Effect of SNS on Purchasing Intention for Sport Product

Authors: Seok Pyo Hong*(1) & Yong-Chae Rhee(2)
(1) Seok Pyo Hong is a full-time professor at the Kangwon National University, Korea and concentrating on sport consumer behaviors for his research.
(2) Washington State University

*Corresponding Author:
Seok Pyo Hong, Ph.D
Gangwon Daihak-gil 1
Division of Sport Science, Kangwon National University
Chuncheon, Gangwon, Korea

The purpose of this study was to better understand the influence of exchange of information and opinion about sports product on sport consumers’ buying intention. This study also examined the moderating role of sport identification on the relationships among peer communication, perceived usefulness, attitude, and online sport product purchase intention. Two hundred and seventy-nine samples who use social network service regularly and have purchased sport product online were used for this study. A self-administrated questionnaire consisting 34 questions was used based on previous research. Structural equation modeling and multiple group analysis were used to test hypothesis of the study. Results showed that peer communication through Social Network System (SNS) about sport product influenced perceived usefulness of the information from peers which also positively influenced the attitude toward buying sport product based on information from peers. Attitude also positively influenced buying intention for sport product. The level of identification with certain sport in SNS setting was a matter for deciding whether purchasing sport product.

KEYWORDS: SNS, purchase intention, social capital, TAM, sport identification
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Investigation of Corporate Social Responsibility Activities (CSR) of Fan Organizations

Authors: Ugur Sonmezoglu*(1)

(1) Ugur Sonmezoglu is a Research Assistant Dr. in the Department of Sport Management at the Pamukkale University, Turkey.

*Corresponding Author:
Ugur Sonmezoglu, Ph.D.
Faculty of Sport Sciences, Pamukkale University
Kinikli, Denizli, 20140

The aim of this research was to reveal purposes and effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities of fan clubs. Qualitative research methods were used in the research. Interview and document analysis method were used as a data collection tool. 20 activities of Besiktas (BJK) Karadeniz Eregli Association, Fenerbahçe (FB) Biga Associations, FB Bolu Association, Trabzonspor (TS) Vira Fan Group and Galatasaray (GS) Ultraslan fan clubs, making up the sampling group of the research, were examined by document analysis method. Subsequently, interviews were held with the representatives of these fan organizations. According to the research results, it was revealed that the purposes of fan organizations in CSR activities were dissemination of social awareness, social benefit and realization of advocacy mission; and a process was followed up such as receiving requests from the needy for CSR activities, partnership with non-governmental organizations, fundraising, revenue item formation, and usage of social media and communication tools; and professional approach style in CSR activities, encouragement by the club and the size of fan organizations in social media access webs gave an advantage to CSR projects to succeed.

Moreover, it was observed that CSR activities of fan organizations had favorable effects on the soccer clubs such as strengthening of club image, increasing fan loyalty, gaining supporters and financial contribution to the club. Finally, it was observed that CSR activities had favorable effects on the approach of soccer club to fan organizations, differentiation of fan organization from other fan organizations, on forming good relationships with other fan organizations, on gaining respect, trust and image to fan organization, mingling in fan organizations, growth of fan organizations and increase in loyalty to fan organizations.

KEYWORDS: Fan Organizations, Corporate Social Responsibility, Qualitative Research
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Is Gambling Preference Affected from Team Identification?

Authors: Necmettin Parlak, Unal Karli*(1),

(1) Unal Karli is faculty member of Izzet Baysal University, School of Physical Education and Sport. His research area is sport management and marketing.

*Corresponding Author:
Unal Karli, PhD.
Izzet Baysal University, School of Physical Education and Sport
Gölköy, Bolu, TURKEY
mobile phone: +90 505 767 1169

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether any relationship existed between team identification levels and gambling preferences of sport consumers who put bets on the games of their supported football team. The subject group of the study was composed of university students (N=223) who were participating in football bets. Turkish version of Sport Spectator Identification Scale (15) and a vignette developed by the researchers, to identify the bettors’ team preferences while placing bets on the games (national league, European league and derby games) of their supported team, were the data collection instruments. According to the 3×2 Two-Way Contingency Table analysis, results pointed that significant relationship existed between the team identification level and betting preferences only in the case of derby games, (χ2(2, N=223), 6.03, p=.04, Cramer’s V= .164). No significant relationship was identified between the team identification levels and betting preferences of the subjects in the cases of national league, (χ2(2, N=223), 3.47, p=.18, Cramer’s V= .125) and European league games, (χ2(2, N=223), 3.92, p=.14, Cramer’s V= .133). As a conclusion, it could be said that team identification is a determinant factor in bettors’ team preferences in derby games. The results of this study would be beneficial in identifying the betting behavior pattern of football gamblers who constitute a huge market in sport industry.

KEYWORDS: gambling, psychological adherence, loyalty, fan behavior, football
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Player and parent concussion knowledge and awareness in youth Australian Rules Football

Authors: Mark Hecimovicha*(1), PhD, ATR; Doug Kingb, PhD(2); Ida Maraisc, PhD (3)

(1)Division of Athletic Training, University of Northern Iowa, 003C Human Performance Center, Cedar Falls, Iowa, United States of America, mark.hecimovich@uni.edu

(2) Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand (SPRINZ) at AUT Millennium, Faculty of Health and Environmental Science, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand, doug.king@clear.net.nz

(3) University of Western Australia, Graduate School of Education, M428, 35 Stirling Highway, Mount Crawley, Western Australia, ida.marais@uwa.edu.au

*Corresponding Author:
Mark Hecimovich, PhD, ATC
Division of Athletic Training, University of Northern Iowa, 003C Human Performance Center, Cedar Falls, Iowa, United States of America
Phone: 1.319.273.6477

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure concussion knowledge and awareness of youth Australian Rules Football players and parents. Secondary aims were examining if player’s maturity in age, history of concussion and years played and parents who have undergone first aid and concussion training would increase knowledge.
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Olympic Sports of the Future

Authors: Dr. Ray Stefani*(1)

(1) Dr. Ray Stefani is a Professor Emeritus, California State University, Long Beach

*Corresponding Author:
Dr. Ray Stefani
25032 Via Del Rio
Lake Forest, CA, 92630

This paper explores possible future Olympic sports by examining the past. The ancient Olympic Games began in 776 BC with just one running event. Over the centuries, five more Track and Field (Athletics) events were added as well as four other sports with 22 events. These new sports kept the Olympics relevant to the times and interesting enough that the Games survived until 277 AD, At least two emperors competed and became Olympic champions. During the modern Olympic Games though 1992, organizers provided flair by adding non-medal demonstration sports, albeit in a rather haphazard manner, some of which became permanent sports. As the number of events rose to fill the available time period of both the Summer and Winter Olympics, a rather rigid system was used to limit the number of sports. That system had less-than-ideal success in adding new sports, which had to be at the expense of deleting older sports. The International Olympic Committee recently enacted Olympic Agenda 2020, which includes a much more flexible system for adding new sports. Under control of the International Olympic Committee Executive Board, an organizing Committee may request to add medal sports for that Games and that same IOC Committee can add new sports permanently, by modifying the number of events, without necessarily dropping existing sports. This paper examines the recent request by the 2020 Tokyo Organizing Committee as well the complete list of recognized sports from which new sports must be drawn, to gauge the possible types of future Olympic sports.

Keywords: Olympics, Ancient Olympics, recreational sports, future Olympic sports, official Olympic sports, recognized Olympic sports
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