Latest Articles

Kinetics and Kinematics of Commonly Used Quarterback Throwing Approaches – A Case Study

December 11th, 2020|Sports Health & Fitness|

Authors: Dimitrije Cabarkapa 1, Andrew C. Fry 1, and Eric M. Mosier 2

1Jayhawk Athletic Performance Laboratory, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA
2 Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, MO, USA

Corresponding Author:
Dimitrije Cabarkapa, MS, CSCS, NSCA-CPT, USAW
Jayhawk Athletic Performance Laboratory
University of Kansas
1301 Sunnyside Avenue, Lawrence, KS 66047
dcabarkapa@ku.edu
785-864-5552

Kinetics and Kinematics of Commonly Used Quarterback Throwing Approaches – A Case Study

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to analyze kinetic and kinematic components for six of the most commonly used quarterback drop throwing patterns and determine how further performance improvements can be made. One male right-handed quarterback athlete volunteered to perform multiple repetitions of the six most commonly used right-handed drop throwing approaches: standing still and throw (SST), one-step left-right (1SLR), one-step right-left (1SRL), three-step straight ahead (3SSA), three-step shot gun (3SSG), and five-step throw (5ST). Kinetic data was collected with a uniaxial force plate while kinematic data was captured with high definition cameras. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine the differences between the six throwing approaches for the kinetic and kinematic variables examined in this study. The statistical significance level was set a priori to p<0.05. Peak right leg force demonstrated significantly lower magnitudes for 1SRL when compared to 1SLR, 3SSG, and 5ST. Peak left leg force for the 3SSA was lower when compared to 1SRL and 1SLR. Throw arm elbow angle was greater for SST when compared to all other throwing approaches. No difference was observed for ball speed, non-throw arm elbow angle, front leg knee angle, and back leg knee angle between any of the examined throwing approaches. Our results indicate that the majority of ground reaction force production required for an optimal quarterback throwing motion comes from the rear leg, and the magnitudes may reach three times bodyweight forces. Ground reaction forces may be enhanced with a greater number of drop steps, which may ultimately increase quarterback throwing distance. Greater throwing arm elbow extension may be induced as biomechanical adjustment due to lack of force production caused by the inability of the quarterback to take a greater number of drop steps.

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Testing the predictive validity of combine tests among junior elite football players: an 8-yr follow-up

December 8th, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|

Authors: Pierre-Luc Yao1, Vincent Huard Pelletier1, and Jean Lemoyne1

1 Department of Human Kinetics, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, QC, Canada

Corresponding Author:
Pierre-Luc Yao, PhD
3351 Boulevard des Forges
Trois-Rivières, QC, Canada, G8Z 4M3
Pierre-Luc.Yao@uqtr.ca
819 376-5011, ext. 3793

Pierre-Luc Yao, PhD a lecturer and internship coordinator in the Department of Human Kinetics at Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières in Trois-Rivières, Québec. His research interests include psychometrics, sport retirement impacts and athlete development.

Vincent Huard Pelletier, MSc, PhD(c) is currently a doctoral student at Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières. Vincent research interest include athlete development, physical activity behavior amongst athletes.

Jean Lemoyne is professor of physical education in the Department of Human Kinetics at the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières. His research interests are practice of sport amongst teens and young adults, performance evaluation in sports, advanced statistics in sports.

Testing the predictive validity of combine tests among junior elite football players: an 8-yr follow-up

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship and contribution of physical performance test results on the final selection of an elite under-18 football selection camp. Methods: Data were drawn from 2 876 players divided into seven position groups (DB, DL, OL, LB, QB, RB, and WR) collected over an 8-year span. Players’ evaluations included performance tests (10-yd dash, 20-yd dash, 40-yd dash, 20-yd pro agility shuttle, 3-cone drill, broad jump, vertical jump, power max test) and anthropometric measures (height and weight). Student t tests were calculated for selected and non-selected groups for all positions. Results: Mean comparisons showed that for most measures, selected players obtained significantly better results than non-selected players. Linear regression models were generated for all groups, and every position was found to have its own unique prediction model. The best models were those of the DL (R2 = 0.222), OL (R2 = 0.207) and LB (R2 = 0.204), and the overall explained variance for each model was considered low (R2 = 0.173). Weight, height and 40-yd dash were the most predominant factors in all models. Conclusion: Individually, selection camp results effectively discriminate between selected and non-selected players; together, however, they explain only a limited part of the final selection for each position. Applications in sport: These results suggest that the predictive capacity of the football combine could be improved in terms of the selection of elite football players.

