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Strikes, Pins, Gutter Balls, and…Maps: A Review of the Spatial Geography of NCAA Women’s Bowling

Authors: David F. Zinn

College of Business, Lander University, Greenwood, South Carolina, USA

Corresponding Author:

David F. Zinn
Assistant Professor of Sport Management
Lander University
College of Business
Carnell Learning Center, M54
320 Stanley Ave.
Greenwood, SC 29649
(864) 388-8220

David F. Zinn, EdD, currently serves as an Assistant Professor of Sport Management and the NCAA Faculty Athletic Representative at Lander University. A former NCAA Women’s Basketball Coach and Athletic Director, Zinn’s major research interests include global sport, sport geography, sport leadership, and intercollegiate sport.

Strikes, Pins, Gutter Balls, and…Maps: A Review of the Spatial Geography of NCAA Women’s Bowling



Spatial geography is important to the understanding of any human activity as this field helps to determine where and why specific activities occur and flourish. As proximity to campus and access to sport opportunity are important determinants in college choice, the spatial relationship between campuses and hometowns are important components in the marketing of programs to potential recruits. The intent of this study is to examine the geography of Women’s Bowling, a relatively unstudied and newer NCAA championship sport, in terms of the locations of institutions sponsoring the sport and the relationship with hometowns of student-athletes on current rosters.


Rosters for women’s bowlers participating in the 2023 season were downloaded from team athletic websites and distances from reported hometowns and campuses were calculated via Google Maps to provide an approximate distance from a student-athlete’s home to the institution for whom they compete. Distances to hometowns were averaged per team and by NCAA division to determine relative distance to campus and states where bowling recruits tended to originate.


Data from the 2023 season indicated that the sport of Women’s Bowling is highly geographical in nature. While bowlers were willing to attend an institution further away from their hometown at the Division I level as compared to Division II and III institutions, most bowlers tend to commit to programs relatively close to their hometowns. Additionally, data suggests that large percentages of these athletes are from areas located in a relatively small section of the USA.


Spatial geography plays an impactful role in both the sponsoring of women’s bowling and in the recruitment of student-athletes into these programs. Data suggests that, with a few exceptions, the further a school is located from the Great Lakes area, the fewer collegiate programs and the fewer potential student-athletes exist. Additionally, participants in the lower levels of NCAA competition tend to commit to schools much closer to their listed hometown than those who play on an NCAA I team.

Applications in Sport

The findings of this study may prove beneficial to administrators considering adding Women’s Bowling to their offerings and to coaches who are looking for prime recruiting areas to develop their teams. Also, as most of these teams are located at smaller colleges and universities, this data may prove beneficial in considering how limited resources might be best allocated.

Keywords: Bowling, Distance, Geography, Location, Spatial

2024-01-25T11:18:15-06:00January 26th, 2024|Sports Management, Sports Studies|Comments Off on Strikes, Pins, Gutter Balls, and…Maps: A Review of the Spatial Geography of NCAA Women’s Bowling

Line of Efforts: Unity of Purposes for Professionals Working with Elite Athletics

Authors: Matt Moore1, Keegan Atherton2, and Cindy Miller-Aron3

1Department of Family Science and Social Work, Miami University, Oxford, OH, USA
2School of Education and Human Sciences, Campbell University, Buies Creek, NC, USA
3Ascend Consultation in Healthcare, Chicago, IL, USA

Corresponding Author:

Matt Moore, Ph.D., MSW
501 E. High Street
Oxford, OH 45056

Matt Moore, Ph.D., MSW, is an Associate Professor and Department Chair for the Department of Family Science and Social Work at Miami University in Oxford, OH. His research interests focus on sport social work, sport for development, and positive youth development through sport.

Keegan Atherton is a BSW student at Campbell University in Buies Creek, NC. He has a decorated military career with the United States Air Force.

Cindy Miller-Aron, LCSW, CGP, FAGPA, works for Ascend Consultation in Chicago, IL. She is several decades of clinical social work experience with an emphasis in sport social work and psychiatric care.

Line of Efforts: Unity of Purposes for Professionals Working with Elite Athletics


The purpose of this commentary is to explore how military practices can help provide holistic care for the biopsychosocial well-being of elite athletes. In particular, authors explore how Joint Doctrine related to Lines of Efforts (LOEs) and Human Performance Optimization (HPO) could provide a model of integrated care for elite athletes. The commentary includes an introduction to factors impacting elite athlete mental health, a review of military LOEs, and how these LOEs could support HPO among elite athletes. This includes a discussion on the inter-professional practice and informational diversity needed to support elite athletes both in and away from competition. The authors also discuss the key stakeholders needed to support elite athlete health and well-being, with an emphasis on full collaboration from professionals to transform practice.

