NCAA Head Coach Satisfaction with Athletic Trainers: Influence of Individual Athletic Trainer Characteristics and Team Factors

Authors: Whitney Larson, M.S., ATC, Alyson Dearie, Ed.D., ATC, Larissa True, Ph.D., Brian Richardson, Ph.D., and Erik Lind, Ph.D.

Corresponding Author:
Erik Lind, Ph.D.
1151 Professional Studies Building
Kinesiology Department
State University of New York at Cortland
Cortland, NY 13045
(607) 753-2189

Whitney Larson is an assistant athletic trainer with the Iona College Athletic Department in New Rochelle, NY, and provides coverage for a number of the school’s athletic teams.

Dr. Alyson Dearie is the Clinical Education Coordinator with the Athletic Training program at SUNY-Cortland.

Drs. Larissa True (Exercise Science), Brian Richardson (Coaching), and Erik Lind (Sports Studies) are all with the Kinesiology Department at SUNY-Cortland.

NCAA Head Coach Satisfaction with Athletic Trainers: Influence of Individual Athletic Trainer Characteristics and Team Factors


Considerable research exists which examines the relationship between head coach-athlete and athletic trainer-athlete. However, little is known about the perceived relationship between head coach-athletic trainer, specifically satisfaction with services provided. Purpose: This study examined head coach satisfaction with athletic trainers across National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) divisions. Methods: Head coaches from a Division I, II, and III athletic department were surveyed regarding overall and dimensions of satisfaction of athletic training services. Results: No differences in Overall Satisfaction with athletic training services were noted. However, coaches assigned (a) a full-time athletic trainer reported significantly higher satisfaction in athletic trainer Knowledge/Ability than coaches with a graduate assistant and (b) a certified athletic trainer reported higher Communication scores. Moreover, Overall Satisfaction and Professionalism were different between male/female sport teams. Conclusions: Regardless of competitive level, NCAA head coaches appeared satisfied with services provided by the athletic training staff. Certain dimensions of satisfaction, however, were influenced by individual characteristics of the athletic trainer (i.e. full-time appointment; assigned certified athletic trainer). Likewise, team factors (i.e. sex of the team) also influenced satisfaction ratings with athletic training services. Applications in Sport: The findings may contribute to continued improvement of the NCAA head coach-athletic trainer relationship. Given the demands and responsibilities of each role, it is imperative to establish a trusting and positive relationship. Clearly delineating the needs and expectations both the head coach and athletic trainer are to address will only create a more productive work environment. Awareness of these findings will help inform the head coach-athletic trainer relationship by highlighting factors (e.g., access to full-time and certified athletic trainers) which can quickly facilitate the relationship. Conversely, the findings also identify potential issues (e.g., sex of the team) to address early to prevent a break down in the relationship.

2020-08-12T10:44:29-05:00November 13th, 2020|Sports Coaching|Comments Off on NCAA Head Coach Satisfaction with Athletic Trainers: Influence of Individual Athletic Trainer Characteristics and Team Factors

COVID-19: Social Isolation and Optimism in Sport

Author: Christopher Streeter

College of Doctoral Studies, Grand Canyon University, Phoenix, AZ, USA
Department of Social Sciences, Goodwin University, East Hartford, CT, USA
Academy Coach, New England Revolution, Major League Soccer (MLS)

Corresponding Author:
Christopher Streeter
College of Doctoral Studies
Grand Canyon University
Phoenix, AZ 85017

Christopher Streeter is a doctoral candidate at Grand Canyon University, an Adjunct Professor of Psychology at Goodwin University, and an Academy Coach for the New England Revolution of Major League Soccer. His research interests include sport psychology, coaching methodologies, motivating language theory, sociology of sport, cognitive psychology, and behavioral psychology.

COVID-19: Social Isolation and Optimism in Sport


The purpose of this discussion is to explore communicative strategies that sport practitioners can implement during this unprecedented time of social isolation as a result of COVID-19. The goal of this discussion is to frame COVID-19 social isolation mandates as opportunities for coaches and sport practitioners to maintain mental health by revisiting their commitment to their players, to their teams, and to the industry of sport. Social isolation is a fundamental safety step that can limit the spread of COVID-19. However, research links prolonged social isolation with adverse health consequences including depression, poor sleep quality, impaired executive function, accelerated cognitive decline, and increased levels of anxiety. The social isolation that COVID-19 has thrust upon the world, including the sport industry, presents a paradox: Can social isolation manifest optimism in sport? Recommendations for coaches and sport practitioners include communicative behaviors intended to deafen the social isolation created by COVID-19. Communicative approaches discussed include empathetic language, articulation of meaning and purpose, connectedness, and strategies to overcome social isolation. 

2020-07-06T10:30:15-05:00July 8th, 2020|Sports Coaching, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on COVID-19: Social Isolation and Optimism in Sport

Getting it right for everyone: Sport coaching and the adult participation domain

Authors: John Lyle

Corresponding Author:
Professor John Lyle
Carnegie School of Sport
Leeds Beckett University
CV106, Headingley Campus
United Kingdom
00 44 (0)7590108098

John Lyle is Professor of Sport Coaching in the Carnegie School of Sport at Leeds Beckett University.

