The Effect of Muscle Energy Techniques on Latent Trigger Points of the Gastrocnemius Muscle

Authors: Jack Clarke, Lynn Allen
Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Athlone Institute of Technology, Westmeath, Ireland

Corresponding Author:
Jack Clarke
An Luslann, Kylebroughlan, Moycullen,
Co. Galway, H91 TXV5, Ireland.
Email: jackclarke199@gmail.com

Mr. Jack Clarke is a recent graduate of Athletic and Rehabilitation Therapy at Athlone Institute of Technology, Ireland. He is currently furthering his studies at Loughborough University, United Kingdom. His professional interests circulate around athletic performance development, strength and conditioning, and musculoskeletal therapeutic interventions particularly in track and field events.  

Ms. Lynn Allen is a Certified Athletic Therapist currently in the role of lecturer and course coordinator of Athletic and Rehabilitation Therapy at Athlone Institute of Technology, Ireland. Her professional interests include athletic therapy clinical education, biopsychosocial framework for chronic pain and athletic injuries, clinical education curriculums, and musculoskeletal therapeutic interventions.

The effects of muscle energy techniques on latent trigger points of the gastrocnemius muscle

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation as a treatment method for latent trigger points within the gastrocnemius muscle. This study also compares the muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation to ischemic compression to determine the most effective latent trigger point treatment. The outcome aim is to understand the acute and mid-term effects of the treatment and how the results may apply to an athletic therapy population.

Methods: 40 participants (24 male and 16 female) were randomly assigned to two treatment groups that took part in three treatment sessions over the course of 10 days. Group A took part in a muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation protocol and Group B took part in an ischemic compression protocol.

Results: There was a statistically significant treatment effect in both groups for both the reduction of latent trigger point numbers (p<.0005) and increasing ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (p<.0005). The muscle energy technique treatment was more effective than the ischemic compression treatment in latent trigger point reduction and increasing range of motion (p=0.26, p=0.58 respectively).

Conclusions: This study concludes that both muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation and ischemic compression effectively treat latent trigger points in the gastrocnemius following acute and mid-term treatment. Muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation is more effective than ischemic compression indicating that muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation is the most effective form of treatment for latent trigger points found in the gastrocnemius.

Applications in Sport: Athletic therapists and sport related clinicians are recommended to use muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation in situations where latent trigger points are found within the gastrocnemius.Muscle energy technique post isometric relaxation is a suitable treatment method to use in a variety of settings that an athletic therapist or clinician may be in, such as pre-game and post-game therapy, on-field therapy, and clinical therapy

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2021-01-28T08:20:45-06:00February 12th, 2021|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on The Effect of Muscle Energy Techniques on Latent Trigger Points of the Gastrocnemius Muscle

Calculating the Acute: Chronic Workload Ratio in a Female Olympic Weightlifter: A Case Study

Authors: Jacqueline Serrano1, Ryan Belsito3,  and Brian Serrano1,2

1HPI Sports Medicine
2The University of Medical Sciences Arizona
3Left Coast Weightlifting Club, Director and Head Coach

Corresponding Author:
Dr. Brian Serrano
25162 Forbes Road Unit D, Laguna Niguel, CA 92866
Brianserrano171@gmail.com
818-926-7269

Dr. Jacqueline Serrano is the Clinic Director of HPI Sports Medicine. She is a practicing Sports Chiropractor and Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist. Her field of expertise is in Sports Medicine and Functional Medicine.

Ryan Belsito currently serves as the director and head coach for Left Coast Weightlifting Club.

Dr. Brian Serrano is the Director of Rehabilitation and Performance at HPI Sports Medicine. He serves as an Assistant Professor at The University of Medical Sciences in Arizona in the Human Movement department. His current research interest include shoulder injuries in overhead athletes.

Calculating the Acute: Chronic Workload Ratio in a Female Olympic Weightlifter: A Case Study

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The idea of workload monitoring has become popular for athletes of all levels within the last 5 years with the advent of wearable technology. The purpose of this case study was to track the workload of a female Olympic weightlifter using a commercial fitness tracker..

Methods: A competitive, female Olympic Weightlifter wore a commercial fitness tracker (WHOOP) for 1 month and specifically during training session. Metrics like strain, average heart rate (HR), max HR, and duration of session were tracked. The acute: chronic workload ratio was also calculated based off her programming. Two sample t-tests were calculated between continuous variables and an ANOVA was performed between multiple continuous variables. Statistical significance was set as a p-value of (<0.05) using a confidence interval of 95%.

