The Leadership Techniques and Practices of Elite Collegiate Strength and Conditioning

Authors: Mike Voight, Ann Hickey, Michael Piper

Corresponding Author:
Mike Voight, Ph.D.
PEHP Department
Central Connecticut State University
1615 Stanley Drive
New Britain, CT 06050

Dr. Mike Voight is a professor in the Physical Education and Human Performance Department at Central Connecticut State University where he teaches graduate courses in leadership, sport psychology, and sport sociology. His email is, and his website is

Dr. Ann Hickey is an associate professor at Whittier College (CA) where she teaches sport psychology.

Michael Piper is assistant strength coach at Central Connecticut State University.

Leadership development has been given more attention in the field of strength and conditioning. Particular topics of interest have included how important a training ground and learning laboratory the university strength and conditioning space is for leadership development, the styles of leadership among strength coaches, leadership behavior, roles, job responsibilities and analyses of NCAA Division 1 strength and conditioning coaches, becoming a more valuable asset to the athletic program, and improving buy-in and leadership (Brooks, Ziatz, Johnson & Hollander, 2000; Feldman, 2013; Magnusen, 2010; Massey, Vincent, & Maneval, 2004; Voight, 2014).

The purpose of this investigation was to interview elite strength and conditioning coaches on their use of “best practices” leadership techniques and practices designed to improve player motivation, communication, commitment, and personal/team leadership. To this objective, participants were not only asked about their use of leadership techniques, but what they do to improve the leadership skills of whom they lead. This study used a semi-structured, exploratory interview design, which revealed numerous subthemes which fit into four major themes: leadership behaviors, leadership development, motivational techniques (buy-in), and relationships-communication. Results of this study can be used by current and up-and-coming strength and conditioning professionals to get the most from their own leadership skill sets as well as developing leadership among the teams they train.
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An Investigation of the Role Communication Privacy Management Theory has in the Development of Social Media Policies

Author: Heath Wesley Hooper, Shorter University
232 Shorter Avenue
Rome, GA 30165
(706) 781-5974

The increasing social media use by student-athletes has created risks for multiple intercollegiate athletic stakeholders. Consequently, many athletic departments have turned to social media policies to reduce risk in this area. Through the lens of Communication Privacy Management Theory (CPM), the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between social media policy implementation and student-athlete social media usage, and how the size of the NCAA Division I institution moderates relationships between social media policy implementation and student-athlete privacy rights. A random sample of 59 compliance directors in the Southeastern United States was surveyed. The results indicate moderate support for the relationship between NCAA Division I social media policy implementation and privacy rights, boundary turbulence, monitoring of social media accounts, and banning of student-athlete social media use. Practical implications for athletics department compliance directors are discussed.
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Effects of Sitting versus Standing after an Active Warm-Up on Vertical Jump Performance

Corresponding and First Author: H. Scott Strohmeyer, Ph.D.
Morrow 137
Department of Nutrition and Kinesiology
University of Central Missouri
Warrensburg, MO 64093

H. Scott Strohmeyer is a Professor in the Department of Nutrition and Kinesiology at the University of Central Missouri in Warrensburg, MO.

Second Author: Jean Eckrich, Ph.D.
Exercise and Sport Sciences Department
541 Main Street
Colby-Sawyer College
New London, NH 03257

Jean Eckrich is a professor in the Exercise and Sport Sciences Department at Colby-Sawyer College in New London, NH.

There is significant interest concerning the effect of various warm-up protocols on performance. Efforts also have focused on warm-up decrements that occur with sports that have a halftime such as soccer or wait times associated with swimming events. However, player substitutes in many sports have significant periods of inactivity after the warm-up prior to their entry into competition. In some sports, the practice is for players to sit when not in the game, while other sports have substitutes stand. The evidence to determine if there are differences in performance based on sitting versus standing is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of standing versus sitting over time on vertical jump performance after an active warm-up period. Thirty-five participants participated in three different testing sessions where they were to stand, sit, or continue exercising after their warm-up. Treatment order was randomly assigned. Following warm-up, baseline standing vertical jump data for that testing session was collected. Standing vertical jump performance was then tested every 10 minutes for an hour to track performance degradation for a total of seven vertical jumps each session. Repeated measures found no differences at baseline or 10 minutes across conditions. However, there were significant differences at 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 minutes with the vertical jump performances for the exercise condition better than the sitting or standing conditions. No differences in vertical jump performances were found between sitting and standing trials. While there are other measures to consider, these findings failed to find differences between sitting and standing on vertical jump performances after an active warm-up.
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Improving Amateur Indoor Rock Climbing Performance Using a Changing Criterion Design Within a Self-Management Program

Brett E. Furlonger*, Andrew Oey*, Dennis W. Moore*, Margherita Busacca* & Douglas Scott*.

*Faculty of Education, Monash University

Correspondence concerning this manuscript should be addressed to Dr. Brett Furlonger, Krongold Centre, Faculty of Education, Monash University, Clayton Campus, Melbourne, Australia 3800. Phone: + 61 3 99059173. Fax: +61 99055127. Email:

The authors state that this manuscript has not been published or submitted simultaneously for publication elsewhere.

Despite the popularity of indoor rock climbing there is little information on how amateur climbers can improve their performance. A single-case experimental design with baseline, intervention, and post intervention phases was conducted using a changing criterion design within a self-management program. Discrete exercise training and combined training methods were trialled, with the effects of both on actual rock climbing compared. All discrete exercises improved over baseline; Powerball grip 45%, open-handed pull-ups by 50% and multi-stage fitness 35%. There was, however, no observable improvement in climbing performance. In contrast combined training led to a 40% improvement in climbing performance. For amateurs wishing to improve their recreational indoor rock climbing ability, practicing the task holistically rather than by training discrete skills in isolation may prove to be more effective.

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Perceptions of NCAA Division I Athletes on Strength Training

Authors: Joni M. Boyd, Ashley M. Andrews, Janet R. Wojcik, & Charles J. Bowers

Corresponding Author:
Joni M. Boyd, PhD
Winthrop University
216L West Center
Rock Hill, SC 29733

Joni Boyd is an Assistant Professor of Exercise Science in the Department of Physical Education, Sport, and Human Performance at Winthrop University in Rock Hill, South Carolina.

Understanding the beliefs and attitudes of student athletes (at all levels) in regards to their perception of their strength and conditioning programs is pivotal to an effective program. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions regarding the impact of strength training of student athletes at a mid-major Division I university. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive design using a volunteer sample of 123 college student athletes from a Division I university. Surveys measured student athletes’ perceptions on the importance of strength training in relation to sport-specific training. Results showed no significant differences in perceptions of strength training between genders or class rank. Significant differences were evident between the sports surveyed, specifically noting that some sports (baseball, track and field) felt their strength training program was more beneficial to their performance than other sports (softball, men’s soccer). These results show the differences in some athletes’ beliefs and perceptions regarding their strength training program, which could ultimately hinder results. The strength and conditioning professional can use this information to educate and monitor certain athletes or sports that may not feel their strength program is effective to enhancing performance.

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