Stressors Associated with Professional Australian Rules Football Athletes Across a Competitive Season

Authors: Billymo Rist1, Anthea C Clarke1, Tony Glynn2, Alan J. Pearce1
1 School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA
2 Fit Mind Consulting, Spencer Street, West Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Corresponding Author:
Billymo Rist
School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA
Email: brist@latrobe.edu.au
Ph: +61 400392964

Billymo Rist is a PhD Candidate at La Trobe University in Melbourne Australia. His Research interests include biomarkers, stress, psychology of performance and neuroscience of sport and injury

Anthea Clarke, PhD, is a lecturer in sport and exercise science in the Department of Dietetics, Human Nutrition, and Sport at La Trobe University, Australia. Her research interests include applied sport science and application to team sports, and female athlete physiology.

Tony Glynn MPsych is a Performance and Clinical Psychologist with 20 years’ experience. Tony is currently performance psychologist for the Melbourne Vixens Netball Team, Victorian Sailing Team, and Tennis Australia and clinical psychologist at the Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne.

Alan J Pearce PhD is an adjunct associate professor at La Trobe University, Melbourne Australia and Director of NeuroSports Labs, Melbourne. Alan has an interest in the neuroscience of exercise and sport and injury, with over 200 publications across neurophysiology, exercise physiology and psychology of exercise.

Stressors Associated with Professional Australian Rules Football Athletes Across a Competitive Season

Abstract

Objective: This study explored psychophysiological stress in professional Australian Rules football athletes across the course of one competitive season.

Methods: A sample of eight players listed with one professional Australian football club participated in this study. Each week during the competitive season (22 weeks), players self-reported their general fatigue and sleep using a paper-based scale, as well as providing a salivary cortisol measure. Testing occurred 48-hours after competition. Participants’ weekly performance rating scores based on a points system metric of players’ data obtained during competitive matches were also recorded by the club each week.

Results: A significant inverse relationship was observed between cortisol and performance ratings, sleep and fatigue, and sleep and performance ratings. There was a significant predictive relationship observed, with cortisol levels and performance rankings (R2 = .35, F (6,74) = 7.06, p<.001). There was no significant relationship between performance and fatigue or performance and sleep.

Conclusions: This study shows a significant relationship between performance outcomes and psychophysiological stress in professional Australian football players. Professional clubs should look towards objective assessment protocols to measure athlete psychological stress to enhance current practice of self-report stress measures.

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2022-04-07T09:52:49-05:00April 15th, 2022|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Stressors Associated with Professional Australian Rules Football Athletes Across a Competitive Season

Relationships Between BMI and Self-Perception of Adequacy in and Enjoyment of Physical Activity in Youth Following a Physical Literacy Intervention

Authors: Brandi M. Eveland-Sayers1, Andy R. Dotterweich1, Alyson J. Chroust2, Abigail D. Daugherty3, and Kara L. Boynewicz4

1Department of Sport, Exercise, Recreation & Kinesiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee
2 Department of Psychology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee
3Department of Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport Studies, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 
4Physical Therapy Program, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee

Corresponding Author:
Andy R. Dotterweich
ETSU
Sport, Exercise, Recreation and Kinesiology
PO Box 70671
Johnson City, TN 37601
423-439-5261
dotterwa@etsu.edu

Brandi Eveland-Sayers is an Associate Professor of Exercise Science at East Tennessee State University. Her research interests include physical literacy, exercise adherence in youth, and long-term athlete development.

Andy R. Dotterweich is a Professor of Exercise Science at East Tennessee State University.  His research interests include youth sport, recreation management and policy, physical activity, long-term athlete development, and community development.

Alyson Chroust is an Assistant Professor in the Psychology Department at East Tennessee State University. Her research interests include infant and child development and visual cognition. Abigail Daugherty is a graduate student in Sport Psychology and Motor Behavior at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville. Her research interests include the fidelity of virtual reality in a military training environment and long-term athlete development. Her professional interests include becoming a mental resilience trainer-performance expert within a tactical population.

Kara Boynewicz is an Assistant Professor in the Physical Therapy Department at East Tennessee State University.  She is a board certified pediatric physical therapy specialist with clinical experience of infants and children in a variety of settings including school, outpatient, and hospital.  Her research interests include early identification of children who are “at risk” for adverse childhood development, specifically in the realm of gross motor development and skill acquisition.