Getting it right for everyone: Sport coaching and the adult participation domain


Sport provision is best understood as a series of distinctive domains, with characteristic purposes, motivations, practices and demands on coaches’ expertise. This paper identifies the characteristics of the instructor-led adult participation coaching domain, which is the least well researched and developed, and identifies the implications for coach education and workforce management. The propositions are illustrated by conversations with Coaching Development Managers from eight sports in the UK that have a significant adult participation profile. The paper confirms the variety of domain populations, from casual recreation to coach-dependent adult competition, including ‘Masters’-designated participation, but outside the mainstream of performance sport. It highlights two principal coaching practices: market-led sport instructors, delivering episodic, largely technique-based ‘lessons’ to participants, and (club) coaches of adult competition sport. However, much of the characteristic adult participation is casual recreation and coach-independent. The paper argues that a fuller understanding of this domain is important for ensuring that coaches’ expertise and practice are matched to participant needs.

2020-06-02T11:26:18-05:00May 8th, 2020|Sports Coaching|Comments Off on Getting it right for everyone: Sport coaching and the adult participation domain

How the Perceived Effectiveness of a Female Coach is influenced by their Apparent Masculinity / Femininity

Authors: Paula Murraya, Rhiannon Lordb, & Ross Lorimerb (aLoughborough College, UK, bAbertay University, UK)

Corresponding Author:
Dr Ross Lorimer
Abertay University
Dundee, UK, DD1 1RG
+44 (0)1382 308426

How the Perceived Effectiveness of a Female Coach is Influenced by their Apparent Masculinity / Femininity


The aim of this study was to investigate how the apparent masculinity/femininity of a coach influenced others’ perceptions of their ability to interact successfully with their athletes.  Seventy-three participants (44 males, 29 females, Mage=23.8 SD= ± 8.41) watched four videos depicting a coach working with a group of athletes.  Each video was the same but featured the four combinations of masculinised/feminised coach and male/female athletes.  Participants rated the coach on perceived relationship quality, empathy, and competency.  There was a main effect in relationship quality (closeness) and three of four subscales of coaching competency, with the masculinised coach rated higher than the feminised coach.  There was also a non-significant trend for the feminised coach to score higher in relationship quality and competency when working with male athletes compared to female athletes, and the masculinised coach to score higher with females.  For affective empathy, there was a main effect for athlete sex, with both coaches rated higher working with male athletes.  There was also a non-significant trend for both coaches’ cognitive empathy to be rated higher when working with male athletes.  The perception of the masculinity/femininity of a coach influences how others understand their interactions even when the behaviors of that coach are similar across situations. Coaches need to be aware that gender-based stereotypes may influence how others perceive their competency. This could potentially affect coach effectiveness and career progression.

2020-10-13T08:53:21-05:00April 24th, 2020|Research, Sports Coaching|Comments Off on How the Perceived Effectiveness of a Female Coach is influenced by their Apparent Masculinity / Femininity

Scientific Epistemology for Physical Education Fundamental Movement Skills Prerequisites

Authors: Robert P. Narcessian and Janet M. Leet

Corresponding Author:
Robert P. Narcessian, EdM
St. Joseph’s Health and Regional Medical Center
Department of Orthopedics
703 Main Street
Paterson, NJ 07503
201-612-0695; 973-754-2950

Robert P.Narcessian is a faculty member and research consultant in the Department of Orthopedics, and the primary investigator of the study

Janet M. Leet, President
Sub5, Inc.
508 S. Evanston Avenue
Arlington, IL 60004

Janet M. Leet is a coach and the co-investigator of the study at St. Joseph’s Regional Medical Center

Scientific Epistemology for Physical Education Fundamental Movement Skills Prerequisites


A scientific epistemology, using a systems thinking qualitative methodology for translating practice into theory, integrates mathematical and dynamical systems concepts with belief systems that are presented in this original research of unique prerequisites for fundamental movement skills (FMS) in physical education as illustrated with running. FMS prerequisites demonstrate that FMS are neither fundamental nor reliable screentests conducted on individuals by physical education teachers, coaches, and healthcare practitioners for performance readiness evaluations or injury risk assessments. FMS prerequisites identify and assess eliminating the hypothetical set of worst first moves, assess the integrity of their respective coordinative structures, and assess performers’ beliefs (i.e., preferred behaviors) with the objective to provide a new direction for researching injury risk and performance readiness. The researchers illustrate this new method with participants for FMS prerequisites in running and squatting to provide insight for the observer-performer interaction. A new observer-performer classification and non-epistemic modeling show what is known with self-discovery strategies that detect hidden skills at the observable level using four independent tasks. There were 297 participants in kindergarten through high school (213 females and 84 males; mean 14.5 years; range 5 to 17 years) and 21 participants from the community at large (15 females and 6 males; mean 31.4 years, range 12 to 94 years). A variety of running strategies of different degrees of configured complexity from which to run were self-selected and observed as preferred with and without practice or intervention. An idealized 2-joint planar multi-joint mechanism (MJM) was used to assess individual skill with respect to adding and removing constraints. Findings are presented for strategies, trends, and transitions of preferred behavior including observables that reveal hidden skills including a visual search of a hidden skill with world record Olympian sprint performances. FMS prerequisites are theorized for future study with an inverted U-model and a leading MJM hypothesis; and they provide the rudiments for injury risk assessments and performance readiness evaluations approaching optimal health biomechanically in the very early detection of flawed gross motor skill development before manifesting into the signs and symptoms of injury or poor performance.

2020-06-02T13:42:34-05:00April 3rd, 2020|Sport Education, Sports Coaching|Comments Off on Scientific Epistemology for Physical Education Fundamental Movement Skills Prerequisites
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