Latest Articles

Monitoring cardiac autonomic function and sleep duration in NCAA Division I football players during preseason and in-season using wearable tracking devices

March 19th, 2021|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|

Authors: Portia Resnick1, Davis Hale2, Roger Kollock2, Tori Stafford2, Erich Anthony3

1Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA
2Oxley College of Health Sciences, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK
3Department of Athletics, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK

Corresponding Author:
Portia B. Resnick, PhD, ATC, BCTMB
California State University, Long Beach
Department of Kinesiology
1250 Bellflower Boulevard
Long Beach, CA 90840
Portia.resnick@csulb.edu
908-812-9320

Portia Resnick is an assistant professor at California State University, Long Beach

Monitoring cardiac autonomic function and sleep duration in NCAA Division I football players during preseason and in-season using wearable tracking devices

ABSTRACT

Sleep duration (SD) is critical for exercise recovery, however collegiate student athletes are typically sleep deprived secondary to early morning workouts, class responsibilities, late day competitions, and travel.  As such, cardiovascular autonomic function (CAF), measured via heart rate variability (HRV) and resting heart rate (RHR), can help monitor athlete recovery.  PURPOSE:  The purpose of this study was to compare two six-week periods, preseason and in-season, on HRV, RHR, and SD in college football players.  METHODS:  Eight malecollege football players were fitted with WHOOP® wearable activity/recovery tracking devices that use photoplethysmography and accelerometry to determine HRV (RMSSD), RHR (bpm), and SD (hrs/day).  The devices were worn 24 hours a day over two six-weeks data collection periods during which the athletes participated in their normal day-to-day preseason conditioning and in-season practice sessions.  RESULTS:  A series of three, paired sample t-tests were performed to compare HRV, RHR, and SD between pooled data from preseason and in-season, reflecting the changes of the group and not the change of any individual participant.  Both HRV (preseason =100 ± 35 ms, in-season = 82 ± 34 ms, p = 0.002) and SD (preseason = 4.55 ± 1.49 hrs/day, in-season = 5.33 ± 1.55 hrs/day, p = 0.002) were different between the two six-week periods while RHR was not different (preseason = 56 ± 6 bpm, in-season = 58 ± 6 bpm, p = 0.201).  CONCLUSIONS: Athletes had higher HRV during the preseason period, indicative of greater parasympathetic activity, and had increased SD during the in-season period; however, RHR did not differ.  APPLICATIONS IN SPORT:  The examination of HRV, RHR, and SD during various periods of conditioning in collegiate football players found differences that could not be explained and therefore warrants further research.   

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You play like a girl? Gender and image in high school yearbooks

March 12th, 2021|Research, Sports Management|

Author: Heather Van Mullem1

1Division of Movement and Sport Sciences, Lewis-Clark State College, Lewiston, ID, USA

Corresponding Author:
Heather Van Mullem, PhD
500 8th Avenue
Lewiston, ID 83501
hivanmullem@lcsc.edu
208-792-2781

Heather Van Mullem, PhD is a Professor of Kinesiology and Health at Lewis-Clark State College in Lewiston, ID. Her research interests focus on gender issues in sport, specifically representations of female athletes in the media.

You play like a girl? Gender and image in high school yearbooks

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to explore how male and female student-athletes were portrayed in images included in two high school’s yearbooks published between 1920-2020. Photos in yearbooks, gathered from the high schools and a community library, were analyzed for their presentation of athletic competence, using presence on court, in uniform, and in action shots as indicators (2). In images of one person, males (M = 3.750, SD = 7.776) were statistically portrayed in passive shots more often than females (M = 2.030, SD = 3.724); t (2,913) = 6.335, p = .000. In comparison, females (M = 5.260, SD = 10.412) were statistically portrayed in active shots more often than males (M = 4.440, SD = 8.646); t (4,722) = -2.946, p = .003. Males (M = 7.550, SD = 11.094) were also statistically portrayed in uniform more often than females (M = 6.810, SD = 10.974); t (7,083) = 2.791, p = .005. Finally, males (M = 1.720, SD = 5.029) were statistically portrayed more often off court than females (M = 1.100, SD = 2.729); t (1,417) = 2.512, p = .012. In comparison, in images of two or more people, males (M = 6.400, SD = 9.589) were statistically portrayed in active shots more often than females (M = 4.640, SD = 7.852); t (6,190) = 7.544, p = .000. Males (M = 8.800, SD = 11.807) and were also statistically portrayed on court more often than females (M = 6.960, SD = 10.704); t (8,818) = 7.478, p = .000. In contrast, females (M = 1.350, SD = 1.989) were statistically portrayed off court more often than males (M = 1.070, SD = 1.763); t (1,329) = -2.705, p = .007. Finally, males (M = 9.570, SD = 12.410) were statistically more likely to be portrayed in uniform when compared to females (M = 8.000, SD = 11.516); t (9,814) = 6.385, p = .000. This study’s findings are, overall, consistent with previous research which indicates that male athletes, when compared to female athletes, are more commonly presented as competent athletes. Athletic and yearbook administrators should ensure the quantity, quality, and type of yearbook photos reflect both the season of competition but also the true athletic competence of the competitors.

