The R.I.C.E Protocol is a MYTH: A Review and Recommendations

Authors: Domenic Scialoia & Adam J. Swartzendruber

Corresponding Author:
Domenic Scialoia
Saint Joseph’s College of Maine
278 Whites Bridge Road 
Standish, ME 04084
Email: domenic.scialoia@sjcme.edu
Phone: 617-922-0309

Domenic Scialoia is a recent graduate of Saint Joseph’s College of Maine, where he obtained a Bachelor of Science in Exercise Science with concentrations in Pre- Physical Therapy and Sport Performance.

Adam J. Swartzendruber is an Assistant Professor of Sport and Exercise Science at Saint Joseph’s College of Maine.

The R.I.C.E Protocol is a MYTH: A Review and Recommendations

ABSTRACT

The RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation) protocol has been the preferred method of treatment for acute musculoskeletal injuries since its origin in a 1978 publication entitled “Sports Medicine Book” by Dr. Gabe Mirkin.  These guidelines have been used by coaches and healthcare providers for over four decades with the intent of expediting the recovery process and reducing inflammation.  Although popular, the implementation of this protocol to attenuate the recovery process is unsubstantiated.  There is, however, an abundance of research that collectively supports the notion that ice and rest does not enhance the recovery process, but instead delays recovery, and may result in further damage to the tissue. Research in regard to compression and elevation is inconclusive, diluted and largely anecdotal.  Definitive guidelines for their application have yet to be purported.  As a result of the subsequent research that examined the validity of the protocol, Dr. Mirkin recanted his original position on the protocol in 2015.  The objective of this article is to analyze the available evidence within the research literature to elucidate why the RICE protocol is not a credible method for enhancing the recovery process of acute musculoskeletal injuries.  In addition, evidence- based alternatives to the protocol will be examined.  These findings are important to consider and should be utilized by any healthcare professional; specifically, those who specialize in the facilitation of optimal recovery, as well as those who teach in health-related disciplines in higher education.

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2020-10-30T10:18:49-05:00October 30th, 2020|Sports Medicine|Comments Off on The R.I.C.E Protocol is a MYTH: A Review and Recommendations

Comparison of Four Stretching Protocols on Short-Term Power

Authors: Joni M. Boyd, PhD, CSCS*D; Janet R. Wojcik, PhD; Alice J. McLaine, PhD; Zachary Hartman, MS, ATC; and Malik McGill

Corresponding Author:
Joni M. Boyd, PhD, CSCS*D
216 L West Center
Rock Hill, SC 29732
boydj@winthrop.edu
803-323-4936

Joni M. Boyd is an Associate Professor of Exercise Science & Coaching at Winthrop University.
Janet R. Wojcik is a Professor and Coordinator of Exercise Science at Winthrop University.
Alice J. McLaine is an Assistant Professor and Coordinator of Athletic Training at Winthrop University.
Zachary Hartman is an athletic trainer in Rock Hill, SC.
Malik McGill is a physical therapy student in Charleston, SC.

Comparison of Four Stretching Protocols on Short-Term Power

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to compare different stretching protocols on vertical jump and long jump. Participants included 22 females and 16 males that completed four different stretching protocols in a randomized, cross-over treatment design. Protocols were performed on separate days, with at least 48 hours of rest in between. Each session began with a 5-minute self-paced jog, followed by one of the four stretching protocols: static-only stretch, dynamic-only stretch, ballistic-only stretch, and dynamic-plus-ballistic stretch. Each stretching protocol lasted for about five minutes. Either participants performed a vertical jump or long jump directly after finishing the stretching protocol, then switched testing conditions. There were no significant differences in vertical jump or long jump performance across the four conditions. Consequently, this study did not support previous research showing performance improvement after dynamic stretching.

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2020-07-15T11:52:42-05:00October 9th, 2020|Research, Sports Medicine|Comments Off on Comparison of Four Stretching Protocols on Short-Term Power

Assessment of Disinfection Techniques for Decontaminating Athletic Mats

Authors: Max Greisberg
maxgreisberg@gmail.com

Justin Greisberg, MD
Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, Columbia University
Chief of Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics
Chief of Orthopaedic Trauma
622 W 168th St
PH 11th floor
New York, NY 10032
(212) 305-5604
Fax (212) 305-4024
Jkg2101@cumc.columbia.edu

The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

No funding was received for this research.

