Latest Articles

Controlled but Autonomous: An examination of autonomy deficit in the pursuit of practice in sport

November 10th, 2020|General, Research|

Authors: Joar Svensson1 and Scott Barnicle2

1Department of Sport Science, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden
2College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV

Corresponding Author:
Scott Barnicle, PhD, CMPC
WVU – College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences
375 Birch Street
Morgantown, WV, 26505

Joar Svensson is a graduate student in sport and exercise psychology at Halmstad University in Halmstad, Sweden. His primary research interest is in self-determination theory and is continuing to expand his research interests as part of his graduate work.

Scott Barnicle, PhD, CMPC, is the program coordinator and teaching assistant professor in the Sport and Exercise Psychology program at West Virginia University. His research interests are in the areas of sport enjoyment, applied mental skills training, and teaching methods in the field of sport and exercise psychology.

Controlled but Autonomous: An examination of autonomy deficit in the pursuit of practice in sport


Self-determination theory posits three basic psychological needs, competence, relatedness, and autonomy (6). Autonomy is defined as being the perceived origin or source of one’s own behavior (2). The limits of this perception have not yet been tested. The current study set out to investigate whether athletes could be controlled while still feeling autonomous. A questionnaire about level of control and perception of autonomy was created. Participants were recruited (N=39) and answered the questionnaire. Results indicated that level of control over the sport and autonomy was significantly negatively correlated whereas control over practice and autonomy had no significant correlation. Athletes in controlling sports could therefore need extra autonomy support to satisfy their needs. As no significant correlations were found between control over practice and autonomy, practice sessions could possibly be very controlling without any major ramifications. The factors influencing this relationship need further investigation in differing sports and populations.


How They Play: Studying a Pick-Up Basketball Game

November 6th, 2020|Sports Health & Fitness|

Authors: Diane Ketelle1, Lucas Ketelle2

1School of Education, Mills College, Oakland, CA
2Professional freelance sports writer

Corresponding Author:
Diane Ketelle
395 Camelback Rd #22
Pleasant Hill, CA 94523

Diane Ketelle, D.P.A., is a Professor Emerita of Educational Leadership at Mills College.  Her research focuses on leadership studies and narrative inquiry. She has conducted many large scale story projects including a three year project at San Quentin State Prison that supported students in writing stories from their lives.

Lucas Ketelle, Ed.D., is a professional sports writer who covers primarily amateur and professional boxing.  He is the Editor in Chief of Inside the Ropes.

How They Play: A Study of a Pick-Up basketball Game


This two month study focused on a community pick-up basketball game that brought a group of strangers together weekly to play ball and recreate.  The game provided a safe place to create belonging and the group formed a sense of community and kinship through this activity.


The R.I.C.E Protocol is a MYTH: A Review and Recommendations

October 30th, 2020|Sports Medicine|

Authors: Domenic Scialoia & Adam J. Swartzendruber

Corresponding Author:
Domenic Scialoia
Saint Joseph’s College of Maine
278 Whites Bridge Road 
Standish, ME 04084
Phone: 617-922-0309

Domenic Scialoia is a recent graduate of Saint Joseph’s College of Maine, where he obtained a Bachelor of Science in Exercise Science with concentrations in Pre- Physical Therapy and Sport Performance.

Adam J. Swartzendruber is an Assistant Professor of Sport and Exercise Science at Saint Joseph’s College of Maine.