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Increased Identification of Concussions in High School Wrestlers after Rule Change

March 5th, 2021|Sports Medicine|

Authors: Luis Gude, MD, Gillian Hotz, PHD

Corresponding Author:
Gillian Hotz Ph.D
Lois Pope LIFE Center – 1-40, (R-48)
1095 NW 14th Terrace
Miami, Florida 33136.
ghotz@med.miami.edu
305-243-4004

Gillian A. Hotz, PhD is a research professor at the University Of Miami Miller School Of Medicine and a nationally recognized behavioral neuroscientist and expert in pediatric and adult neurotrauma, concussion management, and neurorehabilitation.

Dr. Hotz is the director of the KiDZ Neuroscience Center, WalkSafe, BikeSafe, and SkateSafe programs, and has been co-director of the Miller School of Medicine’s Concussion Program since 1995. She continues to assess and treat many athletes from Miami-Dade County public and private high schools, the University of Miami, and from other colleges and the community.

Increased Identification of Concussions in High School Wrestlers after Rule Change

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to report on concussions identified in high school wrestlers, and to compare the number of injuries before and after the National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) enacted a rule change prior to the start of the 2019-20 season that increased the amount of time that an appropriate health-care professional may use to evaluate for a suspected sport related concussion (SRC) from 30 seconds to 5 minutes during competition.

Methods: The subjects of this study were wrestlers from Miami Dade County public high schools who sustained a sports related concussion from August 2017 to March 2020, identified from the Miami Concussion Model Concussion Injury Surveillance System. The database is compiled from reports submitted by certified athletic trainers after a suspected concussion, post-injury ImPACT tests, and from patients who presented to the University of Miami Sports Concussion Clinic for evaluation.

Results: A total of 37 wrestlers were identified. The 2019-20 academic year accounted for the greatest number of injuries (17, 46%), including the highest number of injuries identified that occurred during competition and practice compared to previous years.

Conclusions: The increase in identified concussions in wrestlers in the 2019-20 season is likely multifactorial given increased knowledge, education, and training on SRC that is targeted to athletes, parents, coaches, and athletic trainers. The increase in the number of injuries identified during competition is also likely attributable to the rule change instituted by the NFHS prior to the start of the 2019-20 season.

Applications in Sport: It is important to identify sport related concussions when they occur so that these athletes may seek treatment and obtain proper clearance prior to return to play, which may decrease the risk of subsequent SRC and long-term sequelae of mild traumatic brain injuries. Our findings support the rule change instituted by the NFHS prior to the start of the 2019-20 season as this increased the amount of time that an appropriate health-care professional may use to evaluate for a suspected SRC and likely contributed to an increase in the number of SRC identified in wrestlers during competition.

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Qualitative exploration of health and well-being perceptions of swim coaches

February 26th, 2021|Sports Coaching|

Authors: Krista M. Kezbers1, 2,*, Bridget M. Miller1, and Jamie C. Clark3

1School of Community Health Sciences, Counseling and Counseling Psychology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA
2School of Community Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Tulsa, OK, USA
3School of Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA

*The primary author completed this work while affiliated with Oklahoma State University. The primary author is now affiliated with the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center.

Corresponding Author:
Krista M. Kezbers, PhD, DipACLM, ACSM-CPT, ACSM-EIM
4502 E. 41st Street
Tulsa, OK, 74135
krista-kezbers@ouhsc.edu
405-519-1050

Krista M. Kezbers, PhD, DipACLM, ACSM-CPT, ACSM-EIM is a Research Associate in the School of Community Medicine at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center in Tulsa, OK. Her research interests focus on the health and well-being of sports coaches, lifestyle medicine, and exercise is medicine. Krista has over 10 years of swim coaching experience ranging from high school teams to national-level club teams and athletes.