Keywords: elite athlete, military, integrated care, health, well-being

2024-01-19T13:33:18-06:00January 19th, 2024|Sports Studies|Comments Off on Line of Efforts: Unity of Purposes for Professionals Working with Elite Athletics

Sports Performance: A Comparison of Oral Rehydration Solutions on Hydration Biomarkers in Military Personnel

Authors: Reginald B. O’Hara1 and Brenda Moore2

1Chief, Biochemistry Services Division, Department of Clinical Investigation, William Beaumont Army Medical Center, For Bliss, TX, USA.

2 Moore Enterprises, LLC., Independent Research Contractor, Yellow Springs, OH, USA


Reginald B. O’Hara, PhD, ACSM-EP
William Beaumont Army Medical Center
Department of Clinical Investigation
Building 18509 Highlander Medics Street
El Paso, TX 79918

Reginald B. O’Hara, Ph.D., is the Chief of the Biochemistry Services Division at William Beaumont Army Medical Center, Department of Clinical Investigation, Fort Bliss, TX. His research interests focus on the clinical pathology of the disease process, human performance, exertional heat stress, and physiological fatigue and recovery in military personnel.

Brenda Moore, Ph.D., nutrition microbiologist, is retired but continues to support her own research contracting business in Yellow Springs Ohio. Dr. Moore worked as a research nutrition microbiologist under an ORISE contract from 2016-2019 in the United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, WPAFB, OH where she conducted research on thermal stress and dehydration in military personnel.

Sports Performance: A Comparison of Oral Rehydration Solutions on Hydration Biomarkers in Military Personnel


Purpose: Exertional heat stress is a serious condition, especially for military personnel working in high-heat and humid climates, such as flight maintainers, flight crew, loadmasters, and Special Operations Forces Operators. Hence, this study assessed the effects of military-approved oral rehydration solutions (ORS) in highly fit military personnel while performing a 10-mile run. The ORS tested were Gatorade (G) and CeraSport (CS), with water (W) as the control. Methods: Fifteen “well-trained” participants (13 male, 2 female) (mean± SD: age, height, weight, % body fat, and VO2 max = 28.07 ± 5.0 yrs., 69.79 ± 4.2 in, 174.4 ± 21.53 lbs., 13.7 ± 6.7%, and 52.9 ± 5.0 mL/kg/min, respectively) completed three separate 10-mile treadmill runs, separated by a one-week recovery period. Hydration biomarkers were measured at baseline, post, and 20-minute run pause increments during each 10-mile testing trial run. Study investigators measured the following hydration biomarkers 1) Body weight change (BWC), 2) hematocrit (Hc), 3) exercise heart rate (HR), 4) blood glucose (BG), 5) blood lactate concentration ([BLa¯] b), 6) hemoglobin (Hb), and 7) total urinary output (UO). Results: No statistical difference occurred in the hydration biomarkers, likely due to the large volume (1500 mL) of fluid consumed. While no significant differences in BG were detected between G and CS, both CS and G values were significantly higher than water (p< 0.05) throughout the study. Additionally, blood lactate concentrations ([BLa¯] b) were lower during the last 40 minutes of the study when CS was consumed in comparison to G, approaching significance (p= 0.09) at Time 7 (T7).Conclusions: Outcomes from the present study provide preliminary evidence that consumption of CS in the same volume and time as G results in the preservation of BG values with lower sugar and carbohydrate consumption and without a concurrent rise in blood lactate. The present study showed that although there were no statistical differences in hydration biomarkers, potential differences may be more clearly extricated in future studies conducted in varying environmental conditions, such as higher temperatures and humidity, with a larger sample size, or a more prolonged exercise period.

Keywords: rehydration solutions, biomarkers, physical exertion, sports, military personnel

2024-01-12T15:29:30-06:00January 12th, 2024|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Sports Performance: A Comparison of Oral Rehydration Solutions on Hydration Biomarkers in Military Personnel

The impact of risk factors on Olympic travel intentions

Authors: Bonnie Tiell1 and Elizabeth Athaide-Victor2

1 United States Sports Academy and Tiffin University School of Business

2 Tiffin University School of Criminal Justice and Social Sciences

Bonnie Tiell, Ed.D.
2696 South Township Rd 1195
Tiffin, OH 44883

Bonnie Tiell, Ed.D., is a Professor of Sport Management at Tiffin University in Ohio and the U.S. Sports Academy. She has coordinated an academic experience with Olympians at every summer Games since Athens 2004.

Elizabeth Athaide-Victor, PhD., is a Professor of Forensic Psychology and Psychology. Her research interest includes jury behavior, jury cognitive processing, child sexual abuse litigation, toxic tort litigation, juror competence, and juror bias.

The impact of risk factors on Olympic travel intentions


This study explores perceptions of risk-related factors that may discourage travel to the summer Olympics. Specifically, the research analyzes the degree to which risks related to environmental concerns, instability, and personal limitations impacted travel intentions to the 2016 Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the 2020 Games in Tokyo, Japan which were held without spectators due to a global pandemic.