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Student Success: An Exploratory Examination About Male Athletes Perceptions of Coaching Behaviors in Middle School

December 4th, 2020|Research, Sports Coaching|

Authors: Tucker, Raymond & Black, Willie

Corresponding Author:
Raymond Tucker, D.S.M., CFSC, CSCS * D, CSAC, FMS, USATF, USAW
Assistant Professor of Kinesiology
University of Houston at Victoria
3007 N. Ben Wilson
Victoria, Texas 77901
Phone: (361)-570-4381
TuckerR1@uhv.edu

Raymond Tucker, D.S.M., CFSC, CSCS*D, CSAC, USATF, USAW is an Assistant Professor of Kinesiology at the University of Houston in Victoria, Texas. His research interests focus on leadership and coaching, and program design to improve athletic performance.

Willie J. Black, Jr. Ed.D.  is an Assistant Professor of Kinesiology at the University of Houston in Victoria, Texas. His research interests focus on leadership, physical education pedagogy, and social justice in physical education.

Student Success:  An Exploratory Examination About Male Athletes Perceptions of Coaching Behaviors in Middle School

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate male athletes’ perception of the behavior exhibited by coaches in the treatment of their athletes. Data was collected using the Leadership Scale for Sports consisting of forty items describing a specific behavior a coach could exhibit based on the five dimensions of leadership, which are autocratic, democratic, positive feedback, social support, and training and instruction. This study compares (total N = 170) 8th-grademale athletes who participated in team sports at the same middle school. Results of the Friedman test rank the values in the following order democratic 3.93, autocratic 3.65, social support 3.59, positive feedback 1.94, training and instruction 1.89. The results of the Friedman show there was a statistically significant difference in at least one of the five dimensions of leadership. A series of pairwise comparisons to pinpoint where the differences lie was conducted by performing a series of Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test using a Bonferroni adjustment to the p-value. Because we made 10 comparisons, we need to divide 0.05/10 = 0.005. Results of the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test show a statistically significant difference at the 0.005 level between democratic, training instruction, autocratic, training instruction, social support, training instruction, positive feedback, democratic behavior, positive feedback, autocratic behavior, and positive feedback, social support. For this study, the researcher will be focusing on democratic, training instruction, autocratic, training instruction, social support, training instruction. Results of the data display 8th-grademale athletes perceive their coaches to emphasize the (LSS) dimensions of democratic, autocratic, and social support, compared to training and instruction. This study does not conclude which behavior styles of leadership are superior to the success of participating in a middle school athletic program. What follows is the basis for this study, procedures used to conduct the research, an analysis of the data, conclusions, application in sport, and finally, recommendations for further research on this topic.

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A Review of Student-Athlete Responses to Team Sport Eliminations by NCAA Division I Schools

December 1st, 2020|Research, Sports Management|

Authors:  Mark Mitchell and Rob Montgomery

Corresponding Author:
Mark Mitchell, DBA
Professor of Marketing
Associate Dean, Wall College of Business
NCAA Faculty Athletics Representative (FAR)
Coastal Carolina University
P. O. Box 261954
Conway, SC  29528
mmitchel@coastal.edu
(843) 349-2392

Mark Mitchell, DBA is Professor of Marketing at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, SC.
Rob Montgomery, DBA is Professor of Marketing at the University of Evansville (IN).

