Swing Kinematics Described in Division I Female Softball Players

Submitted by Cassie Reilly-Boccia1*, Travis Ficklin2*, Robin Lund3*

1*  Director of Research and Development at Athletes Warehouse in Pleasantville, NY

2* Assistant Professor of Movement and Exercise Science at the University of Northern Iowa

3* Associate Professor of Movement and Exercise Science at the University of Northern Iowa

Cassie Reilly-Boccia is a former member of the National Champion University of Alabama softball team and is the Director of Research and Development at Athletes Warehouse in Pleasantville, NY.  Travis Ficklin is an Assistant Professor of Movement and Exercise Science at the University of Northern Iowa.  Robin Lund is an Associate Professor of Movement and Exercise Science at the University of Northern Iowa.


The purpose of this study was to describe basic kinematic variables of the swing and the relationships that exist between these variables in Division I female softball players.  These variables included bat velocity (BV), bat quickness (BQ), and bat acceleration (BA).  Video data were collected for all swings during a 15-game softball tournament in which six NCAA Division I teams played.  High-speed video cameras recording at 300 Hz were located along the first and third base lines recording every pitch.  Data from 1,099 swings were analyzed for bat velocity (BV), bat quickness (BQ), and bat acceleration (BA).  BQ and BV were calculated by video analysis and digitization.  All swings were rank ordered by BA and assessed for relationships among BV, BQ, and BA.  Descriptive statistics (mean ± SD) were calculated for all swing kinematic variables.  Pearson product moment correlations were used to examine relationships among the swing kinematic variables.  Alpha was set at (p<0.05) for all tests.  Mean BV for all swings was 28.77 ± 4.94 m/s, mean BQ for all swings was 0.208 ± 0.042 s, and mean BA for all swings was 144.39 ± 38.44 m/s2.  When observing correlations of all swings, BV and BQ unexpectedly had an inverse relationship.  When grouping swings into homogenous strata based on BA, BQ, and BV proved to have a significant positive correlation.

Key words: softball, bat velocity, bat quickness, bat acceleration

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Daily Self-Monitoring of Physical Leisure Activities and Health Practices, Self-Concept, and Quality-of-Life

Submitted by Jennifer Kwak1 MA*, Michael Amrhein2*, Harald Barkhoff2*, and Elaine M. Heiby1*

1* Department of Psychology, University of Hawai’i at Mānoa

2* Department of Kinesiology and Exercise Sciences, University of Hawai’i at Hilo


Purpose: Being physically active during leisure time is a positive contributor to overall physical and mental health, while sedentariness is a risk factor for several diseases. Minority students are at-risk of physical inactivity during leisure time and more research is needed to better understand how this affects health outcomes and its dynamical nature.

Methods: Computer Assisted Mobile Interview (CAMI) cell phone technology was used to prospectively collect daily self-monitoring of physical leisure activity and the outcomes of six health practices (eating habits, feeling hassled, mood, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and use of sun protection) and mental health indicators of self-concept and quality-of-life, over four months with 28 multi-ethnic college students in Hawaiʻi, U.S.

Results: Correlational and multiple regression analyses yielded significant positive relationships among daily physical leisure activity, self-concept, and feeling less hassled. Daily sedentary leisure activity was significantly associated with poorer health practices. Very-Physically-Active participants reported significantly more positive self-concept than Not-Very-Physically-Active participants. Self-concept and quality-of-life were significantly related to more positive daily health practices.

Conclusions: These results provide preliminary evidence for the positive and dynamical effects of active physical leisure activity on health practices and mental health indicators, and demonstrate cell phones as an effective tool for daily self-monitoring.

Applications in Sport: Health professionals, coaches, and educators may better understand the temporal health effects of physical leisure activities in student minorities. The use of cell phone technology, particularly text-messaging, can be an effective tool to self-monitor daily activities to improve health and fitness during leisure time.

Key words: physical leisure activities, health practices, self-monitoring, self-concept, quality-of-life

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Effect of National-Level Field Hockey on Physical Fitness and Body Composition Parameters In Turkish Females

Submitted by Yılmaz Ucan1, Ph.D*

1* Abant Izzet Baysal University, School of Physical Education and Sports

Yılmaz Ucan, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Coaching Science at the Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey. 


To be successful in field sports such as soccer, rugby, football and hockey, players need to be enhancing some bio-motor abilities like endurance, strength, speed and flexibility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of national-level field hockey on physical fitness and body-composition parameters in Turkish females. Twenty-four female subjects (12 non-sporting healthy controls aged 19 to 22, 12 elite, national level field hockey players aged 18 to 21) participated in this study. Body composition, 30-meter sprint, leg power, handgrip strength, posture balance were measured. At the end of measurements, there was a significant differences in body-fat percentage (p < 0.014), fat mass (p < 0.044), speed (p < 0.000), leg power (p < 0.006), grip strength (p < 0.022), but no significant differences in fat-free mass (p > 0.442) and fall index (p > 0.258) were observed between hockey players and non-sporting controls. Results suggest that regular participation to hockey training programs improves body composition, speed, and lower- and upper-extremity strength, with no effect on fat-free mass and posture balance in young females. Additional studies may identify effects of field hockey training on physical fitness and body composition in males and different age groups.

Key words: Field hockey, fat mass, speed, strength, posture balance

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Exploring Advising Models for Effective Student Athlete Advisement

Submitted by: Robert Lyons Junior1 PhD*, E Newton Jackson Junior2 PhD*, Aaron Livingston3 PhD*

1* Associate Professor, Port management, Queens University of Charlotte, Charlotte North Carolina

2* Professor, Sport management, University of North Florida, Jacksonville Florida

3* Assistant Professor, Sport management, Hampton University, Hampton Virginia


The dearth of literature concerning the advisement of student athletes is very perplexing. The purpose of this article was to describe the function and utility of various advising models while proposing hypothetical advisor student athlete scenarios to explain each model. The authors also proposed practical recommendations for student athlete advisors in an attempt to prepare for effective advisement.

Keywords: advising, student athlete, education, academics

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The Impact of Eating Disorder Risk on Sports Anxiety and Sports Confidence in Division III Female Athletes

Submission by JoAnne Barbieri Bullard1, Psy.D.*

1* Instructor, Health and Exercise Science Department, Rowan University,

JoAnne Barbieri Bullard is an instructor in the Health and Exercise Science Department at Rowan University. Bullard is also a Doctor of Sport Psychology and Performance and a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist.


Eating disorder risk is important to assess not only regarding possible impact on the performance ability of an athlete, but also for the health risks athletes could experience. The purpose of this study is to evaluate eating disorder risk and the impact on sports anxiety and sports confidence of Division III female student-athletes. The results were based off of the Eating Attitudes Risk-26 Questionnaire to examine eating disorder risk, the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 to examine trait anxiety in sport settings, and the Sources of Sport Confidence Questionnaire to examine sources of sport confidence. The methodology included an informed consent form, demographics questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Risk-26 Questionnaire, Sport Anxiety Scale-2, and the Sources of Sport Confidence Questionnaire. Analyses were completed utilizing bivariate correlations and regression analysis. The results of this study showed that eating disorder risk was significantly correlated with only one variable of sports confidence, labeled as physical self-presentation, and no variables of sports anxiety. Athletic departments, athletic trainers and coaching staffs can utilize these findings to effectively work with student-athletes in a preventative manner.

Key words: eating disorder risk, sports anxiety and sports self-confidence Continue reading