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to analyze the degree to which risk-related factors significantly impacted Olympic tourism intentions.

Methods: Almost identical surveys were administered in the United States (U.S.) and the People’s Republic of China approximately two months before the opening ceremony for the 2016 Rio Olympics and again before the originally scheduled 2020 Tokyo Olympics. The only change to the updated 2020 instrument was replacing the Zika virus with Covid-19 as one of the variables measured. Analysis of Variances (ANOVAs) and Dunnett’s Planned Comparison were used for the statistical analysis. 

Results: The study herein represented an analysis of 882 responses including 728 usable surveys from 2016 and 154 from 2020. Risks that related to instability and environmental health that were uncertain in nature were perceived to be greater deterrents to Olympic tourism than known risks related to personal limitations. When conducting paired comparisons of risk factors that would deter travel to the summer Olympics, 17 significant differences were found between the mean scores.

Conclusions: Perceptions of travel risks that are uncertain or unable to be controlled are typically a greater deterrent to Olympic tourism than risks that are certain and seemingly able to be controlled.        

Application in Sport: Understanding the types and degree to which risk factors influence travel intentions to the summer Olympics or a mega-event can assist organizers in framing communications with potential visitors and local businesses.

Key Words: tourism, Zika, COVID-19, Environmental risks, instability, terrorism, mega-event, nationality, sport travel, personal limitations related to travel, travel health

2024-01-05T15:50:06-06:00January 5th, 2024|Olympics, Research, Sports Studies|Comments Off on The impact of risk factors on Olympic travel intentions

Comparing Cardiovascular and Metabolic Demands between Two Bouts of High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT)

Authors: Shane S. Robinson1, Jason C. Casey2, Gregory Palevo3

1GME Senior Research Project Manager, Northeast Georgia Medical Center, Gainesville, GA, USA

2Associate Professor, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO, USA

3Assistant Professor, Albany State University, Albany, GA, USA


Shane S. Robinson, MS, CSCS
549 Paxton LN
Jefferson, Georgia 30549

Shane Robinson, MS, CSCS is a Senior Research Project Manager for Graduate Medical Education at Northeast Georgia Medical Center and Adjunct Faculty for Kinesiology at the University of North Georgia. His research interests include acute cardiovascular and metabolic responses to high-intensity exercise and adaptations to resistance training and cardiovascular disease.

Jason Casey, Ph.D., CSCS*D, ACSM-EP, is an Associate Professor of Exercise Science at Metropolitan State University of Denver, CO. His research interests focus on fatigue and recovery associated with exercise, athlete monitoring, and sport-related measurement issues.

Gregory Palevo, PhD, ACSM-EP, AACVPR Fellow, is an Assistant Professor of Exercise Science at Albany State University in Albany, GA. He continues to pursue his research interests in heart failure patients, studying the effects of nitric oxide supplementation and exercise.

Comparing Cardiovascular and Metabolic Demands between Two Bouts of High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT)


Purpose: The overall objective of this study is to determine if the wide variety of exercise selections in High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) affects the metabolic demands between each workout. Methods: A crossover design with six experienced participants were used to compare the mean and maximum values of heart rate, oxygen consumption, the difference between post-exercise and resting blood lactate accumulation, immediate post-exercise rating of perceived exertion, and total caloric expenditure from exercise and 15-minute post-exercise oxygen consumption between a seven-minute workout of burpees and an eight-minute workout box jumps and ascending weight and repetitions of the barbell deadlift. An independent T-test was used to compare the outcome variables between the two workouts. Results: Mean and maximal oxygen consumption was significantly greater in the seven minutes of maximum burpees compared to the eight minutes of box jumps and deadlifts. There was no significant difference in mean and maximal heart rate, blood lactate accumulation, rating of perceived exertion, and total caloric expenditure between the two workouts. Conclusion: Both bouts of HIFT were executed to complete as many repetitions as possible, which lead to similar cardiovascular and metabolic measures except for the participants’ oxygen consumption. This difference was primarily due to the ascending weights and the repetitions of the deadlift. All participants’ average repetitions completed per minute decreased significantly when they came across the 275-pound barbell for 25 repetitions. Applications in Sport: These findings show that even though all HIFT workouts are performed at high intensity, the variance in exercise selection can impact the participant and how they respond to each workout requires further research into how these different modalities and variations can impact exercise participants and their limitations to better understand HIFT and how it can compare to other forms of exercise.

Keywords: HIFT, metabolic demands, AMRAP, burpees, box jumps, deadlifts, EPOC, intermittent exercise, body composition

2023-12-21T11:48:35-06:00December 29th, 2023|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Comparing Cardiovascular and Metabolic Demands between Two Bouts of High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT)
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