High Volume Resistance Training and its Effects on Anaerobic Work Capacities Over Time: A Review

Authors: Keith B. Painter, Luis Rodríguez-Castellano, & Michael H. Stone

Corresponding Author:
Luis Rodríguez-Castellano
Department of Sport, Exercise, Recreation, and Kinesiology
Center of Excellence of Sport Science and Coach Education
East Tennessee State University
Johnson City, TN, USA, 37614-1701

Luis Rodríguez-Castellano is a Sports Physiology and Performance Fellow PhD student in East Tennessee State University.

The authors did not claim any funding from any agency for the creation of this manuscript.

High Volume Resistance Training and its Effects on Anaerobic Work Capacities Over Time: A Review


Performing resistance training (RT) may improve physical performance capabilities, with anaerobic work capacity (AWC) being one of the characteristics targeted by coaches and athletes. High volume resistance training (HVRT) is typically prescribed in RT programs with the expectancy of improving AWC. However, much of the research available is unclear concerning the effects of HVRT on AWC over time. Therefore, this review will focus on the longitudinal effects of HVRT on AWC. Searches were conducted on SportDiscus, PubMed, Google Scholar, relevant articles from references of qualifying studies, and by using strategies previously suggested (20). Fourteen studies met the following inclusion criteria: a) peer-reviewed, b) testing of AWC pre- and post-HVRT, c) subjects between the ages of 18-40 years, d) a study of at least 4 weeks in duration, e) the study had to use a RT intervention with a set and repetition scheme of ≥ 3 x 8 or base volume load (bVL) of 24 reps, f) and training had to occur at least twice a week for multiple muscle groups. Contrasting protocols within qualifying studies made it challenging to compare between them. Many studies did not meet our criteria mainly due to lack of required duration and pre- and post-training performance testing. The findings of this review indicate that moderately high-volume load (VL) of 4 ± 1 sets of 12 ± 3 repetitions can improve AWC more efficiently than higher VL protocols while mitigating potential strength losses, especially when enough intra-set rest is provided. Moreover, the various implemented protocols and mixed results make generalizability impractical. Coaches and athletes should use this information with good judgement. Reporting full descriptions of the protocols (ie. VL per day) and the inclusion of performance measurements are warranted for future research to understand the contributions of HVRT to AWC.

2020-06-02T13:42:57-05:00March 6th, 2020|Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on High Volume Resistance Training and its Effects on Anaerobic Work Capacities Over Time: A Review

The Effects of Competitive Orientation on Performance in Competition

Authors: Jeffrey C. Ives, Kristin Neese, Nick Downs, Harrison Root, Tim Finnerty

Corresponding Author:
Jeffrey C. Ives, Ph.D.
Department of Exercise Science and Athletic Training
Danby Road
Ithaca College
Ithaca, NY  14850

Jeffrey C. Ives is a professor of motor behavior in the Department of Exercise Science and Athletic Training at Ithaca College

The Effects of Competitive Orientation on Performance in Competition


The competitive environment is reported to influence greater exercise intensity in most persons, thus enhancing practice and training. This effect may be mediated by individual characteristics and the nature of the competitive environment. In particular, persons with non-competitive traits may find live one-on-one physical competition discouraging to full engagement and high effort, but there is little research to support this belief. The purpose of this experiment, thus, was to evaluate the influence of live competition versus no competition (i.e., solo) in persons classified as competitive versus less competitive, or athletes versus non-athlete. After informed consent, 91 subjects were scored on competitive trait using the SOQ tool and grouped into three competitive trait groups (Low, Mid, High). Subjects were also classified as a collegiate varsity athlete or non-varsity athlete.  Subjects engaged in maximal vertical jump trials and maximal 40 yard sprint trials under solo conditions and in the presence of another competitor. Maximal single trial performance in the solo condition was compared to the best competition performance and the average competition performance. Repeated measures ANOVA results indicated no significant differences from the solo best trial to the average competition trial in vertical jump height or sprint times. However, the subjects’ single best competition sprint trial was significantly faster than the best solo sprint trial, but the best competition vertical jump was not significantly higher than the solo jump. Persons grouped as having a higher competitive trait, and those classified as varsity athletes, had faster sprints and higher jumps, but all groups performed similarly in response to competition. In conclusion, competition produced similar results in all groups, indicating that even less competitive persons and non-varsity athletes respond competitively when in certain circumstances.

