Voice Health in Pre-Service Physical Education Majors: A Pilot Study

Authors: Marty Marra, Ed. D., Kellyn Hall, Ph. D., and Fred J. Cromartie, Ed. D.

Corresponding Author:
Dr. Marty Marra
Longwood University
201 High Street
Farmville, VA 23909

Dr. Marty Marra is an Assistant Professor of Health and Physical Education at Longwood University in Farmville, VA. Dr. Marra has been involved in education for 33 years and continues to research and study in the areas of pedagogy, professionalism, current trends and gender equity issues in health, physical education and athletics.

Kellyn Hall, Ph.D. CCC/SLP is a clinician, researcher, teacher, and author with over 30 years’ experience working in a variety of medical settings.  She is currently an Associate Professor in the Communication Sciences and Disorders program at North Carolina Central University where she teaches medical speech-language pathology courses. Her clinical interests are in adult and pediatric voice disorders.

Dr. Fred J. Cromartie, is the Director of Doctoral Studies at the United States Sports Academy.

Voice Health in Pre-Service Physical Education Majors: A Pilot Study


Teachers are at a higher risk for phono-traumatic voice disorders due to increased vocal demands of their profession. Previous studies suggest that training modules may be effective in educating practicing teachers about vocal hygiene and vocally abusive behaviors.

The purpose of this study was to pilot an online training module targeting student teachers before they entered their teaching professions. The goals were to provide instruction about vocal hygiene, strategies for optimal voice production, and determine the effectiveness of the training in their vocal practices in their future careers. It was hypothesized that an online educational module will increase undergraduate students’ knowledge of vocal hygiene, thereby reducing their risk of developing voice disorders in the future.

2019-11-27T08:36:50-06:00December 13th, 2019|Sport Education|Comments Off on Voice Health in Pre-Service Physical Education Majors: A Pilot Study

A Practical Evaluation of Golf Coaches’ Knowledge of Block and Random Practice

Authors: Dr. David Grecic and Mr. Brendan Ryan, MS / MA

Corresponding Author:
Brendan Ryan
1304 Denman Ct
Wesley Chapel, FL

David Grecic is a princial lecture and head of sport at the University of Central Lancashire. David joined the School of Sport, Tourism and the Outdoors in August 2008 having previously worked in a variety of sport and education settings for 15 years. He is an active coach in a variety of sports including rugby union, swimming and golf. It is here that his specialist interest lies and that drives his academic research.

Brendan Ryan is a former college coach who now works closely developing junior golfers in their pursuit of college. He is also a well-established academic, with a pair of Master’s degrees and the author of several books, published papers and popular articles.

A Practical Evaluation of Golf Coaches’ Knowledge of Block and Random Practice

The practical knowledge of golf coaches is of great interest to golfers, researchers, and the media alike. One popular element is their application of practice design and, in particular, their use of Contextual Interference (CI) through their use of random and block practice design. The study investigated the level of understanding of 69 golf coaches in the theory, use, and transference of both these methods. The main findings were that coaches had a surface level understanding of the issues, but had worrying gaps in knowledge on how to relate their practice design to long-term athlete development. Suggestions are provided on how coach learning could be provided to support this identified development need.

2018-06-13T11:07:13-05:00July 19th, 2018|Sport Education, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on A Practical Evaluation of Golf Coaches’ Knowledge of Block and Random Practice

Startup Leadership in Sports

Authors: Wanyi Tang and Rodney J. Blackman

Corresponding Author: Rodney Blackman, rblackman@ussa.edu

Wanyi Tang is a doctoral Teaching Assistant at the United States Sports Academy
Rodney J. Blackman, is an Associate Professor and Chair of Recreation Management at the United States Sports Academy

Startup Leadership in Sports

A qualitative, phenomenological document analysis approach was taken to ascertain and highlight characteristics found in successful sports startup entrepreneurs. This information was framed in a thorough review of leadership characteristics necessary for general startup company success, as reported by successful startup entrepreneurs in response to interview questions. Other sources of information valuable for interpretation and understanding of this phenomenon came from individuals known for their successes and reporting their expertise, based on experience, in magazine and journal articles, as well as information from focus groups reporting results from their findings in online formats, newsprint articles, and other popular literature. Accordingly, 4 primary dominant leadership characteristics were identified among sports startup leaders. These traits included sound decision making, recruitment and retention of workers that fit the company and become followers, maintenance of clear vision, and prioritization to keep that vision clear and being attentive to strategy – to continually strategize for success. Interestingly, it was also determined that sports startup leadership characteristics do not appear in isolation – but rather, in each case in this study, effectiveness was augmented by leaders who displayed multiple leadership characteristics linked in a variety of different ways.

