Latest Articles

Increased Identification of Concussions in High School Wrestlers after Rule Change

March 5th, 2021|Sports Medicine|

Authors: Luis Gude, MD, Gillian Hotz, PHD

Corresponding Author:
Gillian Hotz Ph.D
Lois Pope LIFE Center – 1-40, (R-48)
1095 NW 14th Terrace
Miami, Florida 33136.
ghotz@med.miami.edu
305-243-4004

Gillian A. Hotz, PhD is a research professor at the University Of Miami Miller School Of Medicine and a nationally recognized behavioral neuroscientist and expert in pediatric and adult neurotrauma, concussion management, and neurorehabilitation.

Dr. Hotz is the director of the KiDZ Neuroscience Center, WalkSafe, BikeSafe, and SkateSafe programs, and has been co-director of the Miller School of Medicine’s Concussion Program since 1995. She continues to assess and treat many athletes from Miami-Dade County public and private high schools, the University of Miami, and from other colleges and the community.

Increased Identification of Concussions in High School Wrestlers after Rule Change

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to report on concussions identified in high school wrestlers, and to compare the number of injuries before and after the National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) enacted a rule change prior to the start of the 2019-20 season that increased the amount of time that an appropriate health-care professional may use to evaluate for a suspected sport related concussion (SRC) from 30 seconds to 5 minutes during competition.

Methods: The subjects of this study were wrestlers from Miami Dade County public high schools who sustained a sports related concussion from August 2017 to March 2020, identified from the Miami Concussion Model Concussion Injury Surveillance System. The database is compiled from reports submitted by certified athletic trainers after a suspected concussion, post-injury ImPACT tests, and from patients who presented to the University of Miami Sports Concussion Clinic for evaluation.

Results: A total of 37 wrestlers were identified. The 2019-20 academic year accounted for the greatest number of injuries (17, 46%), including the highest number of injuries identified that occurred during competition and practice compared to previous years.

Conclusions: The increase in identified concussions in wrestlers in the 2019-20 season is likely multifactorial given increased knowledge, education, and training on SRC that is targeted to athletes, parents, coaches, and athletic trainers. The increase in the number of injuries identified during competition is also likely attributable to the rule change instituted by the NFHS prior to the start of the 2019-20 season.

Applications in Sport: It is important to identify sport related concussions when they occur so that these athletes may seek treatment and obtain proper clearance prior to return to play, which may decrease the risk of subsequent SRC and long-term sequelae of mild traumatic brain injuries. Our findings support the rule change instituted by the NFHS prior to the start of the 2019-20 season as this increased the amount of time that an appropriate health-care professional may use to evaluate for a suspected SRC and likely contributed to an increase in the number of SRC identified in wrestlers during competition.

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Qualitative exploration of health and well-being perceptions of swim coaches

February 26th, 2021|Sports Coaching|

Authors: Krista M. Kezbers1, 2,*, Bridget M. Miller1, and Jamie C. Clark3

1School of Community Health Sciences, Counseling and Counseling Psychology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA
2School of Community Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Tulsa, OK, USA
3School of Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA

*The primary author completed this work while affiliated with Oklahoma State University. The primary author is now affiliated with the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center.

Corresponding Author:
Krista M. Kezbers, PhD, DipACLM, ACSM-CPT, ACSM-EIM
4502 E. 41st Street
Tulsa, OK, 74135
krista-kezbers@ouhsc.edu
405-519-1050

Krista M. Kezbers, PhD, DipACLM, ACSM-CPT, ACSM-EIM is a Research Associate in the School of Community Medicine at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center in Tulsa, OK. Her research interests focus on the health and well-being of sports coaches, lifestyle medicine, and exercise is medicine. Krista has over 10 years of swim coaching experience ranging from high school teams to national-level club teams and athletes.

Bridget M. Miller, PhD is an Associate Professor, Joan Donelson Jacques Endowed Professor of Health Promotion, and Health Education and Promotion Program Direction at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, OK. Her research interests include: the prevention of obesity and other chronic diseases through the promotion of physical activity and the cognitive mediators within the exercise-mood relationship.   

Jamie C. Clark, MS has a master’s degree in Exercise Science and at the time of the study was a PhD student in Health and Human Performance at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, OK. Her research interest includes sport burnout, post-collegiate transition and sport support relationships with parents and coaches. Jamie has over 10 years of volleyball coaching experience.

