Differences in psychological skills in ultraendurance athletes and endurance athletes

Authors: Megan Meckfessel and Lindsay Ross-Stewart

Department of Applied Health, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL, USA

Corresponding Author:
Lindsay Ross-Stewart
Department of Applied Health
Campus Box 1126
Edwardsville, Illinois 62026-1126
(618) 650-2410

Megan Meckfessel, MS, is a Cross Country Coach, trainer, and Community Health Coach in O’Fallon Il. She is a marathon and ultra-distance runner.

Lindsay Ross-Stewart, PhD is an Associate Professor in the Department of Applied Health and the Director of Mental Performance for the Intercollegiate Athletics Department at Southern Illinois University Edwardsville. Her research focuses on the role of self-efficacy in athletic performance.

Differences in psychological skills in ultraendurance athletes and endurance athletes

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in self-efficacy, self-motivation, and mood between ultraendurance athletes and endurance athletes. Forty-six endurance athletes and fifty-six ultraendurance athletes completed the Profile of Mood States, General Self-Efficacy Scale and Self-Motivation Inventory. The results of a MANOVA with sport type (endurance versus ultraendurance) as the independent variable and the total scores on all psychological variables and the subscales for self-motivation, mood, and self-efficacy as the dependent variables revealed a significant difference between endurance and ultraendurance athletes. The results indicated that ultraendurance athletes had higher overall motivation compared to endurance athletes. They also had higher scores for both drive and persistence. There were no differences between the groups for self- efficacy or mood. The results indicate that motivation may be the primary psychological factor differentiating between ultraendurance and endurance athletes. From an applied perspective it may be that athletes looking to make the leap from endurance sports to ultraendurance sports should focus on applied techniques for increasing motivation.

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2022-05-03T13:16:43-05:00May 6th, 2022|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Differences in psychological skills in ultraendurance athletes and endurance athletes

The Salivary Alpha-Amylase Response to Moderate Intensity Trap Bar Deadlift

Authors: Asher L. Flynn1, Jeremy Gentles2,Tyler Langford1

1Department of Sport and Exercise Science, Lincoln Memorial University, Harrogate, TN, USA
2Department of Sport, Exercise, Recreation, and Kinesiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, USA

Corresponding Author:
Asher L. Flynn, PhD, CSCS
117 Leopard Ln
Cumberland Gap, TN
AsherLFlynn@gmail.com
4178278827

Asher L Flynn, PhD, CSCS is an Assistant Professor of Exercise Science at Lincoln Memorial University, TN. His research interests focus on fatigue and athlete monitoring in colligate athletes, and aspects of women’s soccer performance.

Jeremy Gentles, PhD, CSCS is currently faculty member at East Tennessee State University, TN.  Jeremy’s areas of research interest include the biochemical response to exercise and sport technology.

Tyler Langford, PhD, is currently faculty member at Lincoln Memorial University, TN. Tyler’s areas of research interest include exercise testing and prescription for special populations (incomplete spinal cord injury and older adults) as well as the use of effort perception for exercise prescription.

The Salivary Alpha-Amylase Response to Moderate Intensity Trap Bar Deadlift

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the salivary alpha-amylase response to a moderate intensity, moderate volume resistance training protocol. In order to investigate this response, pre-exercise and post-exercise saliva samples were collected from 16 female collegiate soccer players during a team resistance training session with the strength and condition staff. Results: The saliva analysis revealed a significant increase in salivary alpha-amylase concentrations from pre- to post-exercise; 54.7 ± 34.7 U/mL, 100.6 ± 55.1; p = 0.002; d = 0.908; 95% CI: 0.31 – 1.48. These results indicated that a moderate intensity, moderate volume training protocol will elicit an increase in salivary alpha-amylase. Sport scientists and coaches are continually improving their ability to monitor the stress, and the athlete’s response to these stressors. Salivary alpha-amylase is a promising candidate as a rapid, non-invasive method of indicating the magnitude of stress associated with resistance training.

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2022-04-20T10:13:07-05:00April 22nd, 2022|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on The Salivary Alpha-Amylase Response to Moderate Intensity Trap Bar Deadlift

Stressors Associated with Professional Australian Rules Football Athletes Across a Competitive Season

Authors: Billymo Rist1, Anthea C Clarke1, Tony Glynn2, Alan J. Pearce1
1 School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA
2 Fit Mind Consulting, Spencer Street, West Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Corresponding Author:
Billymo Rist
School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA
Email: brist@latrobe.edu.au
Ph: +61 400392964

Billymo Rist is a PhD Candidate at La Trobe University in Melbourne Australia. His Research interests include biomarkers, stress, psychology of performance and neuroscience of sport and injury

Anthea Clarke, PhD, is a lecturer in sport and exercise science in the Department of Dietetics, Human Nutrition, and Sport at La Trobe University, Australia. Her research interests include applied sport science and application to team sports, and female athlete physiology.

