The relationship between hip extensor strength and contralateral and ipsilateral hip flexor muscle length in healthy men and women

Authors: Ashley Calvillo1, Guillermo Escalante2, and Morey J. Kolber3

1Los Angeles Sunset Department of Physical Therapy, Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA, USA
2Department of Kinesiology, California State University- San Bernardino, San Bernardino, CA, USA
3Department of Physical Therapy, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA

Corresponding Author:
Guillermo Escalante, DSc, MBA, ATC, CSCS*D, CISSN
California State University- San Bernardino
Department of Kinesiology
5500 University Parkway
San Bernardino, CA 92407
(909) 537-7236
(909) 537-7085 fax
gescalan@csusb.edu

Ashley Calvillo, PT, DPT, OCS is a physical therapist at Kaiser Permanente- Sunset in Los Angeles where she focuses on treatment of orthopedic injuries. Her research interests are in the areas of orthopedic physical therapy.

Guillermo Escalante, DSc, MBA, ATC, CSCS*D, CISSN is a Dean Fellow for the College of Natural Sciences and an Associate Professor of Kinesiology at California State University- San Bernardino in San Bernardino, CA. His research interests focus on body composition, improving muscle strength/hypertrophy/sports performance, sports injury prevention/rehabilitation, and sports nutrition.  

Morey J. Kolber, PT, PhD, OCS, CSCS*D is a professor of physical therapy at Nova Southeastern University in Fort Lauderdale, FL. His research interests are in orthopedics, diagnostic imaging, and regenerative medicine.

The relationship between hip extensor strength and contralateral and ipsilateral hip flexor muscle length in healthy men and women

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the relationship between hip extensor (HE) strength to contralateral and ipsilateral hip flexor muscle length. Bilateral hip extension range of motion (ROM) was evaluated using the modified Thomas test using a hand-held goniometer in seventeen males (26 ± 7 yrs, 174.9 ± 6.72 cm, 79.4 ± 7.9 kg) and twenty-seven females (24 ± 2 yrs, 162.7 ± 6.40 cm, 67.2 ± 13.1 kg).  Participants were classified as: a) restricted hip flexors (hip extension ROM > 6° from horizontal), b) neither restricted nor normal hip flexors (hip extension ROM between 0° to 6° from horizontal), and c) normal hip flexors (hip extension ROM < 0° from horizontal). Peak isometric HE force was obtained via a Biodex dynamometer where maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was determined. Correlations were used to determine the relationship between flexor length to contralateral and ipsilateral HE relative strength. A One-way ANOVA was used to examine HE relative strength in relation to hip flexor length classified as restricted vs neither vs normal. There were no correlations between right hip flexor length and contralateral HE strength (r = -0.228, p = 0.137), right hip flexor length and ipsilateral HE strength (r = -0.241, p = 0.115), left hip flexor length and contralateral HE strength (r = -0.193, p = 0.210), and left hip flexor length and ipsilateral HE strength (r = -0.111, p = 0.472). The One-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences between the groups for the most restricted hip flexor and contralateral HE relative strength (p = 0.179) nor for the most restricted hip flexor and ipsilateral HE relative strength (p = 0.670). No significant relationships were found between HE strength and contralateral or ipsilateral hip flexor length. Although it is commonly suggested that practitioners address hip flexor length to assist with improving gluteal muscle strength, the results of this study do not validate this clinical practice. Despite the results indicating no correlations, practitioners are encouraged to address these impairments from both a functional and performance based perspective.

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2021-04-02T08:47:51-05:00April 9th, 2021|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on The relationship between hip extensor strength and contralateral and ipsilateral hip flexor muscle length in healthy men and women

Emotional Intelligence as a predictor of success in personal training

Authors: Melinda B. Abbott1, Kathleen A. O’Connell2

1Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA
2Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

Corresponding Author:
Melinda B. Abbott, Ed.D
4 Bogardus Place, 4D
New York, NY 10040
mba2122@tc.columbia.edu
917-854-2818

Melinda Abbott, EdD, works in Ambulatory Operations at NYU Langone Health. She is an Adjunct faculty member in the Health Sciences Department at Mercy College. Additionally, she works as a Health Educator, yoga instructor and personal trainer via her website, where she consults private clients about health education and nutrition counseling.

Kathleen A. O’Connell, PhD, RN, FAAN, Professor and Director of the Nursing Education Program at Teachers College, Columbia University, is a nurse-psychologist who studies health behavior.  