Qualitative exploration of health and well-being perceptions of swim coaches

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The sports coach profession encompasses many non-traditional working characteristics, such as early morning and late evening hours. Literature regarding the health and well-being of sports coaches has been mostly limited to psychological components, such as stress and burnout, but little has focused on the physical health of coaches. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences on health and well-being within the coaching profession. Methods: A qualitative interpretative phenomenological analysis approach was used for this study. Six focus groups were conducted at a swim conference using a semi-structured question guide. Transcriptions of each focus group were used by a 3-person research team to individually code salient words and phrases. Researchers met to reconcile codes and determine themes. Results: Twenty-three swim coaches, mostly male (73.9%), participated in the focus groups. From the data, six themes were identified: 1) Health and well-being definitions, 2) Former athlete transition to coaching, 3) Coaching challenges, 4) Health correlates, 5) Healthy eating barriers, and 6) Reasons for coaching. Conclusions: Coaches identified a number of different components of the profession that impact health and well-being and potentially increase health risks. Of emphasis was the steady

decline in health experienced by athletes as they leave their sports and enter the coaching world. Despite the many challenges that coaching poses, coaches expressed a deep love for their profession. Applications in Sport: This research provides important information for those considering a career in coaching and the impacts, both positive and negative, on their health and well-being. Coaches, teams, and organizations can explore this data for future points of intervention and areas to provide training and education to coaches, not only improve their health and well-being, but also to minimize any potential negative aspects of the coaching profession.

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The Identification of Potential Risk Factors of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury among the Military Paratrooper and a Potential Intervention Strategy

February 19th, 2021|Sports Health & Fitness|

Authors: Alexander T. McDaniel and Lindsey H. Schroeder
School of Health and Applied Human Sciences, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, NC, USA

Corresponding Author:
Lindsey H. Schroeder, Ed.D., LAT, ATC, CES
601 S. College Dr.
Wilmington, NC 28403-5956
schroederl@uncw.edu
910-962-7188

Alexander T. McDaniel, DHSc, LAT, ATC, CSCS is an Assistant Professor of Exercise Science in the School of Health and Applied Human Sciences at the University of North Carolina Wilmington in Wilmington, NC. His research interests focus on primary prevention strategies for mild traumatic brain injury among military and athletic populations as well as the reduction of stress, anxiety, and depression in various demographic populations through functional training.

Lindsey H. Schroeder, Ed.D., LAT, ATC, CES is an Assistant Professor of Athletic Training in the School of Health and Applied Human Sciences at the University of North Carolina Wilmington in Wilmington, NC. In addition to concussion and mild traumatic brain injury research, her research interests also focus on work-life balance, job satisfaction, and retention issues in athletic training. Dr. Schroeder is an alumnus of the United States Sports Academy.

Clinical Review: The Identification of Potential Risk Factors of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury among the Military Paratrooper and a Potential Intervention Strategy

ABSTRACT

For combat readiness, active duty United States military service members have high physical fitness demands placed on them that rival even the most well-trained athletes.  The key to maintaining a high level of performance is to prevent common injuries.  The purpose of this manuscript is to increase awareness regarding mild traumatic brain injury due to parachute landing and identify a neck strengthening intervention to potentially reduce the risk of injury. The review of literature will provide information regarding the pathophysiology of a mild traumatic brain injury from parachute landing, provide an in-depth review of the anatomy of cervical spine musculature, and the biomechanics of how force is attenuated during a whiplash effect upon impact on the head or body. A review of potential strengthening techniques and the muscles to be targeted is indicated as well as a discussion of potential intervention protocols aimed at the reeducation of mild traumatic brain injury risk from parachute landing.   

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The Effect of Muscle Energy Techniques on Latent Trigger Points of the Gastrocnemius Muscle

February 12th, 2021|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|

Authors: Jack Clarke, Lynn Allen
Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Athlone Institute of Technology, Westmeath, Ireland

Corresponding Author:
Jack Clarke
An Luslann, Kylebroughlan, Moycullen,
Co. Galway, H91 TXV5, Ireland.
Email: jackclarke199@gmail.com

Mr. Jack Clarke is a recent graduate of Athletic and Rehabilitation Therapy at Athlone Institute of Technology, Ireland. He is currently furthering his studies at Loughborough University, United Kingdom. His professional interests circulate around athletic performance development, strength and conditioning, and musculoskeletal therapeutic interventions particularly in track and field events.  