Tony Glynn MPsych is a Performance and Clinical Psychologist with 20 years’ experience. Tony is currently performance psychologist for the Melbourne Vixens Netball Team, Victorian Sailing Team, and Tennis Australia and clinical psychologist at the Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne.

Alan J Pearce PhD is an adjunct associate professor at La Trobe University, Melbourne Australia and Director of NeuroSports Labs, Melbourne. Alan has an interest in the neuroscience of exercise and sport and injury, with over 200 publications across neurophysiology, exercise physiology and psychology of exercise.

Stressors Associated with Professional Australian Rules Football Athletes Across a Competitive Season

Abstract

Objective: This study explored psychophysiological stress in professional Australian Rules football athletes across the course of one competitive season.

Methods: A sample of eight players listed with one professional Australian football club participated in this study. Each week during the competitive season (22 weeks), players self-reported their general fatigue and sleep using a paper-based scale, as well as providing a salivary cortisol measure. Testing occurred 48-hours after competition. Participants’ weekly performance rating scores based on a points system metric of players’ data obtained during competitive matches were also recorded by the club each week.

Results: A significant inverse relationship was observed between cortisol and performance ratings, sleep and fatigue, and sleep and performance ratings. There was a significant predictive relationship observed, with cortisol levels and performance rankings (R2 = .35, F (6,74) = 7.06, p<.001). There was no significant relationship between performance and fatigue or performance and sleep.

Conclusions: This study shows a significant relationship between performance outcomes and psychophysiological stress in professional Australian football players. Professional clubs should look towards objective assessment protocols to measure athlete psychological stress to enhance current practice of self-report stress measures.

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2022-04-07T09:52:49-05:00April 15th, 2022|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Stressors Associated with Professional Australian Rules Football Athletes Across a Competitive Season

Relationships Between BMI and Self-Perception of Adequacy in and Enjoyment of Physical Activity in Youth Following a Physical Literacy Intervention

Authors: Brandi M. Eveland-Sayers1, Andy R. Dotterweich1, Alyson J. Chroust2, Abigail D. Daugherty3, and Kara L. Boynewicz4

1Department of Sport, Exercise, Recreation & Kinesiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee
2 Department of Psychology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee
3Department of Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport Studies, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 
4Physical Therapy Program, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee

Corresponding Author:
Andy R. Dotterweich
ETSU
Sport, Exercise, Recreation and Kinesiology
PO Box 70671
Johnson City, TN 37601
423-439-5261
dotterwa@etsu.edu

Brandi Eveland-Sayers is an Associate Professor of Exercise Science at East Tennessee State University. Her research interests include physical literacy, exercise adherence in youth, and long-term athlete development.

Andy R. Dotterweich is a Professor of Exercise Science at East Tennessee State University.  His research interests include youth sport, recreation management and policy, physical activity, long-term athlete development, and community development.

Alyson Chroust is an Assistant Professor in the Psychology Department at East Tennessee State University. Her research interests include infant and child development and visual cognition. Abigail Daugherty is a graduate student in Sport Psychology and Motor Behavior at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville. Her research interests include the fidelity of virtual reality in a military training environment and long-term athlete development. Her professional interests include becoming a mental resilience trainer-performance expert within a tactical population.

Kara Boynewicz is an Assistant Professor in the Physical Therapy Department at East Tennessee State University.  She is a board certified pediatric physical therapy specialist with clinical experience of infants and children in a variety of settings including school, outpatient, and hospital.  Her research interests include early identification of children who are “at risk” for adverse childhood development, specifically in the realm of gross motor development and skill acquisition.

