Daily Self-Monitoring of Physical Leisure Activities and Health Practices, Self-Concept, and Quality-of-Life

Submitted by Jennifer Kwak1 MA*, Michael Amrhein2*, Harald Barkhoff2*, and Elaine M. Heiby1*

1* Department of Psychology, University of Hawai’i at Mānoa

2* Department of Kinesiology and Exercise Sciences, University of Hawai’i at Hilo

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Being physically active during leisure time is a positive contributor to overall physical and mental health, while sedentariness is a risk factor for several diseases. Minority students are at-risk of physical inactivity during leisure time and more research is needed to better understand how this affects health outcomes and its dynamical nature.

Methods: Computer Assisted Mobile Interview (CAMI) cell phone technology was used to prospectively collect daily self-monitoring of physical leisure activity and the outcomes of six health practices (eating habits, feeling hassled, mood, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and use of sun protection) and mental health indicators of self-concept and quality-of-life, over four months with 28 multi-ethnic college students in Hawaiʻi, U.S.

Results: Correlational and multiple regression analyses yielded significant positive relationships among daily physical leisure activity, self-concept, and feeling less hassled. Daily sedentary leisure activity was significantly associated with poorer health practices. Very-Physically-Active participants reported significantly more positive self-concept than Not-Very-Physically-Active participants. Self-concept and quality-of-life were significantly related to more positive daily health practices.

Conclusions: These results provide preliminary evidence for the positive and dynamical effects of active physical leisure activity on health practices and mental health indicators, and demonstrate cell phones as an effective tool for daily self-monitoring.

Applications in Sport: Health professionals, coaches, and educators may better understand the temporal health effects of physical leisure activities in student minorities. The use of cell phone technology, particularly text-messaging, can be an effective tool to self-monitor daily activities to improve health and fitness during leisure time.

Key words: physical leisure activities, health practices, self-monitoring, self-concept, quality-of-life

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Effect of National-Level Field Hockey on Physical Fitness and Body Composition Parameters In Turkish Females

Submitted by Yılmaz Ucan1, Ph.D*

1* Abant Izzet Baysal University, School of Physical Education and Sports

Yılmaz Ucan, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Coaching Science at the Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey. 

ABSTRACT

To be successful in field sports such as soccer, rugby, football and hockey, players need to be enhancing some bio-motor abilities like endurance, strength, speed and flexibility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of national-level field hockey on physical fitness and body-composition parameters in Turkish females. Twenty-four female subjects (12 non-sporting healthy controls aged 19 to 22, 12 elite, national level field hockey players aged 18 to 21) participated in this study. Body composition, 30-meter sprint, leg power, handgrip strength, posture balance were measured. At the end of measurements, there was a significant differences in body-fat percentage (p < 0.014), fat mass (p < 0.044), speed (p < 0.000), leg power (p < 0.006), grip strength (p < 0.022), but no significant differences in fat-free mass (p > 0.442) and fall index (p > 0.258) were observed between hockey players and non-sporting controls. Results suggest that regular participation to hockey training programs improves body composition, speed, and lower- and upper-extremity strength, with no effect on fat-free mass and posture balance in young females. Additional studies may identify effects of field hockey training on physical fitness and body composition in males and different age groups.

Key words: Field hockey, fat mass, speed, strength, posture balance

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The Impact of Eating Disorder Risk on Sports Anxiety and Sports Confidence in Division III Female Athletes

Submission by JoAnne Barbieri Bullard1, Psy.D.*

1* Instructor, Health and Exercise Science Department, Rowan University,

JoAnne Barbieri Bullard is an instructor in the Health and Exercise Science Department at Rowan University. Bullard is also a Doctor of Sport Psychology and Performance and a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist.

ABSTRACT

Eating disorder risk is important to assess not only regarding possible impact on the performance ability of an athlete, but also for the health risks athletes could experience. The purpose of this study is to evaluate eating disorder risk and the impact on sports anxiety and sports confidence of Division III female student-athletes. The results were based off of the Eating Attitudes Risk-26 Questionnaire to examine eating disorder risk, the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 to examine trait anxiety in sport settings, and the Sources of Sport Confidence Questionnaire to examine sources of sport confidence. The methodology included an informed consent form, demographics questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Risk-26 Questionnaire, Sport Anxiety Scale-2, and the Sources of Sport Confidence Questionnaire. Analyses were completed utilizing bivariate correlations and regression analysis. The results of this study showed that eating disorder risk was significantly correlated with only one variable of sports confidence, labeled as physical self-presentation, and no variables of sports anxiety. Athletic departments, athletic trainers and coaching staffs can utilize these findings to effectively work with student-athletes in a preventative manner.

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Differences in Collegiate Athlete Nutrition Knowledge as Determined by Athlete Characteristics

Submitted by Allisha M. Weeden, Janette Olsen, John M. Batacan, Teri Peterson

Allisha M. Weeden is an Assistant Professor in the Dietetic Programs at Idaho State University.  Janette Olsen is an Assistant Professor in Health Education at Idaho State University.  John M. Batacan is an Assistant Professor in Health Education at Idaho State University.  Teri Peterson is an Assistant Professor in the College of Business at Idaho State University.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE:  To identify nutrition knowledge based on collegiate sport, where nutrition knowledge was lacking, and specific nutrition related concerns of collegiate athletes.

METHODS: The cross-sectional study evaluated responses to a 65-item written questionnaire.   Participants (n=174; female=88, male=86) competed in 13 different NCAA sanctioned sports.  Nutrition knowledge scores calculated from the number of nutrition knowledge questions correct then converted to a percent from the number of questions correctly answered.  Frequencies, Chi-square, and t-tests were used to report and compare nutrition knowledge scores.

RESULTS: The mean nutrition knowledge score of participants was 56.4% ± 13.4%.  Higher nutrition knowledge scores were associated with completion of a collegiate nutrition course (p = 0.015), participation in individual sports (p = 0.043), and citation of healthcare professionals as the primary source of nutrition information (p = 0.008).  Forty-two percent reported nutrition concerns related to what and how to eat healthy.

CONCLUSIONS:  Collegiate athletes lacked nutrition knowledge and expressed concerns surrounding what and how to eat healthy.  Completion of a collegiate level nutrition course may benefit collegiate athletes, especially those that do not have access to a Registered Dietitian (RD).

APPLICATIONS IN SPORT: Collegiate athletes, athletic departments, and even universities all benefit from successful sports teams.  Nutrition can be a big part of success and the use of a RD to educate athletes ensures appropriate nutrition knowledge is provided.  For universities with financial constraints collegiate level nutrition courses and small group cooking classes taught by an RD may still benefit collegiate athletes.

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An Athlete’s Nutritional Answer

Submitted by John Stump, DC, PhD, EdD

John Stump is the clinic director at the Integrative Medicine Centre. A consultant and partner in Sportec International, a Fairhope, AL, based sport and fitness consulting company. He is also a National Faculty member of the United States Sports Academy

ABSTRACT

The year of the Olympics is a special time for athletes everywhere. Health care professionals find it difficult to recognize a case of Chronic Fatigue of a former college track athlete who persisted on despite her infirmity to qualify for the Olympics. The patient had an acute onset of symptoms not consistent with any condition but general fatigue. Blood studies and additional tests indicated a fatigue syndrome consistent with that of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. She was placed on a specific nutritional program for four months and shortly afterward was back to long distance running.

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