2020-06-02T13:43:11-05:00February 21st, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on The Effects of Competitive Orientation on Performance in Competition

Disordered Eating and Compulsive Exercise in Collegiate Athletes: Applications for Sport and Research

Authors: Ksenia Power, M.S., Sara Kovacs, Ph.D., Lois Butcher-Poffley, Ph.D., Jingwei Wu, Ph.D., and David Sarwer, Ph.D.

Corresponding Author:
Ksenia Power, PhD Candidate
1800 N. Broad Street, Pearson Hall, 242
Philadelphia PA, 19122

Ksenia Power is a Doctoral Candidate and an Instructor of Record in the Department of Kinesiology at Temple University, majoring in Psychology of Human Movement.  She is also a Volunteer Assistant Women’s Tennis Coach at Temple University.

Disordered Eating and Compulsive Exercise in Collegiate Athletes: Applications for Sport and Research


Over the last three decades, a large body of research has examined the issue of eating disorders, both formal diagnoses and subclinical features, as well as compensatory behaviors in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes. In general, this literature suggests that large numbers of student-athletes engage in disordered eating and compensatory behaviors; smaller percentages have symptoms that reach the threshold of formal diagnoses. Increased symptoms are associated with reduced athletic and academic performance, both of which may impact psychosocial functioning later in adulthood. Unfortunately, a number of methodological shortcomings across this body of research (e.g., studies with insufficient sample sizes, inappropriate comparison groups, and suboptimal or biased psychometric measures) limit the confidence that can be placed in these findings, underscoring the need for a new generation of studies. This paper provides an overview of this literature, focusing on issues of gender differences, sport type, and age. It also highlights the relationship between disordered eating and compulsive exercise, a compensatory behavior that is highly prevalent among collegiate athletes.  The health and athletic performance consequences of eating disorders in conjunction with compulsive exercise are also discussed.  In addition, a focus on more recently recognized eating disorders, such as binge eating disorder and the night eating syndrome is underscored.  Future work in this area needs to include the most methodologically rigorous measures available in order to aid most appropriately coaches and athletic trainers in promptly identifying at-risk athletes and to inform future prevention and treatment efforts.

2020-01-31T09:34:14-06:00February 14th, 2020|Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Disordered Eating and Compulsive Exercise in Collegiate Athletes: Applications for Sport and Research

Performance Differences in Division III Female Field Hockey Athletes with Prior Lower Extremity Injuries Over a Competitive Season

Authors: Jackie Feliciano BA1, Michael P McNally PhD2,3, Andrew M Busch EdD1

1Department of Health and Human Kinetics, Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, OH
2School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH
3Jameson Crane Sports Medicine Institute, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Corresponding Author:
Andrew M. Busch, EdD
Ohio Wesleyan University
107C Edwards Gymnasium
61 S. Sandusky St
Delaware OH, 43220

Andrew Busch is an assistant professor at Ohio Wesleyan University and is also an alumni of the United States Sports Academy.

Performance Differences in Division III Female Field Hockey Athletes with Prior Lower Extremity Injuries Over a Competitive Season


Background: In the sport of field hockey, athletes encounter repetitive unilateral movements due to the nature of the sport, possibly leading to detectable changes in performance variables or functional movements.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to first investigate pre-season power output, functional movement, and single leg balance differences in participants with a history of prior lower extremity injuries, and second, to examine potential changes in such measures throughout a competitive field hockey season.

Methods: Eighteen healthy collegiate female field hockey athletes (mean age = 19.3 ± 1.2 years) were assessed in different functional movement and performance measures including the Functional Movement Screen (FMSTM)deep squat, Y-balance anterior reach test (YBT), lumbar-locked thoracic rotation test (LLR), vertical jump, and a single-leg eyes-closed balance test pre- and post-competitive season.  