Relationships Between BMI and Self-Perception of Adequacy in and Enjoyment of Physical Activity in Youth Following a Physical Literacy Intervention 

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and self-perception of adequacy in and enjoyment of physical activity in youth following implementation of a six-week physical literacy (PL) intervention. Methods: Students (n=92) in grades 2-5 completed the Children’s Self-Perceptions of Adequacy and Predilection for Physical Activity (CSAPPA) scale pre- and post-PL intervention. The PL intervention program consisted of a weekly, 30-minute program conducted by trained individuals during the school day. This program focused on the mechanics of running, jumping, and throwing. Height and weight were measured pre-intervention to calculate BMI using the Center for Disease Control’s Youth and Teen calculator. Results: A significant interaction between CSAPPA score and BMI category was found, F(1, 82) = 4.948, p < 0.05). Students in the abnormal BMI category post-PL intervention CSAPPA scores were higher than their pre-PL scores. Conclusion: Based on the results, PL programming seems favorable in improving self-perception of physical activity selection in children with abnormal BMIs. Previous research has shown that students who do not feel confident performing a task are less likely to participate. Following the trend of decreased exposure to physical activity during school, it is possible that students with unhealthy BMIs are not getting proper exposure to the mechanics of movement. This scenario may lead to less physical activity participation and increases in unhealthy BMI ranges. Applications in Sport Fitness and Health: By teaching children that they can move proficiently, children may increase self-perceptions of physical activity and make more active choices which may attenuate increasing BMI trends and lead to future sport participation.

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2022-03-10T08:44:47-06:00March 11th, 2022|General, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Relationships Between BMI and Self-Perception of Adequacy in and Enjoyment of Physical Activity in Youth Following a Physical Literacy Intervention

Relationships Among Muscle Characteristics and Rowing Performance in Collegiate Crew Members

Authors: Omid Nabavizadeh1 and Ashley A. Herda, PhD2

1Geriatric Medicine Department, University of Colorado-School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, United States; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8921-451X
2Department of Health, Sport, and Exercise Sciences, University of Kansas-Edwards Campus, Overland Park, Kansas, United States; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6184-2055

Corresponding Author:
Ashley A. Herda, Ph.D., CSCS*D
Assistant Professor
University of Kansas-Edwards Campus
Department of Health, Sport, and Exercise Sciences
12604 Quivira Road, Overland Park, KS 66213
BEST 350X
Phone: (913) 897-8618
E-Mail: a.herda@ku.edu
https://hses.ku.edu/people/ashley-herda

Omid Nabavizadeh is a professional research assistant at the University of Colorado.

Ashley A. Herda, Ph.D. is an assistant professor for the exercise science program at the University of Kansas Edwards Campus in Overland Park. Dr. Herda completed her Bachelor of Science in Exercise Science and Health Promotion (2006) from Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton, Florida. She continued her education at the University of Oklahoma in Norman, Oklahoma where she earned her Master of Science in Exercise Physiology (2008) under the mentorship of Jeff Stout and Doctor of Philosophy in Exercise Physiology (2011) under the mentorship of Dr. Joel Cramer. Dr. Herda’s research interests include the investigation of the effects of nutritional supplements and/or exercise interventions on performance and body composition in men and women across the lifespan.

Relationships Among Muscle Characteristics and Rowing Performance in Collegiate Crew Members

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among measurements of muscle quality and rowing performance in college-aged club rowers. Methods: Ten men and women (mean ± SD: age: 22.1 ± 4.0 years; ht: 180.5 ± 8.3 cm; wt: 79.0 ± 13.5 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Ultrasound images were collected at 50% thigh length in a transverse plane to quantify muscle size. The sum cross-sectional area (mCSA) of these muscles was reported. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was conducted to predict fat-free mass (FFM) and estimate total leg lean mass. One-repetition maximum leg press (LPMAX) was recorded as well as vertical jump (VJHT; cm). Lastly, participants completed a 2,000m time trial on the rowing ergometer, where the 500m average split was used in analyses. Pearson’s product moment correlations were calculated across all variables and backwards stepwise linear regression was completed using VJHT, LPMAX, FFM, and mCSA as possible predictors of 500m performance. Results: The correlations coefficients among recorded variables were all very high and significant (r = 0.867-0.950; p = 0.001-0.04). The regression analysis indicated VJHT was a significant predictor of 500m time trial performance (R2=0.903; p<0.05). Conclusions: Although rowing may often be considered an endurance sport, the single best predictor of and the strongest correlation to time trial performance is vertical jump height as an index of power. Applications in Sport: Emphasis on plyometric training may serve as one of the most important aspects of athlete development beyond rowing form and mechanics, more so than strength or hypertrophy in collegiate rowers.

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2022-01-14T08:17:53-06:00January 14th, 2022|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Relationships Among Muscle Characteristics and Rowing Performance in Collegiate Crew Members
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