A Review of Student-Athlete Responses to Team Sport Eliminations by NCAA Division I Schools

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted the budgets of college athletic departments at all levels.  In response, some institutions have elected to eliminate specific team sports.  This study examines how student-athletes respond when their schools announce the intent to eliminate their sports.  The NCAA transfer portal can be used to identify the responses of affected student-athletes.  For the team eliminations made in Spring/Summer 2020, the affected student-athletes tended to enter the NCAA transfer portal to attempt to find a new school to meet their athletic and academic goals. The actions were taken even though most schools announce the intent to honor the scholarships of affected student-athletes even with the elimination of their sports.  Over 40% of NCAA Division I and II student-athletes receive partial or no athletic aid. These students are paying tuition and fees while competing in their sports.  As schools study the possible elimination of team sports, they must be mindful to consider the total cost of eliminating a sport and not simply the reduction in the athletic budget.  The presence of partial scholarships may make it advantageous to continue such sports to retain those student-athletes and the tuition and fees they pay.

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Who Are the Undergraduate Equestrians in the Intercollegiate Horseshows Association, and What Are Their Lifestyle Habits?

November 27th, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|

Authors: Jessie Bitler, Amanda J. Sandroni, Shelby Yeager, Helen Batisti, Diane M. DellaValle*

Nutrition, Athletic Training and Exercise Science Department (NATES), Marywood University, Scranton, PA, USA

Corresponding Author:
Diane M. DellaValle, PhD, RDN, LDN
Marywood University
2300 Adams Ave
Scranton, PA 18509
Ph: 570-348-6211
Fax: 570-340-6029
Email: ddellavalle@marywood.edu

Jessie M. Bitler, MS was a graduate student at the time this study was conducted, and this was her thesis research.

Amanda J. Sandroni is a graduate student and dietetic intern at Marywood University. Her research interests focus on food allergies and intuitive eating in college students.

Shelby W. Yeager MEd, ATC, LAT, FMSC, NASM-CPT, PES, CES is an Associate Clinical Professor of Exercise Science and Athletic Training at Marywood University. Her interests focus on functional movement screening and injury prevention in athletes.

Helen E. Battisti, PhD, RDN, CDN was an Assistant Professor of Nutrition at the time this study was conducted. Her research interests include the use of the horse in psychosocial therapy.

Diane M. DellaValle, PhD, RDN, LDN is an Associate Professor of Nutrition. Her research interests include improving nutrition status and performance of collegiate athletes.

Who Are the Undergraduate Equestrians in the Intercollegiate Horseshows Association, and What Are Their Lifestyle Habits?

ABSTRACT

As there is currently little research available on collegiate equestrians, the purpose of the current study was to describe the health and lifestyle habits of undergraduate members of the Intercollegiate Horseshows Association (IHSA). This cross-sectional study consisted of an online survey of demographic, riding, health, and academic characteristics. Participants (n=528, 20.3±1.4 years old, 96% female, 91.7% white; BMI 23.2±3.7 kg/m2) reported 11.7±4.5 years of riding experience. Most reported very little to no alcohol consumption, and not smoking. Eighty-three percent reported 1-3 servings/day of both fruits and vegetables, and 84.6% reported sleeping 6-8 h/night. GPA was negatively related to the number of naps reported (r=-0.19, p<0.001), and alcohol servings (r=-0.15, p=0.001). Work hours per week was negatively related to hours of sleep per night (r=-0.14, p=0.006), and positively related to alcohol servings (r=0.12, p=0.03). Greater physical activity (PA) time within sport was related to more experience (r=0.13, p=0.003), horse ownership (r=0.30, p<0.001), greater vigorous PA time outside of sport (r=0.25, p<0.001), and more fruit consumed per day (r=0.16, p<0.001). While our results did show that these equestrians engaged in healthy lifestyle habits, we found that taking more naps and drinking more alcohol were both negatively related to student GPA, and that working more hours was negatively related to hours of sleep per night and was positively related to drinking more alcohol. It is important to describe the characteristics of this group due to their uniqueness in order for College and University Services to develop health and nutrition programs appropriate to serve their unique needs.

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