Sitting Time and Physical Activity Comparison between Student Athletes and Non-Athletes: A Pilot Study

Authors: Adam J. Swartzendruber, Karen A. Croteau

Corresponding Author:
Adam J. Swartzendruber
Saint Joseph’s College of Maine
Department of Sport and Exercise Science
278 Whites Bridge Rd.
Standish, ME 04062
aswartzendruber@sjcme.edu
207-893-7667

Adam J. Swartzendruber is an Assistant Professor of Sport and Exercise Science at Saint Joseph’s College of Maine.

Karen A. Croteau is Professor and Department Chair of Sport and Exercise Science at Saint Joseph’s College of Maine

Sitting Time and Physical Activity Comparison between Student Athletes and Non-Athletes: A Pilot Study

ABSTRACT

Sitting time among young college athletes may be greater than or equal to individuals considered inactive and not meeting Physical Activity (PA) recommendations. Meeting or exceeding PA guidelines alone may not be enough to overcome the deleterious cardiometabolic effects of high sitting time. In part, this may be made evident by an independent relationship between sitting time and PA. Data from 163 full-time college students aged 18-24 were collected. Mean sitting times and Light PA (LPA) were analyzed for differences between athletes and non-athletes. Correlation analysis was completed to determine the relationship between exercise time and sitting time. Mean daily sitting time was 10.96 ± 2.98 hours, and as a percentage of total wake time, 58.86 ± 0.08% of wake time was spent sitting. No statistically significant difference in mean sitting time, in minutes, was shown between athletes (M = 629.91 min., SD = 171.657) and non-athletes (M = 677.76, SD = 182.506), as the mean difference was M = -47.854, 95% CI [-110.216, 14.508], t(129) = -1.518, p = .131, d = .27. There was no significant correlation between daily sitting time and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) time, rs (54) = .195, p = 0.154. Next, there was no significant difference in daily LPA between athletes (M = 102.45, SD = 75.209) and non-athletes (M = 111.87, SD = 100.481) in minutes, as the mean difference was M = -9.414, 95% CI [-41.204, 22.377], t(129) = -.586, p = .541, d = .10. These outcomes support previous studies showing that athletes can be highly active and highly sedentary because of the independent relationship between MPVA time and sitting time. Research must continue with other athletic populations, preferably using accelerometry, and include the collection of cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers to determine the potential for athletes to be at risk despite their high activity level.

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2020-06-01T08:35:00-05:00July 10th, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Sitting Time and Physical Activity Comparison between Student Athletes and Non-Athletes: A Pilot Study

Assessing the Outcomes of a Brief Nutrition Education Intervention Among Division I Football Student-Athletes at Moderate Altitude

Authors: Sam T. Lawson, Julia C. Gardner, Mary Jo Carnot, Samuel S. Lackey, Nanette V. Lopez, and Jay T. Sutliffe

Corresponding Author:
Jay Sutliffe, PD, RD
Flagstaff AZ, 86011
Jay.sutliffe@nau.edu
928-523-7596

Sam T. Lawson is an undergraduate research assistant and student at Northern Arizona University.

Julia C. Gardner is a research coordinator with the PRANDIAL Lab at Northern Arizona University. Mary Jo Carnot is professor of Counseling, Psychological Sciences, and Social Work at Chadron State College in Chadron, NE.

Samuel S. Lackey is the Head Strength and Conditioning Coach at Northern Arizona University.

Nanette V. Lopez is Assistant Professor in Health Sciences at Northern Arizona University.

Jay T. Sutliffe is Professor of Nutrition and Foods and the Director of the PRANDIAL Lab at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, AZ.

Assessing the Outcomes of a Brief Nutrition Education Intervention Among Division 1 Football Student-Athletes at Moderate Altitude

Abbreviations
HEI: healthy eating index
g: grams
mg: milligrams
oz: ounces
kcal: kilocalories
std.: standard
DGA: Dietary Guidelines for Americans
USDA: United States Department of Agriculture
RDA: recommended dietary allowance
RM: repetition maximum

ABSTRACT

College students are notorious for having poor quality diets and student-athletes are no exception. Collegiate football student-athletes often fail to meet overall energy requirements necessary to meet activity demands (65). The research herein assessed diet quality, body composition and physical performance of selected student athletes following completion of a brief, 8-week nutrition education intervention. The participants consisted of 55 Division I collegiate football players, aged 18-24 years (mean age 19.8±1.2yrs). Results indicated that group education sessions on nutrition had minimal impact on outcomes, perhaps due to the voluntary nature of the training. However, independent of the intervention, there were significant changes across time for the total scores on the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015), strength performance measures, and total body water. Participants with higher HEI-2015 scores versus lower scores did not differ on strength performance or body composition outcomes. Specific nutrients, including sodium, protein, and solid fats negatively impacted strength performance, especially for the bench press measures. At moderate altitudes, athletes may struggle to maintain sufficient hydration (41). In this study, athletes with higher hydration levels (based on total body water and extracellular water) improved performance from pre to post assessments of strength performance in bench press, back squat, and power clean. The results highlight the importance of nutrition on athletic performance, especially the negative impact of unhealthy choices. Educational sessions on nutrition designed to improve eating habits may need to consider social influences, including everyday eating situations, via a combination of group and individualized approaches.

