Ethics, Integrity and Well-Being in Elite Sport: A Systematic Review

Authors: Deborah Agnew, Philippa Henderson and Carl Woods

Corresponding Author:
Deb Agnew, PhD
GPO Box 2100
Adelaide, South Australia, Australia 5001
deb.agnew@flinders.edu.au
+61 8 8201 3456

Dr. Deborah Agnew: is a lecturer in the School of Education at Flinders University in South Australia. Her research interests include Australian football, masculinity, sports retirement and men’s health. She is a member of the Flinders SHAPE (Sport, Health and Physical Education) Research Centre and teaches in the Bachelor of Sport, Health and Physical Activity.

Ms. Philippa Henderson: has a Masters degree in public health and teaches across a wide variety of health topics in the School of Education and the School of Health Sciences at Flinders University in South Australia. Her research interests include sport, physical activity and well-being as well as the health and well-being of children.

Dr. Carl Woods: is a lecturer of Skill Acquisition and Motor Learning in the Discipline of Sport and Exercise Science at James Cook University. His research primarily focuses on talent identification, talent development and coaching in junior team sports; with a particular interest in Australian football. He currently provides research support to Australian football State Academy programs; with this being oriented around different aspects of performance analysis, skill acquisition and coach education.

Ethics, integrity and well-being in elite sport: A systematic review

ABSTRACT
Background: Athletes are expected to be good role models, compete fairly and allow the public insight into their personal lives away from sport.
Objective: The purpose of this paper was to conduct a systematic review on integrity, ethics and well-being in elite level sport.
Methods: A systematic search of SPORTDiscus, ScienceDirect, Taylor & Francis and Informit was conducted. The selection criteria were; published between 2006-2016, full-text availability, peer reviewed and English language. Twenty-three articles met the criteria for inclusion in this review and were analysed through an inductive thematic synthesis approach.
Results: Three themes emerged through the inductive thematic synthesis approach; sportspersonship and ethics, scandal and well-being. The concept of sportspersonship extends beyond the rules of sport and is strongly linked to the character of athletes. Sports environments are a key factor in the well-being of athletes and contribute to the expectations placed on athletes, particularly with regard to winning.
Conclusions: Ethics, integrity, sportspersonship and well-being are interrelated concepts in elite sport. Expectations placed on athletes may be unrealistic and may have negative consequences on well-being. It is important to understand the factors contributing to athlete well-being in order to develop strategies to minimize the adversities faced by athletes.

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Democratic Leadership Preferred by Male Student Athletes in Middle School Athletic Programs

Authors: Raymond Tucker

Corresponding Author:
Raymond Tucker, D.S.M, CSCS, FMSL1, USATFL1, USAWLP-1
Assistant Professor of Kinesiology
University of Houston at Victoria
3007 N. Ben Wilson
Victoria, Texas 77901
Phone: (361)-570-4381
rtbills2001@gmail.com

Raymond Tucker is an assistant professor of Kinesiology at the University of Houston at Victoria. He is a graduate of the United States Sports Academy with a Doctorate in Sports Management, and he is a certified strength and conditioning specialist by the National Strength and Conditioning Association. He is also a certified coach by the United States Track and Field Association, United States Weightlifting Federation, and Functional Movement Systems. He is certified by the state board of educator certification in Texas in health grades (EC-12) and secondary physical education (6-12).

Democratic Leadership Preferred by Male Student Athletes in Middle School Athletic Programs

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived behavior style of leadership male student athletes in middle school athletic programs prefer their coaches use in their daily relations with their athletes. This study compared male athletes’ perception of their coach’s behavior style of leadership at three different middle schools to determine if the perceived behavior style of leadership is comparable between male coaches at the respective middle schools in this study.

Results of a previous study entitled “Male Athletes Perception of Coaches Behavior in University Interscholastic Middle School Middle Athletic Programs”, detected a statistically significant difference in the behavior styles of leadership perceived by male athletes at the respective middle schools in this study in the following dimensions. 1) democratic training, instruction, (2) autocratic, training, and instruction, (3) social support and training instruction, (4) positive feedback and democratic behavior, (5) positive feedback and autocratic behavior, and (6) positive feedback and social support. This previous study did not disclose a statistically significant difference between middle schools in the dimensions of (1) positive feedback, training, and instruction, (2) autocratic and democratic behavior, (3) social support and democratic behavior, (4) social support and autocratic behavior. The data collected from this study was based on male athlete’s perception of the behavior style of leadership used by their coaches. The results of this study revealed a high mean score for the democratic behavior style of leadership compared to autocratic behavior, positive feedback, social support, training, and instruction. Based on the results of the data for this study, we can conclude the democratic behavior style of leadership is the behavior style of leadership used by coaches at the respective middle schools in this study. What follows is the basis for this study, procedures used to conduct the research, an analysis of the data, conclusions, application in sport, and finally, recommendations for further research on this topic.

