The High Performance Management Model: From Olympic and Professional to University Sport in the United States

Authors: Jed Smith* (1), Peter Smolianov (2)

(1) Head Strength and Conditioning Coach and an Instructor in the area of Movement and Exercise Science at the University of Northern Iowa and is currently a doctoral student at the United States Sports Academy
(2) Sport Management Professor at Salem State University

*Corresponding Author
Jed Smith, MS, CSCS, USA Weightlifting National Coach, USA Weightlifting National Instructor, USA Track and Field Level 1 Track Coach
High Performance Director at University of Northern Iowa
University of Northern Iowa
Cedar Falls, IA, 50614-0241

This exploratory study of the High Performance Model of Sport Management examines the model’s origins and where these ideas were first applied in the sports industry. This review discusses the evolution of its use in high level sport, and the successes incurred in systems utilizing the model. The investigation discusses the recent spreading of the model throughout Olympic and professional sports organizations throughout the world, where High Performance concepts are being studied and implemented into professional sports franchises in the United States as well as American universities. This study focuses on a particular ingredient important to the success of the High Performance Model at the “meso” and “micro” levels of implementation. This central step is the establishment of an integral operational position titled “High Performance Director” or “High Performance Manager”. The duties, responsibilities, areas of expertise, and traits necessary for success are reviewed and discussed. The inquiry explores the natural evolution of the High Performance Model into the industry of NCAA Division I athletics, where implementation is occurring at the University of Northern Iowa (UNI). Here, the Smith and Smolianov High Performance Model is being applied within UNI Athletics, using strength and conditioning as the median for operation. The infrastructure is being created and organized for proper application of the model. The study looks at how technology is being used to help monitor, track, and adjust training protocols as well as assist in the proper development of athletes. The review will indicate tactics used for selling the concepts internally, within an NCAA athletic, as well as an educational setting, exposing key players and supports, explaining the connection between these pillars of support and the importance of creating synergy, transparency, and an environment of effective communication. This work is the first in a series of exploratory reviews and future research to be conducted by the authors, who are reporting the current, ongoing case study, within UNI’s NCAA athletics/education program.

Keywords: high performance model, management, history
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Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) and Former National Football League Player Suicides

Submitted by: Marcos A. Abreu*(1), Fred J. Cromartie (1), Brandon D. Spradley (1)
(1) United States Sports Academy

*Corresponding Author:
Marcos Abreu
Doctoral Student
United States Sports Academy
One Academy Drive
Daphne, Alabama 36526

Marcos Abreu is a doctoral student at the United States Sports Academy studying sports management.

Purpose: Our understanding of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) has rapidly advanced, since 2002, when Dr. Bennet I. Omalu first discovered CTE in the brain of deceased former National Football League (NFL) player Mike Webster. Although it is clear that there is a link between the neurological diseases and exposure to repeated mild traumatic brain injuries, the explicit link between the long-term consequences that are associated with CTE and the suicide death of several former NFL players is much less clear. The purpose of this paper is to examine if the psychological and cognitive consequences that are associated with CTE are factors in the suicide death of several former NFL players.
Method: The literature used in this paper was acquired using the words NFL concussions, NFL player CTE research, CTE symptoms in NFL players, and NFL player suicide death in the EBSCOhost and Internet Explorer search engines.

Results: Although similar studies on the relationship between CTE and suicide in former NFL players determined that further research was needed to prove a connection (47, 22), the case study research and testimonial evidence discussed in this study reinforces Omula et al. (2010) findings that identified these psychological and cognitive consequences as key variables associated in suicide death of an alarming amount of NFL players, such as former Eagles and Arizona Cardinals Defensive Back Andre Waters, who resorted to suicide as a result of diminished neurological capabilities and accumulation of symptoms. Continue reading

A Study of the Fan Motives for Varying Levels of Team Identity and Team Loyalty of College Football Fans

Submitted by David Gargone*(1)

(1) David Gargone is an assistant professor of business and director of the sport management program at Misericordia University.