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2020-06-01T08:19:54-05:00July 3rd, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Assessing the Outcomes of a Brief Nutrition Education Intervention Among Division I Football Student-Athletes at Moderate Altitude

Validity of 3-D Markerless Motion Capture System for Assessing Basketball Dunk Kinetics – A Case Study

Authors: Dimitrije Cabarkapa1, Andrew C. Fry1 and Eric M. Mosier2

  1. Jayhawk Athletic Performance Laboratory, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS
  2. Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, MO

Corresponding Author:
Dimitrije Cabarkapa, MS, CSCS, NSCA-CPT, USAW
1301 Sunnyside Avenue, Lawrence, KS 66045
University of Kansas
E-mail: dcabarkapa@ku.edu
Phone: +1 (785) 551-3882

Validity of 3-D Markerless Motion Capture System for Assessing Basketball Dunk Kinetics – A Case Study

ABSTRACT

Basketball is one of the most popular international sports, but the current sport science literature does not directly address on-court performance such as force and power during a game. This case study examined the accuracy of a three-dimensional markerless motion capture system (3-D MCS) for determining the biomechanical characteristics of the basketball dunk. A former collegiate (NCAA Division-I) basketball player (age=26 yrs, height=2.08 m, weight=111.4 kg) performed 30 maximum effort dunks utilizing a two-hands, no-step, two-leg jumping approach. A uni-axial force plate (FP) positioned under a regulation basket sampled data at 1000 Hz. Additionally, a 3-D MCS composed of eight cameras placed 3.7 m high surrounding the recording area collected data at 50 Hz, from which ground reaction forces were derived using inverse dynamics. The dunks were analyzed by both systems for peak force and peak power. Peak force (X±SD) was similar (p<0.05) for both systems (FP= 2963.9±92.1 N, 3-D MCS= 3353.2±255.9 N), as was peak power (FP= 5943±323, 3-D MCS= 5931±700 W). Bland-Altman plots with 95% confidence intervals for both force and power indicated all measurements made with the 3-D MCS accurately assessed peak force and peak power during a basketball dunk as performed in the current study. These data provide strength and conditioning professionals with a better understanding of the magnitude of forces and powers that athletes experience during a basketball game, as well as validate use of a novel technology to monitor athletes’ progress and optimize overall athletic performance.

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2020-05-06T09:16:36-05:00June 19th, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Validity of 3-D Markerless Motion Capture System for Assessing Basketball Dunk Kinetics – A Case Study

Relative age effect-enhanced physical fitness reference standards for Turkish youths who live in Istanbul

Authors: Nuri Topsakal

Corresponding Author:
Nuri Topsakal, PhD
Duzce University Faculty of Sport Sciences,
Department of Coaching Education, Istanbul, Turkey
Mailing address: Duzce Universitesi Spor Bilimleri Fakültesi Konuralp Yerleşkesi 
Merkez/DÜZCE
81620
Telephone: +90 544 308 25 03
Fax: + 90 (380) 542 1365
Email: topsakal.nuri@gmail.com

Nuri Topsakal is an assistant professor for the University of Düzce Faculty of Sport Science. His areas of research interest are Sports & Exercise Science and Sport Performance.

Relative age effect-enhanced physical fitness reference standards for Turkish youths who live in Istanbul

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to form physical fitness reference standards based on the relative age and gender variables of Turkish female and male children between the ages of 7 and 13.

Methods: The sample of this study consisted of 13,863 children (nfemale = 5580; nmale = 8283), between the ages of 7 and 13 from 32 districts of Istanbul. The relative age factor (formed by dividing a one-year period into four subgroups) was considered in the formation of norm tables, which were based on anthropometric measurements and motor tests according to gender. All percentile values were calculated according to gender and age quarter group, with all percentile tables including 5th to 95th percentile values.

Results: The physical fitness parameters of the male and female children improved as they aged. Only the females at certain ages (11-13 years) showed no improvements in BMI, 10-20m sprint, and standing long jump values.

Conclusion: This study formed percentile norm tables that had values ranging between 5 and 95 by using the anthropometric and physical fitness test results obtained based on the standard values related to gender and relative age of Turkish children between the ages of 7 and 13.

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2020-05-29T09:22:15-05:00May 29th, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Relative age effect-enhanced physical fitness reference standards for Turkish youths who live in Istanbul

Progressive Movement Training: An Analysis of its Effects on Muscular Strength and Power Development

Authors: Orrin Whaley, Abigail Larson, Mark DeBeliso

Corresponding Author:
Orrin Whaley, BS
568W 200N
Provo UT, 84601
orrinwhaley@yahoo.com
801-361-2390

Orrin Whaley is a student at Southern Utah University. Upon the completion of this research project he will earn a MS in Sports Conditioning and Performance.

Progressive Movement Training: An Analysis of its Effects on Muscular Strength and Power Development

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Muscular strength and power are important attributes in many sports, so research on training methods that may improve these attributes is of high interest. One such training method is PMT, which incorporates a partial ROM movement with a supramaximal load. This study attempted to compare PMT to traditional full ROM training by comparing 1 RM back squat, vertical jump height, and power output scores from the two groups. Methods: Thirty-six high school male subjects were randomized to participate in a 7-week squat program in either the PMT group (n=21) or the full ROM group (n=15). The subject’s weight, 1 RM back squat, and vertical jump were measured prior to and upon completion of the training program. Power output was calculated using the subject’s weight and vertical jump height (8). Results: The study included 36 male high school students who were enrolled in a weight training class (n=15 in the full ROM group and n=21 in the PMT group). The PMT group saw significant (p<.001) increases in vertical jump performance (cm) and power output (watts) from pretest to posttest, but the full ROM did not. Significant increases (p<.001) in back squat strength were observed in both groups from the pretest to the post-test. The percent improvement from pretest to posttest was compared between groups on all three performance measures, with no significant differences found (p>.05), indicating that both forms of resistance training provide comparable benefits for increasing lower body strength and power. Conclusion: PMT is as effective and may be more effective than full ROM training for increasing lower body strength and power.

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2020-06-02T13:47:07-05:00April 10th, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Progressive Movement Training: An Analysis of its Effects on Muscular Strength and Power Development