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The Examination of Opinions of Academicians Who Are Expert on Sport Sciences about the Impact of Social Media Consumption on Institutional Image in Turkey

Authors: Ali Gurel Goksel, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Turkey.

Corresponding Author:
Ali Gurel Goksel, PhD
Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences
Kotekli/Mugla, 48000
aligoksel@mu.edu.tr
002522111951

Ali Gurel Goksel is a research assistant in Sports Exercise Science at the Mugla Sitki Kocman University studying public relations and communications in sports.

The Examination of Opinions of Academicians Who Are Expert on Sport Sciences about the Impact of Social Media Consumption on Institutional Image in Turkey 

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to examine opinions of academicians who are experts in sport sciences about the impact of social media consumption on institutional image, shared content, institutional representation of staff in social media and sanction related to shared content of academic staff in Turkey. 1512 academicians working at public universities in Turkey constitute the population of the study. 343 sport scientists voluntarily participated in this study. Data was collected by using Social Media Consumption and Institutional Image Scale, developed by Ozel (2014) and by using Personal Information form designed by the author. Collected data was analyzed by using descriptive test, independent t test for two groups, one-way ANOVA, Tukey test and Pearson Correlation test. Consequently, because universities make an effort to protect their institutional image in front of public, they can decide to suspend, investigate or remove the academicians sharing their political views including despiteful comments.

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Road Racing and Youth Running: Cross Country Coaches’ Perspectives

Authors: Peter S. Finley, Jeffrey J. Fountain, Douglas P. Finley

Corresponding Author:
Peter S. Finley
Carl DeSantis Building
3301 College Avenue
Fort Lauderdale, FL, 33314-7796
pfinley@nova.edu
954-262-8115

Peter Finley, Ph.D., and Jeffrey Fountain, Ph.D., are Associate Professors of Sport and Recreation Management at the H. Wayne Huizenga College of Business and Entrepreneurship at Nova Southeastern University.

Douglas Finley, M.S., has served as an agency administrator in park, recreation and resource management for both municipal and state government; as a member of the adjunct faculty at Michigan State University; and as a leader in creating, funding, and coaching fitness programs for youth. Finley is founder and editor of the Center for Children’s Running website and a published author on youth running, including works for the 20,000 U.S. schools Mileage Club initiative and for Running Times/Runner’s World magazine.

Road Racing and Youth Running: Cross Country Coaches’ Perspectives

ABSTRACT
This study focused on obtaining the thoughts and opinions of high school cross country coaches regarding the role road racing should play in youth running. The participants for this study consisted of 132 successful high school cross country coaches from across the United States responding to an original Youth Running and Road Racing survey. The results of the survey found that there was a high level of concern by a majority of the coaches that youth runners face risk of both injuries and burnout because of the distances they run at young ages along with the current environment that focuses too much on competition and not enough on fun and enjoyment of running. Therefore, coaches need to be brought into the conversation with race organizers, the media that covers running, and parents to help modify youth road races so that they can ensure the health and safety of future runners.  

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Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Automated External Defibrillator Certification of Club Coaches in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Montana, and Washington

Authors: Jessica M. Kerns, MSAT, LAT, ATC; Dani M. Moffit, PhD, LAT, ATC

Corresponding Author:
Jessica M. Kerns
Sport Science and Physical Education Department
219 S. 8th Avenue, Stop 8105
Pocatello, ID 83209-8105
208-996-6737
harrjes3@isu.edu

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Automated External Defibrillator Certification of Club Coaches in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Montana, and Washington

ABSTRACT
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) qualifications for coaches within club sport systems appear largely unregulated. This is a concern because CPR/AED qualifications should be a safety consideration. This study attempted to identify the prevalence of CPR and AED certification for club sport coaches in five states, as well as assess the availability of AEDs at practices and games. Not all coaches surveyed identified having CPR (n=84, 72.6%) and/or AED (n=83, 75%) training. A majority of coaches reported having an AED at practice (n=43, 54.4%). For games, there were fewer coaches identifying the availability of an AED (n=36, 43.4%). While the majority of coaches report having CPR/AED certification several coaches did not select having both CPR and AED certification although AED is a part of all CPR training courses. There was no consistency as to the availability of an AED at practices or games. Through investigating this topic, it was learned that there is no overarching governing body in club sports and therefore, few agreed upon regulations.

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