Latest Articles

Establishing Normative Reference Values for the Utah Seated Medicine Ball Throw Protocol in Adolescents

October 7th, 2022|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|

Authors: Cory Biggar, Abigail Larson, and Mark DeBeliso

Corresponding Author:

Cory Biggar
164 East 2300 North, Apt. 5
North Ogden, UT 84414
Email: corybiggar@gmail.com
801-831-1342

Cory Biggar is a student at Southern Utah University. Upon the completion of this project, he will earn an MS in Sports Conditioning and Performance.

Establishing Normative Reference Values for the Utah Seated Medicine Ball Throw Protocol in Adolescents

Abstract:

The seated medicine ball throw (SMBT) is a field test intended to assess upper-body muscular power by measuring the maximal distance an individual can throw a medicine ball from an isolated, seated position (25). The SMBT has been used to assess upper-body power in various populations and to establish concurrent validity for other measures of upper-body power such as the bench press power test and the plyometric push-up. The SMBT is less costly and simpler to incorporate into a field test battery than other upper body power assessments. While the SMBT is a valid, reliable field test for upper-body power, normative reference standards for most populations, including adolescent (12-15 years old) physical education students, do not exist. Purpose: This study reports distances thrown in the SMBT to establish normative reference values in male and female physical education students, ages 12-15 years old. Methods: One hundred thirteen untrained male and female physical education students aged 12-15 years performed the SMBT field test three times on a single testing day. Participants threw a 2 kg medicine ball with a 19.5 cm diameter while seated on the floor with the upper torso against the wall (legs extended, trunk angle 90°). Likewise, age, height, and body mass were assessed. Results: Participant data was separated by age gender for analysis. Mean and standard deviation for the SMBT for males was 4.3 ± 0.7 m and 5.2 ± 0.8 m for ages 12-13 and 14-15, respectively, and for females was 3.4 ± 0.5 m and 3.7 ± 0.5 m for ages 12-13 and 14-15, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients (i.e. PCCS or r) were calculated for trial pairs (i.e. T1 vs T2, T2 vs T3, T3 vs T1) for both female and males at age groupings of 12-13 and 14-15. The aforementioned PCCs ranged from r = 0.85-0.97. Normative reference values as percentile ranks for the SMBT scores for age groups 12-13 and 14-15 among males and females, respectively, were also established. Conclusion: The data presented provides an initial set of normative reference standards for coaches and students to determine upper-body muscular power using the SMBT.

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Injury Prevalence in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and Mitigation Strategies for Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Practitioners and Instructors: A Literature Review

September 26th, 2022|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|

Authors: Richard Segovia

Corresponding Author:

Rich Segovia, EdD, MBA, MS
Liberty University
1971 University Blvd.
Lynchburg, VA 24515
RSegovia1@liberty.edu
(512) 387-5094

Richard Segovia, Ed.D., MBA, MS is career law enforcement officer, military veteran, and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu practitioner. He is also an Academic Evaluator at the Western Governors University. His research interests focus on the utility of Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu in law enforcement and its applicability to physical and mental health, exercise, and practitioner monitoring.

Injury Prevalence in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and Mitigation Strategies for Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Practitioners and Instructors: A Literature Review

Abstract:

Purpose: This article synthesizes the peer-reviewed literature about injury prevalence in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) and strategies to mitigate injuries. It is critical to implement injury prevention initiatives necessary to reduce injury rates among BJJ students since injuries are barriers to continued training and learning. A reduction in injuries allows athletes to compete in their sports for longer periods of time and to receive its physical, psychological, and social benefits. Methods: A qualitative, narrative review was implemented. Results: This literature review analyzes BJJ’s history and its significance to combat sports and as a fighting system, along with how it shapes the lives of those who study BJJ. In addition, injury prevalence in BJJ and types of injuries are discussed in detail, including risk reduction and mitigation strategies. Conclusions: Curriculum might play a role in reducing risk and a possible nexus between how adult students learn, how instructors teach, and student injuries. Applications in Sport: The application of adult learning theory may help reduce injuries in BJJ.

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Twice as Tough: Perspectives of High School Athletic Directors Serving as Assistant Principals

September 21st, 2022|Leadership|

1Department of Educational Leadership, Ball State University

Corresponding Author:
Nicholas P. Elam, Ph.D.
Department of Educational Leadership, Ball State University
Teachers College 909
Muncie, IN 47306
npelam@bsu.edu

Nicholas P. Elam, Ph.D is an Assistant Professor of Educational Leadership at Ball State University. His research focuses on athletics leadership in school settings.

Twice as Tough: Perspectives of High School Athletic Directors Serving as Assistant Principals

ABSTRACT

Purpose – Many school districts are seeking to consolidate their administrative teams. For better or worse, some school districts are doing so by combining the titles of High School Assistant Principal (AP) and High School Athletic Director (AD), placing the demands of both roles on one individual. Extensive research exists regarding the nature of the assistant principal role, and extensive research exists regarding the nature of the athletic director role. However, little to no research exists regarding the unique nature of the dual AP/AD role. This qualitative study addresses this gap in research.

Methods – Sixteen AP/ADs from one Midwestern state participated in this study, offering candid and rich responses during a one-on-one interview lasting approximately one hour. Interview transcripts were analyzed through line-by-line open coding, followed by axial coding.