The R.I.C.E Protocol is a MYTH: A Review and Recommendations


The RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation) protocol has been the preferred method of treatment for acute musculoskeletal injuries since its origin in a 1978 publication entitled “Sports Medicine Book” by Dr. Gabe Mirkin.  These guidelines have been used by coaches and healthcare providers for over four decades with the intent of expediting the recovery process and reducing inflammation.  Although popular, the implementation of this protocol to attenuate the recovery process is unsubstantiated.  There is, however, an abundance of research that collectively supports the notion that ice and rest does not enhance the recovery process, but instead delays recovery, and may result in further damage to the tissue. Research in regard to compression and elevation is inconclusive, diluted and largely anecdotal.  Definitive guidelines for their application have yet to be purported.  As a result of the subsequent research that examined the validity of the protocol, Dr. Mirkin recanted his original position on the protocol in 2015.  The objective of this article is to analyze the available evidence within the research literature to elucidate why the RICE protocol is not a credible method for enhancing the recovery process of acute musculoskeletal injuries.  In addition, evidence- based alternatives to the protocol will be examined.  These findings are important to consider and should be utilized by any healthcare professional; specifically, those who specialize in the facilitation of optimal recovery, as well as those who teach in health-related disciplines in higher education.


Assessment of readiness of Lebanese Gyms and Sport Facilities according to ISO-97.220 – Sports equipment and facilities

October 23rd, 2020|Research, Sports Management|

Authors: Siham El Rafei1, Mohammad Nassereddine 2, Ali Hammoud 3, Adel Olleik4
1,2,3 Faculty of Sciences, Lebanese University, Beirut, LB
4GATES Company, Beirut, LB

Corresponding Author:
Siham El Rafei, MS
Lebanon- Tripoli-Tripoli- 1301

Siham El Rafei, MS, has a MS degree in Healthcare and Quality Management, and a certificate in Pilates. She is the owner of a  Pilates studio, Physiopilateslb, in Tripoli, Lebanon.

Mohammad Nasseriddine, PhD, is currently an Assistant Professor at the Lebanese University in Beirut.

Ali Hammoud, PhD, is currently an Assistant Professor at the Lebanese University in the Biomedical and Bioinformatic Department, in Beirut..

Adel Olleik, MPH, DBA, worked as a CEO, consultant, auditor, and trainer in more than 250 healthcare organizations in Lebanon. He is currently running his own consultation firm, GATES, in Beirut, LB.

Assessment of readiness of Lebanese Gyms and Sport Facilities according to ISO-97.220 – Sports equipment and facilities


It is very difficult to mitigate all the risks involved in utilizing a fitness center. For this reason, ISO-97.220 – Sports equipment and facilities established the international safety standards that should be included in the sport facilities. The purpose of this survey is to assess the degree of readiness of Lebanese gyms according to these standards.78.67% of the gyms affirmed that they used international safety standards while preparing the sport facility. Correspondingly, only 60% of the gyms have a written emergency response policy and procedure and only 66.67% of the gyms conduct a safety audit inspection. Nevertheless, 84% of them have a preventative maintenance program and 92% of them have a system for removal of damaged or broken equipment.


Pay to Play in the NCAA: A Data Driven Playbook on How to Compensate Athletes

October 16th, 2020|Contemporary Sports Issues, Research|

Author: Cameron Van, J.D.

Contributing Author:
Cameron Van, J.D.
University of California, Davis School of Law, Davis CA

400 Mrak Hall Drive, Davis, CA 95616
Phone Number: (650) 740-2235

Cameron Van is a recent UC Davis School of Law Graduate with a focus on the intersection of business and the law.


This article offers the NCAA a reputable, repeatable, and reasonable formula for a student-athlete revenue scheme that will ensure its competitive edge in an ever-encroaching market. The NCAA uses amateurism to restrict artificially the compensation of student athletes’ compensation to “cost of tuition,” at best. It is precisely this reason that more athletes are finding alternative ways to capitalize on their talents. As a result, this amateurism scheme is not Pareto Efficient. Pareto efficiency is reached when a situation cannot be modified in a way that would have one party better off without making another party worse off. Notably, Pareto efficiency does not imply equality, equity, or fairness, rather simply that there could be no economic changes that would better off the overall system. Here, this article explores a rare occurrence where the system can be made both more efficient and equal by increasing the supply of revenue generators – the athletes. This article will build upon Stocz formula for deriving a student-athlete’s salary, as well as give examples of what such a salary would look like for said athletes.