Ms. Lynn Allen is a Certified Athletic Therapist currently in the role of lecturer and course coordinator of Athletic and Rehabilitation Therapy at Athlone Institute of Technology, Ireland. Her professional interests include athletic therapy clinical education, biopsychosocial framework for chronic pain and athletic injuries, clinical education curriculums, and musculoskeletal therapeutic interventions.

The effects of muscle energy techniques on latent trigger points of the gastrocnemius muscle

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation as a treatment method for latent trigger points within the gastrocnemius muscle. This study also compares the muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation to ischemic compression to determine the most effective latent trigger point treatment. The outcome aim is to understand the acute and mid-term effects of the treatment and how the results may apply to an athletic therapy population.

Methods: 40 participants (24 male and 16 female) were randomly assigned to two treatment groups that took part in three treatment sessions over the course of 10 days. Group A took part in a muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation protocol and Group B took part in an ischemic compression protocol.

Results: There was a statistically significant treatment effect in both groups for both the reduction of latent trigger point numbers (p<.0005) and increasing ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (p<.0005). The muscle energy technique treatment was more effective than the ischemic compression treatment in latent trigger point reduction and increasing range of motion (p=0.26, p=0.58 respectively).

Conclusions: This study concludes that both muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation and ischemic compression effectively treat latent trigger points in the gastrocnemius following acute and mid-term treatment. Muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation is more effective than ischemic compression indicating that muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation is the most effective form of treatment for latent trigger points found in the gastrocnemius.

Applications in Sport: Athletic therapists and sport related clinicians are recommended to use muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation in situations where latent trigger points are found within the gastrocnemius.Muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation is a suitable treatment method to use in a variety of settings that an athletic therapist or clinician may be in, such as pre-game and post-game therapy, on-field therapy, and clinical therapy

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An evidence-based sports nutrition curriculum for youth

February 5th, 2021|Sport Education|

Authors: Ronald L. Gibbs Jr.1, Tyler B. Becker1,2

1MSU Extension, Health and Nutrition Institute, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA
2Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA

Corresponding Author:
Ronald L. Gibbs Jr PhD, MCHES
446 W. Circle Drive, Justin S. Morrill Hall of Agriculture, Rm: 250
East Lansing, MI 48828
gibbsro2@msu.edu
517-862-7105

Ronald L. Gibbs Jr. PhD, MCHES is an academic specialist in Extension at Michigan State University in East Lansing, MI.  His research interests focus on coach and athlete education, long-term athlete development (LTAD), psychosocial aspects of sports and physical activity, adolescent nutrition and physical activity behavior change through sport participation, sports performance, and reducing childhood obesity.

Tyler B. Becker, PhD, CSCS is an Assistant Professor of Nutritional Sciences at Michigan State University in East Lansing, MI.  His research areas include rural health, sports nutrition, and youth health education programs.

An evidence-based sports nutrition curriculum for youth

ABSTRACT

Most youth do not meet national nutrition recommendations and overconsume high-calorie, low nutrient-dense foods. A large portion of youth in the US participate in organized sports, which provides an alternative means for delivering nutrition-based education. Peak Health and Performance (PHP) is a youth-focused curriculum that uses sport to promote healthy eating behaviors.  PHP uses evidenced-based sports nutrition guidelines and recommendations from the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Lesson 1 provides an introductory overview of the three macronutrients including basic classifications and recommendations.  Lesson 2, describes how athletes should change the portions of foods they are consuming based on activity levels for a particular day.  Lesson 3 describes recommendations for timing of intake, and lesson 4 emphasizes best hydration practices.  Lesson 5 is an application-based lesson on how athletes can use information from the previous four lessons to practice a healthy eating pattern that will also improve sports performance. The final lesson promotes and encourages sport as a vehicle for physical, mental, and emotional wellness.  Future research will examine the effects of PHP in changing nutrition-related behaviors among a diverse population of children and adolescent athletes. 

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