Assessment of Disinfection Techniques for Decontaminating Athletic Mats

ABSTRACT

Skin infections are a hazard in close contact sports. Disinfection of wrestling mats is widely recommended to reduce the incidence of infection, but there is little to no evidence how best to clean the mats. In this study, microorganism levels from the wrestling mats of two schools were quantified to determine if disinfection reduces the bacterial load from the surface of the mats and in the seams between mat sections; and to determine if using a flat mop is more effective than a string mop. This study found that both techniques were effective in reducing the bacterial load of the mats. However, neither method was effective at reducing bacterial counts in the grooves between mat sections. There was a trend favoring the use of a flat mop over a traditional string mop, but the trend did not meet statistical significance. Future research may focus on whether widespread adoption of these techniques leads to a lower incidence of skin infection in athletes.

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2020-06-01T11:43:26-05:00August 7th, 2020|Research, Sports Medicine|Comments Off on Assessment of Disinfection Techniques for Decontaminating Athletic Mats

Decreasing Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in Wrestlers

Authors: Ashley Spires BSN, RN-BC

Corresponding Author:
Ashley Spires BSN, RN-BC
7985 Lancaster Circleville Rd
Lancaster, OH 43130
Ashley.spires@va.gov
614-257-5388

Ashley Spires is Care Manager and Registered Nurse for the Department of Veteran’s Affairs, an Ohio University Doctor of Nursing Practice candidate and a youth and middle school wrestling coach at a central Ohio public school system.

Decreasing Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in Wrestlers: Educating Coaches, Protecting Teams

ABSTRACT

Lack of coach education, standardized disinfection protocols, and standardized return to play procedures amongst wrestling programs have led to a high incidence of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections (SSTI) in the school age and adolescent athletic community. An educational intervention was performed with coaching staff in a pre/post intervention study. SSTI rates were calculated both pre and post intervention to assess for effective intervention in reducing SSTI incidence in the youth athletes. Pre-intervention review of aggregate infection data revealed a 22.6% SSTI occurrence rate. Post-intervention the SSTI occurrence rate was reduced to 3.5%. A McNemar chi-square test was run and the results were statistically significant at X 2 (1) = 54.721, p < 0.001. The intervention had a significant impact in lowering the SSTI rate in wrestlers. Future directions include improved education of youth wrestling coaches to include recognition of SSTI as well as best practice disinfection and infection control protocols.

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2020-05-06T09:25:50-05:00June 26th, 2020|Sports Medicine|Comments Off on Decreasing Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in Wrestlers

High School Competitive Diving Injuries: National Athletic Treatment Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION)

Authors: Susan M Braid & Eric Schussler

Corresponding Author: 
Susan Braid
1881 University Drive
Virginia Beach, VA 23453
sbraid@odu.edu
757-683-4563

Susan Braid is an assistant professor at the School of Nursing at Old Dominion University. She is an epidemiologist, nurse, and USA diving judge who has judged at local, national, and international competitions. 

Eric Schussler is an assistant professor at the School of Rehabilitation Sciences at Old Dominion University. He is a physical therapist and athletic trainer.

High School Competitive Diving Injuries: National Athletic Treatment Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION)

ABSTRACT

Purpose:  Elite diving coaches and USA diving officials have become increasingly concerned about injury prevention among adolescent divers. However, little is known about such injuries. The purpose of this study was to describe the injuries among high school students who participated on high school diving teams.

Subjects: High school students who participated on the diving teams of high schools that were included in the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) for 2011–2014.

Methods:  Descriptive epidemiology using injury exposure data on 56 boys’ Swimming and Diving teams and 55 girls’ Swimming and Diving teams from the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) for 2011–2014.

Results:  Only 12 injuries were reported, and 8 (67%) were concussions. The incidence of concussions was the same between boys and girls.

Conclusion:  Concussions are the highest reported injury among high school divers in the NATION data. Student athletes who had minor injuries may not have been evaluated by an athletic trainer. Researchers need better injury surveillance data for high school divers.

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2020-04-20T14:23:07-05:00May 22nd, 2020|Research, Sports Medicine|Comments Off on High School Competitive Diving Injuries: National Athletic Treatment Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION)
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