Results: The WHOOP fitness tracker was able to calculate differences between strain and HR average (p<.001), between HR average and HR max (p<.001), HR average and Workload (p<.001), and HR max and Workload (p<.003). ANOVA analysis showed a p-value of (<.001) between all continuous variables. The acute: chronic workload ratio over the 4 weeks ranged from (0.85-1.10).

Conclusion: Using wearable technology has become a cost-effective and efficient technique to track athlete workload even in the recreational population. This information can then be supplemented by acute: chronic workload ratios for more information. This can lead to clinicians, coaches, and athletes having higher quality information to improve sports performance and recovery while mitigating the risk of injury.

Applications in Sport: The WHOOP fitness tracker serves as a valid way to track internal workload in Olympic Weightlifters while the ACWR serves as a valid way to track external workload in Olympic Weightlifters.

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2021-01-07T10:14:49-06:00January 1st, 2021|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Calculating the Acute: Chronic Workload Ratio in a Female Olympic Weightlifter: A Case Study

Kinetics and Kinematics of Commonly Used Quarterback Throwing Approaches – A Case Study

Authors: Dimitrije Cabarkapa 1, Andrew C. Fry 1, and Eric M. Mosier 2

1Jayhawk Athletic Performance Laboratory, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA
2 Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, MO, USA

Corresponding Author:
Dimitrije Cabarkapa, MS, CSCS, NSCA-CPT, USAW
Jayhawk Athletic Performance Laboratory
University of Kansas
1301 Sunnyside Avenue, Lawrence, KS 66047
dcabarkapa@ku.edu
785-864-5552

Kinetics and Kinematics of Commonly Used Quarterback Throwing Approaches – A Case Study

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to analyze kinetic and kinematic components for six of the most commonly used quarterback drop throwing patterns and determine how further performance improvements can be made. One male right-handed quarterback athlete volunteered to perform multiple repetitions of the six most commonly used right-handed drop throwing approaches: standing still and throw (SST), one-step left-right (1SLR), one-step right-left (1SRL), three-step straight ahead (3SSA), three-step shot gun (3SSG), and five-step throw (5ST). Kinetic data was collected with a uniaxial force plate while kinematic data was captured with high definition cameras. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine the differences between the six throwing approaches for the kinetic and kinematic variables examined in this study. The statistical significance level was set a priori to p<0.05. Peak right leg force demonstrated significantly lower magnitudes for 1SRL when compared to 1SLR, 3SSG, and 5ST. Peak left leg force for the 3SSA was lower when compared to 1SRL and 1SLR. Throw arm elbow angle was greater for SST when compared to all other throwing approaches. No difference was observed for ball speed, non-throw arm elbow angle, front leg knee angle, and back leg knee angle between any of the examined throwing approaches. Our results indicate that the majority of ground reaction force production required for an optimal quarterback throwing motion comes from the rear leg, and the magnitudes may reach three times bodyweight forces. Ground reaction forces may be enhanced with a greater number of drop steps, which may ultimately increase quarterback throwing distance. Greater throwing arm elbow extension may be induced as biomechanical adjustment due to lack of force production caused by the inability of the quarterback to take a greater number of drop steps.

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2020-09-08T10:15:00-05:00December 11th, 2020|Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Kinetics and Kinematics of Commonly Used Quarterback Throwing Approaches – A Case Study

Testing the predictive validity of combine tests among junior elite football players: an 8-yr follow-up

Authors: Pierre-Luc Yao1, Vincent Huard Pelletier1, and Jean Lemoyne1

1 Department of Human Kinetics, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, QC, Canada

Corresponding Author:
Pierre-Luc Yao, PhD
3351 Boulevard des Forges
Trois-Rivières, QC, Canada, G8Z 4M3
Pierre-Luc.Yao@uqtr.ca
819 376-5011, ext. 3793

Pierre-Luc Yao, PhD a lecturer and internship coordinator in the Department of Human Kinetics at Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières in Trois-Rivières, Québec. His research interests include psychometrics, sport retirement impacts and athlete development.

Vincent Huard Pelletier, MSc, PhD(c) is currently a doctoral student at Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières. Vincent research interest include athlete development, physical activity behavior amongst athletes.

Jean Lemoyne is professor of physical education in the Department of Human Kinetics at the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières. His research interests are practice of sport amongst teens and young adults, performance evaluation in sports, advanced statistics in sports.