Emotional Intelligence as a predictor of success in personal training

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Little is known about the characteristics that contribute to success in personal training. It was hypothesized that emotional intelligence is a predictor of success. Because no instruments were available to address this hypothesis, instruments to measure emotional intelligence in personal trainers and success in personal trainers were developed for this study. Methods: A survey that included 95 items was completed by 225 certified personal trainers. Correlation and regression analyses were performed to determine which variables exhibited the most influence on success. Results: Emotional intelligence levels increased the variance accounted for by 48 percentage points over and above variables of weekly productivity, the type of facility the trainer is affiliated with, and years of employment, which accounted for less than 20% of total success (adjusted R squared = 0.665). Conclusions: Emotional intelligence levels appear to be an important contribution towards success as a personal trainer. Further research is recommended to inform the profession of personal training regarding what skills may contribute towards trainer success. Applications in Sport: As obesity levels remain a health concern, personal trainers will continue to be an asset towards assisting their clients in their pursuit of health and fitness goals.

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2021-04-02T08:42:47-05:00April 2nd, 2021|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Emotional Intelligence as a predictor of success in personal training

Monitoring cardiac autonomic function and sleep duration in NCAA Division I football players during preseason and in-season using wearable tracking devices

Authors: Portia Resnick1, Davis Hale2, Roger Kollock2, Tori Stafford2, Erich Anthony3

1Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA
2Oxley College of Health Sciences, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK
3Department of Athletics, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK

Corresponding Author:
Portia B. Resnick, PhD, ATC, BCTMB
California State University, Long Beach
Department of Kinesiology
1250 Bellflower Boulevard
Long Beach, CA 90840
Portia.resnick@csulb.edu
908-812-9320

Portia Resnick is an assistant professor at California State University, Long Beach

Monitoring cardiac autonomic function and sleep duration in NCAA Division I football players during preseason and in-season using wearable tracking devices

ABSTRACT

Sleep duration (SD) is critical for exercise recovery, however collegiate student athletes are typically sleep deprived secondary to early morning workouts, class responsibilities, late day competitions, and travel.  As such, cardiovascular autonomic function (CAF), measured via heart rate variability (HRV) and resting heart rate (RHR), can help monitor athlete recovery.  PURPOSE:  The purpose of this study was to compare two six-week periods, preseason and in-season, on HRV, RHR, and SD in college football players.  METHODS:  Eight malecollege football players were fitted with WHOOP® wearable activity/recovery tracking devices that use photoplethysmography and accelerometry to determine HRV (RMSSD), RHR (bpm), and SD (hrs/day).  The devices were worn 24 hours a day over two six-weeks data collection periods during which the athletes participated in their normal day-to-day preseason conditioning and in-season practice sessions.  RESULTS:  A series of three, paired sample t-tests were performed to compare HRV, RHR, and SD between pooled data from preseason and in-season, reflecting the changes of the group and not the change of any individual participant.  Both HRV (preseason =100 ± 35 ms, in-season = 82 ± 34 ms, p = 0.002) and SD (preseason = 4.55 ± 1.49 hrs/day, in-season = 5.33 ± 1.55 hrs/day, p = 0.002) were different between the two six-week periods while RHR was not different (preseason = 56 ± 6 bpm, in-season = 58 ± 6 bpm, p = 0.201).  CONCLUSIONS: Athletes had higher HRV during the preseason period, indicative of greater parasympathetic activity, and had increased SD during the in-season period; however, RHR did not differ.  APPLICATIONS IN SPORT:  The examination of HRV, RHR, and SD during various periods of conditioning in collegiate football players found differences that could not be explained and therefore warrants further research.   

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2021-03-09T08:36:49-06:00March 19th, 2021|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Monitoring cardiac autonomic function and sleep duration in NCAA Division I football players during preseason and in-season using wearable tracking devices

The Identification of Potential Risk Factors of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury among the Military Paratrooper and a Potential Intervention Strategy

Authors: Alexander T. McDaniel and Lindsey H. Schroeder
School of Health and Applied Human Sciences, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, NC, USA

Corresponding Author:
Lindsey H. Schroeder, Ed.D., LAT, ATC, CES
601 S. College Dr.
Wilmington, NC 28403-5956
schroederl@uncw.edu
910-962-7188

Alexander T. McDaniel, DHSc, LAT, ATC, CSCS is an Assistant Professor of Exercise Science in the School of Health and Applied Human Sciences at the University of North Carolina Wilmington in Wilmington, NC. His research interests focus on primary prevention strategies for mild traumatic brain injury among military and athletic populations as well as the reduction of stress, anxiety, and depression in various demographic populations through functional training.