Relationships Between BMI and Self-Perception of Adequacy in and Enjoyment of Physical Activity in Youth Following a Physical Literacy Intervention 

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between body mass index (BMI) and self-perception of adequacy in and enjoyment of physical activity in youth following implementation of a six-week physical literacy (PL) intervention. Methods: Students (n=92) in grades 2-5 completed the Children’s Self-Perceptions of Adequacy and Predilection for Physical Activity (CSAPPA) scale pre- and post-PL intervention. The PL intervention program consisted of a weekly, 30-minute program conducted by trained individuals during the school day. This program focused on the mechanics of running, jumping, and throwing. Height and weight were measured pre-intervention to calculate BMI using the Center for Disease Control’s Youth and Teen calculator. Results: A significant interaction between CSAPPA score and BMI category was found, F(1, 82) = 4.948, p < 0.05). Students in the abnormal BMI category post-PL intervention CSAPPA scores were higher than their pre-PL scores. Conclusion: Based on the results, PL programming seems favorable in improving self-perception of physical activity selection in children with abnormal BMIs. Previous research has shown that students who do not feel confident performing a task are less likely to participate. Following the trend of decreased exposure to physical activity during school, it is possible that students with unhealthy BMIs are not getting proper exposure to the mechanics of movement. This scenario may lead to less physical activity participation and increases in unhealthy BMI ranges. Applications in Sport Fitness and Health: By teaching children that they can move proficiently, children may increase self-perceptions of physical activity and make more active choices which may attenuate increasing BMI trends and lead to future sport participation.

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2022-03-10T08:44:47-06:00March 11th, 2022|General, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Relationships Between BMI and Self-Perception of Adequacy in and Enjoyment of Physical Activity in Youth Following a Physical Literacy Intervention

Relationships Among Muscle Characteristics and Rowing Performance in Collegiate Crew Members

Authors: Omid Nabavizadeh1 and Ashley A. Herda, PhD2

1Geriatric Medicine Department, University of Colorado-School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, United States; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8921-451X
2Department of Health, Sport, and Exercise Sciences, University of Kansas-Edwards Campus, Overland Park, Kansas, United States; https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6184-2055

Corresponding Author:
Ashley A. Herda, Ph.D., CSCS*D
Assistant Professor
University of Kansas-Edwards Campus
Department of Health, Sport, and Exercise Sciences
12604 Quivira Road, Overland Park, KS 66213
BEST 350X
Phone: (913) 897-8618
E-Mail: a.herda@ku.edu
https://hses.ku.edu/people/ashley-herda

Omid Nabavizadeh is a professional research assistant at the University of Colorado.

Ashley A. Herda, Ph.D. is an assistant professor for the exercise science program at the University of Kansas Edwards Campus in Overland Park. Dr. Herda completed her Bachelor of Science in Exercise Science and Health Promotion (2006) from Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton, Florida. She continued her education at the University of Oklahoma in Norman, Oklahoma where she earned her Master of Science in Exercise Physiology (2008) under the mentorship of Jeff Stout and Doctor of Philosophy in Exercise Physiology (2011) under the mentorship of Dr. Joel Cramer. Dr. Herda’s research interests include the investigation of the effects of nutritional supplements and/or exercise interventions on performance and body composition in men and women across the lifespan.

Relationships Among Muscle Characteristics and Rowing Performance in Collegiate Crew Members

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among measurements of muscle quality and rowing performance in college-aged club rowers. Methods: Ten men and women (mean ± SD: age: 22.1 ± 4.0 years; ht: 180.5 ± 8.3 cm; wt: 79.0 ± 13.5 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. Ultrasound images were collected at 50% thigh length in a transverse plane to quantify muscle size. The sum cross-sectional area (mCSA) of these muscles was reported. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was conducted to predict fat-free mass (FFM) and estimate total leg lean mass. One-repetition maximum leg press (LPMAX) was recorded as well as vertical jump (VJHT; cm). Lastly, participants completed a 2,000m time trial on the rowing ergometer, where the 500m average split was used in analyses. Pearson’s product moment correlations were calculated across all variables and backwards stepwise linear regression was completed using VJHT, LPMAX, FFM, and mCSA as possible predictors of 500m performance. Results: The correlations coefficients among recorded variables were all very high and significant (r = 0.867-0.950; p = 0.001-0.04). The regression analysis indicated VJHT was a significant predictor of 500m time trial performance (R2=0.903; p<0.05). Conclusions: Although rowing may often be considered an endurance sport, the single best predictor of and the strongest correlation to time trial performance is vertical jump height as an index of power. Applications in Sport: Emphasis on plyometric training may serve as one of the most important aspects of athlete development beyond rowing form and mechanics, more so than strength or hypertrophy in collegiate rowers.

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2022-01-14T08:17:53-06:00January 14th, 2022|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Relationships Among Muscle Characteristics and Rowing Performance in Collegiate Crew Members

Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in a Female Collegiate Powerlifter with Type-1 Diabetes

Authors: Benjamin H. Gleason1, Katherine N. Alexander1,2, and M. Catherine Fontenot3

1Department of Kinesiology, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA, USA
2Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA
3Department of Human Ecology, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA, USA

Corresponding Author:
Benjamin H. Gleason, PhD, CSCS*D, RSCC, USAW-2
P.O. Box 3176
Ruston, LA, 71270
bgleason67@hotmail.com
334-546-1872

Benjamin H. Gleason, PhD, CSCS*D, RSCC, USAW2 is an Assistant Professor of Kinesiology at Louisiana Tech University in Ruston, LA. His research interests focus on methods of enhancing sport performance, professional roles found within high performance sport, and athlete monitoring.