2018-03-30T13:46:27-05:00April 2nd, 2018|Commentary, Contemporary Sports Issues, Sport Education|Comments Off on Startup Leadership in Sports

Contextualization of a Shifting Perspective Regarding the Steroid Era

Authors: Patrick Antinori and Rodney J. Blackman

Corresponding Author:
Dr. Rodney Blackman
United States Sports Academy
One Academy Drive
Daphne, Alabama 36526
Phone: 251-626-3303
Email: rblackman@ussa.edu

Patrick Antinori is Director of Global Sales for Phoenix Bats, a hardwood bat supplier for Major League Baseball. He is also a graduate student at the United States Sports Academy.

Rodney J. Blackman, is an Associate Professor and Chair of Recreation Management at the United States Sports Academy

To a young fan whose innocence is preserved, baseball can represent the very best of life. Adult fans support this in a variety of ways. But, the history of the game has a less-than-noble side. The steroid era in baseball has been widely considered as a blemish on the visage of baseball, leaving the people involved and the game itself open to disdain and disparagement. Until recently, the writers who elect people to the Baseball Hall of Fame have echoed these sentiments by holding to a very narrow view of that era, and the effects thereof can be likened to staring at their shoes. But a certain shift is appearing regarding perceptions about the steroid era – a view given to greater forbearance, in the larger context of the history of baseball, and how best to preserve the integrity of the game.

Over time, there has also been a greater societal demand for full disclosure. This has created a wealth of information about the steroid era in relation to the history of the game of baseball, including chronicled accounts of what people did and what they said, and did not say, at the time. However, ascertaining culpability was not the purpose of this study. Rather, the purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and describe historical accounts of pre-steroid and steroid era behaviors and their after-effects, as well as to contextualize these choices and consequences that shaped the steroid era within the historical past and coming future of the game. Moreover, the data effectively also yielded the presence and contextualization of a discernible shift in perspective regarding the steroid era.

2017-07-20T16:04:02-05:00July 25th, 2017|Commentary, Contemporary Sports Issues, Sport Education, Sports History|Comments Off on Contextualization of a Shifting Perspective Regarding the Steroid Era

Gamification in Adventure and Wilderness Sports: A literature review of game-based mechanic’s ability to increase attraction, engagement, and retention in outdoor sports

Authors: Christopher P. Johnson*

Christopher P. Johnson is an educator and co-founder/ head strength and conditioning coach at Boston Strength and Conditioning, llc in Newton, Ma. He received his Masters of Management degree as well as his Bachelors of Science Degree in Sports Science from Lasell College, and is currently pursuing a terminal degree through the Academy.

*Corresponding Author:
Christopher P. Johnson, MS
73 Elm Rd. Apt. 2
Newtonville, Ma 02460

This article is intended to provide adventure and wilderness sport coaches with a comprehensive overview of existing research introducing gamification techniques also known as game theory or game-based mechanics that are gaining popularity in fields such as business, marketing, education, and the military for use in employee, customer, and student attraction, engagement, and retention to the world of adventure and wilderness sports coaching. A broad range of existing literature related to gamification was compiled, examined, analyzed, and disseminated. The examined research findings suggest that gamification methods are effective for acquiring, engaging, and retaining individuals towards improved athletic performance. Furthermore, existing research clearly supports a strong positive correlation between gamification and effective motivational strategies for athletes. Specifically attraction, engagement, and retention as athlete’s progress through their athletic careers and the demands and traditional structure of their sport lose their interest. As well as benefits of adventure and wilderness sports to children that other sports may not provide. Game-based mechanics serves as an excellent tool to further engage athletes towards their goals in adventure and wilderness sports. Fitness and sport coaches desiring to increase athlete participation, engagement, and performance must examine and implement sound research-supported strategies associated with motivating athletes. By developing an understanding of the concepts identified and incorporating the practices prescribed within this essay, fitness and sport coaches may establish coaching strategies that effectively engage their athletes in sport and fitness activities that are traditionally less game-based than their ball- and team-based counterparts.

KEYWORDS: Sports Coaching, Fitness Coach, Sports Education, Gamification, Game-based Mechanics, Game Theory, Adventure Sports, Wilderness Sports, Outdoor Sports

2016-05-13T06:58:45-05:00May 13th, 2016|Commentary, Sport Education, Sports Coaching|Comments Off on Gamification in Adventure and Wilderness Sports: A literature review of game-based mechanic’s ability to increase attraction, engagement, and retention in outdoor sports
Go to Top