department of Sport, Exercise, Recreation and Kinesiology
P.O. Box 70671
Johnson City, TN 37614
O: 423-439-5261
F: 423-439-5383
dotterwa@etsu.edu

Andy R. Dotterweich, PhD, is a Professor of Exercise Science at East Tennessee State University.  His research interests include youth sport, recreation management and policy, physical activity, long-term athlete development and community development.

Joanne Spalding, PhD, is a lecturer in Exercise Science at Georgia College and State University. Her research interests include long term athletic development and monitoring at the club, high school, and college level.

Jeremy Gentles, PhD is an Associate Professor of Sport Science and Coach Education at East Tennessee State University in Johnson City, TN. His research interests include long term athlete monitoring, biochemical responses to exercise and sport technology.

Brandi Eveland-Sayers, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Exercise Science at East Tennessee State University. Her research interests include physical literacy, exercise adherence in youth, and long term athlete development.

Adam L. Sayers, PhD, is a faculty member in Global Sport Leadership at East Tennessee State University. He is also a network professional sport scientist for the United States Soccer Federation Youth Women’s National Teams, and a national instructor for USSF Coach Education.

Changes in Vertical Jump Height and Sprint Time During a Congested Match Schedule in Youth Female Soccer Players

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine changes in jump height and sprint time and to assess the relationship between relative changes in jump height and accumulated training load during a congested match schedule in youth female soccer players. Methods: This study included data from 14 youth female soccer players who performed countermovement jump testing pre- and post-match, post-tournament, as well as sprint testing pre- and post-tournament. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to compare changes in jump height over the course of the tournament. A paired sample t-test was performed to compare sprint time between pre- and post-tournament, and Pearson product moment correlations were used to determine the relationship between percent change in jump height and accumulated training load. Results: Jump height decreased significantly (p < 0.001) between time periods during the tournament, and sprint time increased significantly (p = 0.001). There was no significant relationship between percent change in jump height and accumulated training load. Conclusion: This study found that jump height decreased over the course of the tournament and there was a significant increase in sprint time from pre- to post-tournament. Applications in Sport: These results suggest that appropriate recovery strategies and training are needed to assist players in coping with the demands of a congested youth soccer schedule.

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Relationships Between BMI and Self-Perception of Adequacy in and Enjoyment of Physical Activity in Youth Following a Physical Literacy Intervention

March 11th, 2022|General, Sports Health & Fitness|

Authors: Brandi M. Eveland-Sayers1, Andy R. Dotterweich1, Alyson J. Chroust2, Abigail D. Daugherty3, and Kara L. Boynewicz4

1Department of Sport, Exercise, Recreation & Kinesiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee
2 Department of Psychology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee
3Department of Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport Studies, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 
4Physical Therapy Program, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee

Corresponding Author:
Andy R. Dotterweich
ETSU
Sport, Exercise, Recreation and Kinesiology
PO Box 70671
Johnson City, TN 37601
423-439-5261
dotterwa@etsu.edu

Brandi Eveland-Sayers is an Associate Professor of Exercise Science at East Tennessee State University. Her research interests include physical literacy, exercise adherence in youth, and long-term athlete development.

Andy R. Dotterweich is a Professor of Exercise Science at East Tennessee State University.  His research interests include youth sport, recreation management and policy, physical activity, long-term athlete development, and community development.

Alyson Chroust is an Assistant Professor in the Psychology Department at East Tennessee State University. Her research interests include infant and child development and visual cognition. Abigail Daugherty is a graduate student in Sport Psychology and Motor Behavior at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville. Her research interests include the fidelity of virtual reality in a military training environment and long-term athlete development. Her professional interests include becoming a mental resilience trainer-performance expert within a tactical population.

Kara Boynewicz is an Assistant Professor in the Physical Therapy Department at East Tennessee State University.  She is a board certified pediatric physical therapy specialist with clinical experience of infants and children in a variety of settings including school, outpatient, and hospital.  Her research interests include early identification of children who are “at risk” for adverse childhood development, specifically in the realm of gross motor development and skill acquisition.

Relationships Between BMI and Self-Perception of Adequacy in and Enjoyment of Physical Activity in Youth Following a Physical Literacy Intervention 

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and self-perception of adequacy in and enjoyment of physical activity in youth following implementation of a six-week physical literacy (PL) intervention. Methods: Students (n=92) in grades 2-5 completed the Children’s Self-Perceptions of Adequacy and Predilection for Physical Activity (CSAPPA) scale pre- and post-PL intervention. The PL intervention program consisted of a weekly, 30-minute program conducted by trained individuals during the school day. This program focused on the mechanics of running, jumping, and throwing. Height and weight were measured pre-intervention to calculate BMI using the Center for Disease Control’s Youth and Teen calculator. Results: A significant interaction between CSAPPA score and BMI category was found, F(1, 82) = 4.948, p < 0.05). Students in the abnormal BMI category post-PL intervention CSAPPA scores were higher than their pre-PL scores. Conclusion: Based on the results, PL programming seems favorable in improving self-perception of physical activity selection in children with abnormal BMIs. Previous research has shown that students who do not feel confident performing a task are less likely to participate. Following the trend of decreased exposure to physical activity during school, it is possible that students with unhealthy BMIs are not getting proper exposure to the mechanics of movement. This scenario may lead to less physical activity participation and increases in unhealthy BMI ranges. Applications in Sport Fitness and Health: By teaching children that they can move proficiently, children may increase self-perceptions of physical activity and make more active choices which may attenuate increasing BMI trends and lead to future sport participation.

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