Katherine N. Alexander, BS, is a Human Development and Family Studies doctoral student at Utah State University in Logan, UT.  Her research interests include developmental impacts of early sport-specialization on athletes and social support systems associated with sport participation.

Mary Catherine Fontenot, PhD, RD, LDN, is an assistant professor of nutrition and dietetics in the Department of Human Ecology at Louisiana Tech University in Ruston, LA. Her research interests include food insecurity and its impact on health, nutrition, and aging.

Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in a Female Collegiate Powerlifter with Type-1 Diabetes

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Investigate a case of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) in an athlete with Type-1 diabetes. Methods: The athlete shared relevant details from her training notebook, food journal, and medical information from the event with the researchers in a series of in-person interviews and electronic communications. The athlete’s food journal data was evaluated by a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist using computerized nutritional analysis program. The training program was evaluated by a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist in collaboration with the athlete to determine the precipitating factors for the injury. Results: Insufficient preparatory training, insufficient recovery, insufficient protein, and insufficient caloric intake were likely contributors to this ER injury. High caffeine intake, training in hot weather, and mild dehydration are also potential factors to an unknown extent. Conclusions: A well-organized, progressive return to heavy training is necessary to avoid musculoskeletal injury. In addition, athletes require appropriate nutrition to support the demands of heavy training and post-exercise recovery. While difficult to assess the extent at this time, athletes with diabetes could be at a higher risk for injury because of their health condition. Therefore, careful attention should be given to details of training, diet, glucose monitoring, and medication regimen, with supervision and education provided by trained professionals. Applications in Sport: This case study identifies specific precipitating factors of a rare case of exertional rhabdomyolysis in an athlete with type-1 diabetes. Knowledge gained from this case may be used to help other athletes prevent injury.

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2021-11-29T10:17:54-06:00December 17th, 2021|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in a Female Collegiate Powerlifter with Type-1 Diabetes

Use of Wrist Guards for Gymnasts – A Systematic Review

Authors: Stephanie Choo1,3, Patrick Smith2, and James L. Cook1,3

1University of Missouri Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Columbia, MO, USA
2Columbia Orthopaedic Group, Columbia, MO, USA
3Thompson Laboratory for Regenerative Orthopaedics, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA

Corresponding Author:
James L. Cook, DVM, PhD, OTSC
William & Kathryn Allen Distinguished Chair in Orthopaedic Surgery
Director, Thompson Laboratory for Regenerative Orthopaedics & Mizzou BioJoint® Center
Chief, Orthopaedic Research Division
University of Missouri
Missouri Orthopaedic Institute (4028A)
1100 Virginia Ave
Columbia, MO 65212
(573) 884-4689
(573) 882-1760 fax
(573) 884-0603 lab
CookJL@health.missouri.edu

Stephanie Choo, MD is a second-year orthopaedic surgery resident in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and the Thompson Laboratory for Regenerative Orthopaedics at the University of Missouri. Her research interest is currently in the area of sports medicine with a focus on prevention and treatment of injuries in gymnastics.

Patrick A Smith, MD is an orthopaedic surgeon with the Columbia Orthopaedic Group and adjunct Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery for the University of Missouri. He specializes in arthroscopic surgery and sports medicine and has been involved in the care of athletes at Mizzou for more than 30 years.

James L. Cook, DVM, PhD, OTSC is the Allen Distinguished Chair, Professor, and Chief of the Division Orthopaedic Research at the University of Missouri, as well as Director of the Thompson Laboratory for Regenerative Orthopaedics. His areas of research encompass sports medicine, biologic joint restoration, tissue engineering, biomarkers, and osteoarthritis.

Use of Wrist Guards for Gymnasts – A Systematic Review

ABSTRACT

This systematic review was designed to provide the best current evidence regarding wrist guard use in gymnastics based on relevant biomechanical effects and injury prevention. Evidence supports the use of wrist guards as protective equipment in the prevention of gymnasts’ wrist pain and injury. However, potentially negative effects of wrist guards on proprioception and performance were also reported, and critical gaps in knowledge regarding guard design, most effective indications, and application to female gymnasts remain. Further biomechanical and clinical studies are needed to fill these gaps in knowledge toward making evidence-based recommendations regarding use of wrist guards in gymnastics.

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2021-11-29T09:11:04-06:00December 10th, 2021|Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Use of Wrist Guards for Gymnasts – A Systematic Review
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