Lindsey H. Schroeder, Ed.D., LAT, ATC, CES is an Assistant Professor of Athletic Training in the School of Health and Applied Human Sciences at the University of North Carolina Wilmington in Wilmington, NC. In addition to concussion and mild traumatic brain injury research, her research interests also focus on work-life balance, job satisfaction, and retention issues in athletic training. Dr. Schroeder is an alumnus of the United States Sports Academy.

Clinical Review: The Identification of Potential Risk Factors of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury among the Military Paratrooper and a Potential Intervention Strategy

ABSTRACT

For combat readiness, active duty United States military service members have high physical fitness demands placed on them that rival even the most well-trained athletes.  The key to maintaining a high level of performance is to prevent common injuries.  The purpose of this manuscript is to increase awareness regarding mild traumatic brain injury due to parachute landing and identify a neck strengthening intervention to potentially reduce the risk of injury. The review of literature will provide information regarding the pathophysiology of a mild traumatic brain injury from parachute landing, provide an in-depth review of the anatomy of cervical spine musculature, and the biomechanics of how force is attenuated during a whiplash effect upon impact on the head or body. A review of potential strengthening techniques and the muscles to be targeted is indicated as well as a discussion of potential intervention protocols aimed at the reeducation of mild traumatic brain injury risk from parachute landing.   

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2021-01-28T08:59:45-06:00February 19th, 2021|Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on The Identification of Potential Risk Factors of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury among the Military Paratrooper and a Potential Intervention Strategy

The Effect of Muscle Energy Techniques on Latent Trigger Points of the Gastrocnemius Muscle

Authors: Jack Clarke, Lynn Allen
Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Athlone Institute of Technology, Westmeath, Ireland

Corresponding Author:
Jack Clarke
An Luslann, Kylebroughlan, Moycullen,
Co. Galway, H91 TXV5, Ireland.
Email: jackclarke199@gmail.com

Mr. Jack Clarke is a recent graduate of Athletic and Rehabilitation Therapy at Athlone Institute of Technology, Ireland. He is currently furthering his studies at Loughborough University, United Kingdom. His professional interests circulate around athletic performance development, strength and conditioning, and musculoskeletal therapeutic interventions particularly in track and field events.  

Ms. Lynn Allen is a Certified Athletic Therapist currently in the role of lecturer and course coordinator of Athletic and Rehabilitation Therapy at Athlone Institute of Technology, Ireland. Her professional interests include athletic therapy clinical education, biopsychosocial framework for chronic pain and athletic injuries, clinical education curriculums, and musculoskeletal therapeutic interventions.

The effects of muscle energy techniques on latent trigger points of the gastrocnemius muscle

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation as a treatment method for latent trigger points within the gastrocnemius muscle. This study also compares the muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation to ischemic compression to determine the most effective latent trigger point treatment. The outcome aim is to understand the acute and mid-term effects of the treatment and how the results may apply to an athletic therapy population.

Methods: 40 participants (24 male and 16 female) were randomly assigned to two treatment groups that took part in three treatment sessions over the course of 10 days. Group A took part in a muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation protocol and Group B took part in an ischemic compression protocol.

Results: There was a statistically significant treatment effect in both groups for both the reduction of latent trigger point numbers (p<.0005) and increasing ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (p<.0005). The muscle energy technique treatment was more effective than the ischemic compression treatment in latent trigger point reduction and increasing range of motion (p=0.26, p=0.58 respectively).

Conclusions: This study concludes that both muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation and ischemic compression effectively treat latent trigger points in the gastrocnemius following acute and mid-term treatment. Muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation is more effective than ischemic compression indicating that muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation is the most effective form of treatment for latent trigger points found in the gastrocnemius.

Applications in Sport: Athletic therapists and sport related clinicians are recommended to use muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation in situations where latent trigger points are found within the gastrocnemius.Muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation is a suitable treatment method to use in a variety of settings that an athletic therapist or clinician may be in, such as pre-game and post-game therapy, on-field therapy, and clinical therapy

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2021-01-28T08:20:45-06:00February 12th, 2021|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on The Effect of Muscle Energy Techniques on Latent Trigger Points of the Gastrocnemius Muscle
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