Results:  Fourteen participants completed the study.  Preseason testing revealed a significantly lower peak concentric rate of force development (RFD) in those reporting previous injuries of the lower extremities compared to those with no prior injuries (p = 0.017, d = 1.37).  No differences were noted post-season in previously injured participants.  Post-season testing revealed a significant decrease in LLR (Left:  p = 0.004, d = 0.35; Right: p = 0.007, d = 0.33), a decrease in multiple single-leg balance measures (center of pressure excursion: Left: p < .0005, d = -0.7; Right: p < .0005, d = -1.1; medial/lateral velocity: Left: p < .001, d = -0.24; Right: p < .0005, d = -0.74; anterior/posterior velocity: Left: p < .0005, d = -1.06; Right: p < .0005, d = -1.18) and a decrease in peak concentric rate of force development (RFD) (p = 0.03, d = .33).  There were no significant changes noted in post-season FMSTM deep squat scores, or YBT results among the participants.

Conclusion: Female field hockey athletes with a history of lower extremity injuries demonstrate significantly less concentric RFD during a vertical jump when compared to athletes with no prior injuries.  Thoracic ROM, single-leg balance performance, and concentric RFD all significantly decreased after a competitive Division III collegiate season.  FMSTM deep squat and YBT anterior reach scores did not change throughout the season. 

Applications in Sport: Field hockey athletes with a history of previous lower extremity injuries should continually focus on power development, while thoracic ROM exercises, single-leg balance training and lower body explosive exercises should be a point of focus for female field hockey athletes to maintain preseason values throughout a competitive season.

2019-12-12T16:07:46-06:00January 3rd, 2020|Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Performance Differences in Division III Female Field Hockey Athletes with Prior Lower Extremity Injuries Over a Competitive Season

The Role of Organized Youth Sports in Reducing Trends in Childhood Obesity

Authors: Alysia Cohen, Heidi Wegis, Darren Dutto, Viktor Bovbjerg

Corresponding Author:
Alysia Cohen, PhD, ATC, CSCS
1435 Village Drive
Ogden, UT 84408

Alysia Cohen is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Athletic Training at Weber State University.

The Role of Organized Youth Sports in Reducing Trends in Childhood Obesity


Purpose: To examine physical activity (PA) levels of children playing youth sports and the relationship of recommended levels of PA to contextual factors of the organized youth sports environment that may boost fitness and health during childhood and adolescence.  Methods: Accelerometer-measured PA was obtained from 167 children (85 male, 82 female) aged 7-13 years. Sport contextual factors were recorded via direct observation of 29 coaches. PA levels were examined by age, gender, and between group variability. Direct observation intervals were analyzed by category using the Chi-square statistic for degree of association to moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA).  Results: On average children spent 21.9 ±7.9 minutes in MVPA during sport practices (< 50% of practice time).  Proportion of practice time MVPA was lower among females (28.7 ± 7.2%) than males (35.0 ± 9.1%). Proportion of practice time MVPA was higher among children (male and female) aged 7-9 years (32.6 ± 1.4%) compared to children aged 10-13 years (30.66 ±1.25%). Longer practice times were not shown to increase the proportion of time spent in MVPA. The most frequently observed sport activities were sports drills (51.6%), activities involving all players (37.8%), management/general instruction (52.3%), and proximal positioning of the coach (99.5%). Management and general instruction coaching behavior was not significantly associated with MVPA but did consume a prominent proportion of practice time. Health-related fitness activities made up 1.7% of practice time.  Conclusions: In comparison with recommendations, youth sports appear active, however, a large portion of practice time is sedentary suggesting room for improvement.  Including fun non-specific or specific sport activities that promote participation from all players and increase heart rate. Fun play experiences during sport practices may encourage greater in active play within and outside of sport with behaviors persisting into adolescence and adulthood.  Applications in Sport: Training coaches to teach fun sport activities that engage all players would improve within practice active time and enjoyable experiences that may promote future participation in sport or activity outside of sport.

2020-06-02T11:25:00-05:00December 27th, 2019|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on The Role of Organized Youth Sports in Reducing Trends in Childhood Obesity