The Coach’s Role in Sport Concussion Care: Developing High School and Youth Coaches through the Concepts of Deliberate Practice

Submitted by Brandon D. Spradley1, EdD*, Fred Cromartie2, EdD*

1* Acting Director of Continuing Education at the United States Sports Academy, Daphne, Alabama 36526

2* Director of Doctoral Studies at the United States Sports Academy, Daphne, Alabama, 36526

Dr. Brandon Spradley is the Acting Director of Continuing Education at the United States Sports Academy. Dr. Fred Cromartie is the Director of Doctoral Studies at the United States Sports Academy.


Sport coaches have a significant role in providing concussion care to young athletes. The foundations of expert coaching and elite performance that is so often cited in scholarly literature can be used to develop coaches in the area of sport-related concussion care. There are two essential components to providing optimal sports concussion care: understanding athletes and the sports they play and understanding the neurology of the injury (Kutcher, 2011). Research shows that detecting early signs of concussion can improve outcomes (Lovell, 2009); therefore, there is a need for a rapid screening test to assess athletes who may have a concussion (Galetta et al., 2011). The King-Devick Test is a concussion screening test that could meet this need and is based on measuring the speed participants complete rapid number naming test cards. The King-Devick Test has been consistently published in research as an accurate and reliable method of identifying athletes with head trauma. Using the concepts and applications of deliberate practice, high school and youth sport coaches can implement easy-to-use assessments such as the King-Devick Test into their sport programs to develop competency in protecting athletes from the effects of concussion. Continue reading

Beer and Ball On Campus? The Issue of In-Stadium Alcohol Sales

Submitted by Mark Mitchell, Ph.D*, Robert D. Montgomery, Ph.D*

1* Department of Marketing and Resort Tourism, Coastal Carolina University, Conway, South Carolina 29528

2* Department of Marketing, University of Evansville, Evansville, Indiana 47722

Mark Mitchell, DBA is Professor of Marketing and Chair of the Department of Marketing and Resort Tourism at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, SC.

Robert D. Montgomery, DBA is Professor of Marketing at the University of Evansville in Evansville, IN.


This manuscript examines the issue of in-stadium alcohol sales for collegiate sporting events. In the past decade, there has been an increase in the number of Division I FBS football programs allowing alcohol sales in their stadiums. While it is currently not the norm (25% do allow it, 75% do not allow it), the number is increasing. And, others allow alcohol sales in premium seats as well other smaller venue sports (such as baseball and basketball). This manuscript examines: (1) the reasons collegiate athletic departments might consider allowing in-stadium alcohol sales, (2) the mitigating constraints that may cause them to not allow its availability, and (3) a look a current ‘best practices’ among institutions that currently allow in-stadium alcohol sales.

Key words: in-stadium alcohol sales, beer sales, fan experience, tailgating. Continue reading

Conflicts of Interest in the Intercollegiate Athletics Management Structure – The Impetus for Nullification of Presidential Authority

Submitted by Corey M. Turner, J.D., Assistant Professor of Business Law*

1* Department of Business, Kingsborough Community College, City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11235

Corey M. Turner is an Assistant Professor of Business Law and a member of the campus-wide Athletics Committee at the City University of New York’s Kingsborough Community College.


In recent years there have been numerous athletics scandals at major universities. The scandals are the outgrowth of infractions of NCAA rules and regulations committed by coaches and student-athletes. In the wake of such scandals, university presidents have asserted that they are not in control of their athletics programs, despite the fact that the NCAA changed its management structure in 1997 giving presidents full authority for the governance of intercollegiate athletics nationally. Thus, there is a perception amongst university presidents that their presidential authority in areas of intercollegiate athletics governance has been nullified despite the existence of NCAA regulations to the contrary.

The root cause of nullification of presidential control and authority is the president’s own conflict of interest between professional responsibilities and personal interests. In the contemporary environment of large television contracts and the race to increase revenues on university campuses, there has been a fundamental change in mindset that places the importance of athletics over academics. In such an environment, conflicts of interest are both prevalent and unavoidable. Thus, the key issue is not the existence of conflicts of interest, but the management of conflicts of interest.

Although there is no easy answer or simple fix for conflict of interest induced nullification, process based decision making may be strategically deployed as a conflict of interest management tool when analyzing information, evaluating choices, making decisions, and establishing conditions that such decisions must meet in order to be ethically correct. Continue reading

High School Football Recruiting and Twitter Followers: An Unstable Mix for Self-Branding Efforts?

Submitted by Edward (Ted) M. Kian1, Ph.D*, Jimmy Sanderson2, Ph.D*

1* School of Media & Strategic Communication, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078-4053

2* Department of Communication Studies, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634

Edward Kian is an Associate Professor at Oklahoma State University and an Endowed Welch-Bridgewater Chair in Sports Media.  Jimmy Sanderson is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Communication Studies at Clemson University and is Director of the Sports Communication BA Program.


This study examined individual branding efforts of marquee high school football prospects in the United States who had verified Twitter accounts. Specifically, this study investigated if top recruits who delayed public announcements of their college choice impacted their number of Twitter followers before and after they selected a specific school on National Signing Day, compared to recruits who committed early to one university long before National Signing Day. Results showed that recruits who may have attempted to increase their notoriety and Twitter followers by waiting to announce college choice are no more successful in doing so than those who commit to one school early. Further, uncommitted recruits generally did not have more followers than those who had been consistently committed to one school before signing day. Most prospects – regardless if they committed to a college long before or on National Signing Day – gained and did not lose Twitter followers over the entire examined period. This could be because sports fans on Twitter generally do not stop following athletes. It could also be that these fans found specific athletes interesting to follow and thus plan to continue doing so. Continue reading

Effect of Mental Training on the Performance of College Age Distance Runners

Submitted by Michael P. Spino1*, William F. Straub2*

1* Sports Administration, Kinesiology and Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303

2*Department of Psychology, Tompkins Cortland Community College, Dryden, NY 13053

Michael P. Spino was born in New Jersey but has spent most of his adult years working in Atlanta, Georgia. He is an excellent track coach having coached at Georgia Tech and Life University. His teams have won many state and national championships. Recently he earned his doctoral degree at Lille2 University, Lille, France. Presently, he is teaching part-time at Georgia State University in Atlanta.

William F. Straub was born in Catskill, New York. He is a retired professor of kinesiology and sport psychology. He has published extensively in scholarly journals and now has a small private practice in sport psychology. He is a USOC certified sport psychology consultant. He received his PhD degree from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI and a Master’s degree in clinical psychology from the new School for Social Research in NYC.


The purpose was to determine if Event Rehearsal Imagery (ERI) and Internal guided Imagery with Distractions (IGID) resulted in improvements in the running performance of college students. The participants (N = 74) were students at Kenyatta University in Nairobi, Kenya. Cooper’s 12 min run test was used to assess running performance. Following 8-weeks of training, findings indicated that there was a statistically significant difference (0.05 level) in running performance between the Event Rehearsal Imagery (n = 29), Event Rehearsal Imagery with Distractions (n = 16) and the Control group (n = 29). Overall, there was a significant mean difference in running among male (n = 47) and female (n = 27 participants).

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