Results – From these interviews emerged six major themes: Assistant Principal/Athletic Director dual titles exist primarily as a cost-saving measure; Some see themselves as an Assistant Principal-first, others see themselves as an Athletic Director-first; Those who see themselves as an Assistant Principal-first have lower morale than those who see themselves as an Athletic Director-first; Few formal programs are in place to proactively promote academic achievement among student-athletes; AP/ADs rely heavily on their support network to navigate the mental toll and extensive time commitment; Misconceptions exist about the roles and responsibilities of assistant principals and athletic directors.

Conclusions/Applications – Findings of this study imply that AP/ADs need a new type of support, for mental health and practical purposes, that is specifically tailored and formatted for AP/ADs.

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Engaging Undergraduate Student-Athletes in Research and Publication Opportunities

September 9th, 2022|Leadership, Research, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|

Authors: Erin B. Jensen1, Desislava Yordanova, Lauren Denhard, Kira Zazzi, Jose Mejia, Timothy Shar, Julia Iseman, Tucker Hoeniges, and Madison Mitchell

1Department of English, Belmont Abbey College, Belmont, NC, USA

Corresponding Author:
Erin B. Jensen, PhD
100 Belmont-Mount Holly Road
Belmont, NC, 28210
erinjensen@bac.edu

Erin B. Jensen, PhD, is an Associate Professor of English at Belmont Abbey College in Belmont, NC.

Desislava Yordanova majored in biology and was on the Acro-tumbling team. She is in a Masters in Public Health program.

Lauren Denhard is majoring in criminal justice and minoring in writing. She is a member of the golf team.

Kira Zazzi is a marketing major and was on the cycling team.

Jose Meji is majoring in economics and finance and was on the golf team.

Timothy Shar is majoring in math and was on the soccer team.

Julia Iseman was a psychology major and a member of the triathlon team, cross-country team, and track and field team. She plans to pursue a Masters in Psychology

Tucker Hoeniges is majoring in business and is a member of the cycling team.

Madison Mitchell majored in marketing and was a member of the field hockey team.

Engaging Undergraduate Student-Athletes in Research and Publication Opportunities

ABSTRACT

Universities and colleges are increasing opportunities for undergraduate research and publication for students; less studied is how to engage and encourage student-athletes to participate in such activities. Student-athletes often do not engage in undergraduate research activities due to time constraints of practicing and competing on their respective athletic teams and their full-time enrollment in college classes. This case study focuses on the experiences of eight undergraduate student-athletes and their faculty mentor who decide to co-author an article (this specific one) about their experiences in pursuing undergraduate research and publication. Through the experience of writing this article, we argue that undergraduate student-athletes can succeed in undergraduate research and publication, but are more successful when working with a mentor. We provide suggestions for what worked best for us to be able to be involved in this project. We also discuss the benefits to our own academic achievements and our increased confidence in our writing and research skills.  

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Effects of a Token Economy on Exercise Intensity and Intrinsic Motivation

September 2nd, 2022|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|

Author: Andrew E. Alstot, Ph.D.

Department of Kinesiology, Azusa Pacific University, Azusa, CA
Orcid.org/0000-0003-0247-5600

Correspondence:
Andrew E. Alstot, Ph.D.
Department of Kinesiology
Azusa Pacific University
Physical Address: 701 E. Foothill Blvd.
Mailing Address: PO Box 7000
Azusa, CA 91702-7000
(P) 626-815-6075
aalstot@apu.edu

Andrew Alstot is an associate professor in the department of Kinesiology at Azusa Pacific University, primarily teaching in the Graduate Physical Education program. His research focus is on the use of the principles of applied behavior analysis in physical activity settings to improve exercise, skill, motivation, and social behavior. His teaching goals are to help to develop quality teachers, coaches, administrators, and other physical activity professionals to deliver research-based physical activity instruction and administration.

Effects of a Token Economy on Exercise Intensity and Intrinsic Motivation

Abstract

Purpose – Token economies, systems that use a variety of rewards to target behavior, have been shown useful in improving several physical activity-related behaviors. Yet, there is conflicting research on rewards-based systems’ impact on intrinsic motivation. When using rewards to improve behavior, it is recommended they be systematically withdrawn as time progresses. However, the effects of systems that withdraw rewards on exercise behavior and intrinsic motivation is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine the use of a token economy targeting exercise behavior and its impact on intrinsic motivation.

Methods – Participants rode a stationary bike for several baseline sessions where no rewards were administered; mean revolutions per minute (RPM) were calculated for each session. Then, participants were provided performance-based rewards on one of two schedules of reinforcement: (1) rewards were provided consistently across all token sessions or (2) rewards were systematically withdrawn with each subsequent token session. Intrinsic motivation was measured before the study and at the end of the last token session.

Results – Both rewards systems were effective in improving exercise intensity, with both groups showing distinct improvement in mean RPM during token sessions. Further, the system that withdrew rewards indicated no detriment to intrinsic motivation and for some, an improvement.

Conclusions and Applications in Sport – Fitness professionals, coaches, and educators may be able to use extrinsic rewards to improve exercise behavior and, if implemented properly, have no negative impact on their clients’, athletes’, and students’ intrinsic motivation for engaging in exercise.

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