*Corresponding Author:
David Gargone, Ed.D.
Misericordia University
301 Lake St
Dallas, PA 18612

Fan motives, factors that influence a person’s decision to attend a sporting event, affect sport consumption at both the amateur and professional levels. This study identified the fan motives, selected from the Sport Interest Inventory (SII), most influential on college football fans and more specifically examined the effects on fan motive prevalence of seven variables: team identity, team loyalty, team affiliation, conference affiliation, household income, age, and level of education. All seven variables exhibited a statistically significant effect, at the p < 0.001 level, on a majority of the 17 fan motives considered, with team loyalty exhibiting a statistically significant effect (p < 0.001) on all 17 motives. In general, higher levels of team identity and team loyalty were associated with greater preference for fan motives. Across all participants, excitement, drama, sport knowledge, and interest in team were identified as the most common college football fan motives; interest in players, bonding with family, interest in sport, and escape were identified as the least common motives.

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Binge Eating and Binge Eating Disorder in Athletes: A Review of Theory and Evidence

Submitted by Gemma Williams*(1)

(1) Gemma Williams is Director of Health Writers SLU and specialist in eating disorders in athletes and exercise psychology. Her research focuses mainly on binge eating disorder, sports nutrition and strength training.

*Corresponding Author:
Gemma Williams, BSc
Health Writers S.L.U.
Velazquez, 59 28001 Madrid
+34 910 846 641

Prevalence rates binge eating disorder (BED) among athletes are thought to be considerably higher than that of the general population due to strict requirements for weight and performance gains related to body composition. Traditional models of BED are based on the general population and are therefore unlikely to fully account for the development of BED in athletes, who typically display significant cognitive and dietary restraint. This review explores the scientific literature relevant to the development of BED in athletes which indicates that 1) Extreme, rigid dieting practices and preoccupation with body weight and composition is a risk factor for BED; 2) Prolonged caloric restriction with or without stressors disrupts hunger and satiety cues, results in abnormalities in neurotransmitter systems and alters fronto-striatal circuitry, driving urges to binge eat; and 3) BED shares several mechanisms and behavioural traits with drug addiction. At this time, no guidelines for the management of BED in athletes exist, and current treatments do not address the individual requirements of athletes. Knowledge that BED in athletes is likely driven by caloric restriction and multiple stressors may assist coaches and athletes in preventing the onset of BED, reducing the risk of associated psychological comorbidities and alterations in metabolism.
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An Investigation into Factors that Contribute to the Perception of Disparities between Academic Achievement and Athletic Participation in High School Student-Athletes

Submitted by Dr. Kechia Seabrooks Rowles*(1)
(1)Athletic Coordinator for Rockdale County Public Schools in Conyers, Ga.

*Corresponding Author
Dr. Kechia Seabrooks Rowles
United States Sports Academy
85 Fox Glove Drive
Covington, GA 30016

The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare various factors that contribute to the attitudes and perceptions held by public high school student- athletes towards academic achievement. During the 2014-2015 academic year, 323 student-athletes completed a 110 question survey packet that included, the Non Cognitive Questionnaire (NCQ), the Athletic Identity Measure Scale (AIMS), the Student Athletic Motivation Survey and Questionnaire (SAMSAQ), the Student-Athlete Role Conflict Scale and the Sport Commitment Model (SCM), providing information about different aspects of the academic achievement and athletic participation relationship, including level of educational aspirations and academic self-concept, the internal struggle between the student and athlete identity complexes, and motivational drives of student-athletes. Student Participation was strictly voluntary and contingent upon the willingness of coaches and parental consent. Student-athletes generally viewed themselves as student-athletes and believed it is worth the effort to achieve athletic success but not at the expense of their academic performance. Analysis showed that gender may play a statistically significant role in student-athletes’ perception of academic performance and athletic participation while grade level, age and race were less meaningful. The researcher hopes these findings may encourage further research, and potentially aid parents, coaches, counselors and teachers in assisting student athletes with maintaining a balance between academics and athletics.
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