Bridget M. Miller, PhD is an Associate Professor, Joan Donelson Jacques Endowed Professor of Health Promotion, and Health Education and Promotion Program Direction at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, OK. Her research interests include: the prevention of obesity and other chronic diseases through the promotion of physical activity and the cognitive mediators within the exercise-mood relationship.   

Jamie C. Clark, MS has a master’s degree in Exercise Science and at the time of the study was a PhD student in Health and Human Performance at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, OK. Her research interest includes sport burnout, post-collegiate transition and sport support relationships with parents and coaches. Jamie has over 10 years of volleyball coaching experience.

Qualitative exploration of health and well-being perceptions of swim coaches

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The sports coach profession encompasses many non-traditional working characteristics, such as early morning and late evening hours. Literature regarding the health and well-being of sports coaches has been mostly limited to psychological components, such as stress and burnout, but little has focused on the physical health of coaches. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences on health and well-being within the coaching profession. Methods: A qualitative interpretative phenomenological analysis approach was used for this study. Six focus groups were conducted at a swim conference using a semi-structured question guide. Transcriptions of each focus group were used by a 3-person research team to individually code salient words and phrases. Researchers met to reconcile codes and determine themes. Results: Twenty-three swim coaches, mostly male (73.9%), participated in the focus groups. From the data, six themes were identified: 1) Health and well-being definitions, 2) Former athlete transition to coaching, 3) Coaching challenges, 4) Health correlates, 5) Healthy eating barriers, and 6) Reasons for coaching. Conclusions: Coaches identified a number of different components of the profession that impact health and well-being and potentially increase health risks. Of emphasis was the steady

decline in health experienced by athletes as they leave their sports and enter the coaching world. Despite the many challenges that coaching poses, coaches expressed a deep love for their profession. Applications in Sport: This research provides important information for those considering a career in coaching and the impacts, both positive and negative, on their health and well-being. Coaches, teams, and organizations can explore this data for future points of intervention and areas to provide training and education to coaches, not only improve their health and well-being, but also to minimize any potential negative aspects of the coaching profession.

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The Identification of Potential Risk Factors of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury among the Military Paratrooper and a Potential Intervention Strategy

February 19th, 2021|Sports Health & Fitness|

Authors: Alexander T. McDaniel and Lindsey H. Schroeder
School of Health and Applied Human Sciences, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, NC, USA

Corresponding Author:
Lindsey H. Schroeder, Ed.D., LAT, ATC, CES
601 S. College Dr.
Wilmington, NC 28403-5956
schroederl@uncw.edu
910-962-7188

Alexander T. McDaniel, DHSc, LAT, ATC, CSCS is an Assistant Professor of Exercise Science in the School of Health and Applied Human Sciences at the University of North Carolina Wilmington in Wilmington, NC. His research interests focus on primary prevention strategies for mild traumatic brain injury among military and athletic populations as well as the reduction of stress, anxiety, and depression in various demographic populations through functional training.

Lindsey H. Schroeder, Ed.D., LAT, ATC, CES is an Assistant Professor of Athletic Training in the School of Health and Applied Human Sciences at the University of North Carolina Wilmington in Wilmington, NC. In addition to concussion and mild traumatic brain injury research, her research interests also focus on work-life balance, job satisfaction, and retention issues in athletic training. Dr. Schroeder is an alumnus of the United States Sports Academy.

Clinical Review: The Identification of Potential Risk Factors of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury among the Military Paratrooper and a Potential Intervention Strategy

ABSTRACT

For combat readiness, active duty United States military service members have high physical fitness demands placed on them that rival even the most well-trained athletes.  The key to maintaining a high level of performance is to prevent common injuries.  The purpose of this manuscript is to increase awareness regarding mild traumatic brain injury due to parachute landing and identify a neck strengthening intervention to potentially reduce the risk of injury. The review of literature will provide information regarding the pathophysiology of a mild traumatic brain injury from parachute landing, provide an in-depth review of the anatomy of cervical spine musculature, and the biomechanics of how force is attenuated during a whiplash effect upon impact on the head or body. A review of potential strengthening techniques and the muscles to be targeted is indicated as well as a discussion of potential intervention protocols aimed at the reeducation of mild traumatic brain injury risk from parachute landing.   

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