Testing the predictive validity of combine tests among junior elite football players: an 8-yr follow-up

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship and contribution of physical performance test results on the final selection of an elite under-18 football selection camp. Methods: Data were drawn from 2 876 players divided into seven position groups (DB, DL, OL, LB, QB, RB, and WR) collected over an 8-year span. Players’ evaluations included performance tests (10-yd dash, 20-yd dash, 40-yd dash, 20-yd pro agility shuttle, 3-cone drill, broad jump, vertical jump, power max test) and anthropometric measures (height and weight). Student t tests were calculated for selected and non-selected groups for all positions. Results: Mean comparisons showed that for most measures, selected players obtained significantly better results than non-selected players. Linear regression models were generated for all groups, and every position was found to have its own unique prediction model. The best models were those of the DL (R2 = 0.222), OL (R2 = 0.207) and LB (R2 = 0.204), and the overall explained variance for each model was considered low (R2 = 0.173). Weight, height and 40-yd dash were the most predominant factors in all models. Conclusion: Individually, selection camp results effectively discriminate between selected and non-selected players; together, however, they explain only a limited part of the final selection for each position. Applications in sport: These results suggest that the predictive capacity of the football combine could be improved in terms of the selection of elite football players.

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2021-01-07T09:57:43-06:00December 8th, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Testing the predictive validity of combine tests among junior elite football players: an 8-yr follow-up

Who Are the Undergraduate Equestrians in the Intercollegiate Horseshows Association, and What Are Their Lifestyle Habits?

Authors: Jessie Bitler, Amanda J. Sandroni, Shelby Yeager, Helen Batisti, Diane M. DellaValle*

Nutrition, Athletic Training and Exercise Science Department (NATES), Marywood University, Scranton, PA, USA

Corresponding Author:
Diane M. DellaValle, PhD, RDN, LDN
Marywood University
2300 Adams Ave
Scranton, PA 18509
Ph: 570-348-6211
Fax: 570-340-6029
Email: ddellavalle@marywood.edu

Jessie M. Bitler, MS was a graduate student at the time this study was conducted, and this was her thesis research.

Amanda J. Sandroni is a graduate student and dietetic intern at Marywood University. Her research interests focus on food allergies and intuitive eating in college students.

Shelby W. Yeager MEd, ATC, LAT, FMSC, NASM-CPT, PES, CES is an Associate Clinical Professor of Exercise Science and Athletic Training at Marywood University. Her interests focus on functional movement screening and injury prevention in athletes.

Helen E. Battisti, PhD, RDN, CDN was an Assistant Professor of Nutrition at the time this study was conducted. Her research interests include the use of the horse in psychosocial therapy.

Diane M. DellaValle, PhD, RDN, LDN is an Associate Professor of Nutrition. Her research interests include improving nutrition status and performance of collegiate athletes.

Who Are the Undergraduate Equestrians in the Intercollegiate Horseshows Association, and What Are Their Lifestyle Habits?

ABSTRACT

As there is currently little research available on collegiate equestrians, the purpose of the current study was to describe the health and lifestyle habits of undergraduate members of the Intercollegiate Horseshows Association (IHSA). This cross-sectional study consisted of an online survey of demographic, riding, health, and academic characteristics. Participants (n=528, 20.3±1.4 years old, 96% female, 91.7% white; BMI 23.2±3.7 kg/m2) reported 11.7±4.5 years of riding experience. Most reported very little to no alcohol consumption, and not smoking. Eighty-three percent reported 1-3 servings/day of both fruits and vegetables, and 84.6% reported sleeping 6-8 h/night. GPA was negatively related to the number of naps reported (r=-0.19, p<0.001), and alcohol servings (r=-0.15, p=0.001). Work hours per week was negatively related to hours of sleep per night (r=-0.14, p=0.006), and positively related to alcohol servings (r=0.12, p=0.03). Greater physical activity (PA) time within sport was related to more experience (r=0.13, p=0.003), horse ownership (r=0.30, p<0.001), greater vigorous PA time outside of sport (r=0.25, p<0.001), and more fruit consumed per day (r=0.16, p<0.001). While our results did show that these equestrians engaged in healthy lifestyle habits, we found that taking more naps and drinking more alcohol were both negatively related to student GPA, and that working more hours was negatively related to hours of sleep per night and was positively related to drinking more alcohol. It is important to describe the characteristics of this group due to their uniqueness in order for College and University Services to develop health and nutrition programs appropriate to serve their unique needs.

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2020-08-12T11:28:37-05:00November 27th, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Who Are the Undergraduate Equestrians in the Intercollegiate Horseshows Association, and What Are Their Lifestyle Habits?
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