New York Cosmos: Twice in a Lifetime; A New Business Look at a Legendary Sports Franchise

Authors: Sarbjit Singh*

Sarbjit Singh is Assistant Professor, Sport Management, at Farmingdale State College in New York

*Corresponding Author:
Sarbjit Singh, MBA/JD
Farmingdale State College
2350 Broadhollow Road
Farmingdale, NY 11735

The New York Cosmos were the dominant professional soccer franchise, on and off the field, during the 1970s and ‘80s. However, the team folded just a few years after its peak, succumbing to excessive spending and lagging revenues. Twenty-five years later, the Cosmos returned seeking a place on the local, national and global sports scenes. Via a case study, we take a look at the team’s history, its relaunch, and factors such as facility development and league affiliation impacting the team’s business plans. Like the franchise itself, the reader is tasked with determining whether the team’s new strategy and efforts can make it a profitable enterprise. The reader is also encouraged to think of practical ideas that will connect the team with both its first-generation of fans who regaled in their winning history and attract new fans who may not know their history and may be impatient when it comes to the team’s performance on the field.

The “Twice in a Lifetime” case study is grounded with a review of historical and recent literature on the life of the Cosmos brand, providing a foundation for readers to understand the birth of the Cosmos franchise, its subsequent evolution, and those impacting the direction in which the team would go, e.g. Stephen Ross, Warner Communications, the NASL, and Pele. The proposed discussion builds on this understanding and the specifics of the Cosmos relaunch and asks us to act like real-life managers who may have some important information, but not all, and still must make important decisions determining the fate of the franchise.

KEYWORDS: Strategy, Sports Business, Entrepreneurship, Brand Management, International, Case Study Continue reading

The Effect of Foot Placement on the Jump Shot Accuracy of NCAA Division I Basketball Players

*Authors: Christopher Q. Williams*, Liana Webster, Frank Spaniol, and Randy Bonnette

Corresponding Author:
Christopher Williams
12214 Brightwood Dr.
Montgomery, TX 77356
(361) 815-1530


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of foot placement on the jump shot accuracy of college basketball players. Participants were 11 female NCAA Division I basketball players. The two point shooting protocol adapted from Pojskić, Šeparović, and Užičanin (2011) was used to identify foot placement and evaluate accuracy for each subject. For each jump shot attempt, foot placement was recorded as either in front (in a dominant staggered stance), even (in a neutral parallel stance), or behind (in a cross-dominant staggered stance). Each attempt was also recorded as either a make or a miss. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to evaluate the differences in jump shot accuracy for each of the three foot placement positions. A one-way ANOVA (p < .05) revealed no significant differences for any of the three positions. The results of the study suggest that foot placement does not have a significant impact on jump shot accuracy. However, college basketball players favor the use of a dominant stance during the jump shot. This study offers new insight into the role of foot placement in shooting accuracy. Attention should be given to foot placement when coaching players or analyzing their jump shots. Keywords: staggered stance, shooting accuracy, shooting percentage 

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Gamification in Adventure and Wilderness Sports: A literature review of game-based mechanic’s ability to increase attraction, engagement, and retention in outdoor sports

Authors: Christopher P. Johnson*

Christopher P. Johnson is an educator and co-founder/ head strength and conditioning coach at Boston Strength and Conditioning, llc in Newton, Ma. He received his Masters of Management degree as well as his Bachelors of Science Degree in Sports Science from Lasell College, and is currently pursuing a terminal degree through the Academy.

*Corresponding Author:
Christopher P. Johnson, MS
73 Elm Rd. Apt. 2
Newtonville, Ma 02460

This article is intended to provide adventure and wilderness sport coaches with a comprehensive overview of existing research introducing gamification techniques also known as game theory or game-based mechanics that are gaining popularity in fields such as business, marketing, education, and the military for use in employee, customer, and student attraction, engagement, and retention to the world of adventure and wilderness sports coaching. A broad range of existing literature related to gamification was compiled, examined, analyzed, and disseminated. The examined research findings suggest that gamification methods are effective for acquiring, engaging, and retaining individuals towards improved athletic performance. Furthermore, existing research clearly supports a strong positive correlation between gamification and effective motivational strategies for athletes. Specifically attraction, engagement, and retention as athlete’s progress through their athletic careers and the demands and traditional structure of their sport lose their interest. As well as benefits of adventure and wilderness sports to children that other sports may not provide. Game-based mechanics serves as an excellent tool to further engage athletes towards their goals in adventure and wilderness sports. Fitness and sport coaches desiring to increase athlete participation, engagement, and performance must examine and implement sound research-supported strategies associated with motivating athletes. By developing an understanding of the concepts identified and incorporating the practices prescribed within this essay, fitness and sport coaches may establish coaching strategies that effectively engage their athletes in sport and fitness activities that are traditionally less game-based than their ball- and team-based counterparts.

KEYWORDS: Sports Coaching, Fitness Coach, Sports Education, Gamification, Game-based Mechanics, Game Theory, Adventure Sports, Wilderness Sports, Outdoor Sports
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The Effect of Momentum on the NBA Point Spread Market

Authors: Thomas T. Byrnes (1) and Joseph Anthony Farinella, Ph.D.*(2)

(1) Thomas Byrnes is a graduate from the Honors College at the University of North Carolina Wilmington. Mr. Byrnes is currently working as a financial advisor. 

(2) Joseph Farinella is an Associate Professor of Finance at the University of North Carolina Wilmington. Dr. Farinella is also a Chartered Financial Analyst and consultant.

*Corresponding Author:
Joseph Anthony Farinella, Ph.D.
University of North Carolina Wilmington
Department of Economics and Finance
601 South College Road
Wilmington, NC 28409

The notion of “momentum” and its effect on the outcome of sports games has been a point of contention for decades. This paper tests if a simple betting strategy based on momentum can be used to generate a consistent profit. The momentum strategy is applied to the National Basketball Association; we examine 30 teams spanning the 2001-2013 seasons. The results show that the momentum strategy generates a significant profit over this period. The momentum strategy is often referred to as the hot hand strategy. The strategy requires betting on teams to win that are already on a hot streak of at least four games, while betting on teams to lose that are already on a cold streak of at least four games. The results show that the momentum betting strategy yields an average overall winning percentage of 56.5%, which is significantly above the 52.4% required to break-even.

KEYWORDS: Sports wagering, Market efficiency, Momentum
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Strategies for Working with First Time Marathon Runners

Authors: Leeja Carter(1), John Coumbe-Lilley, Ph.D.*(2) Ph.D., Brenton Anderson(3)

(1) Leeja Carter, PhD is an Assistant Professor in the Division of Athletic Training, Health, and Exercise Science (ATHES) as well as the Director of the Performance Excellence in Applied Kinesiology Lab (PEAK) at Long Island University-Brooklyn. Dr. Carter also serves as the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) Diversity Committee Chair, AASP Women in Sports Special Interest Group coordinator, and sits on the AASP Foundation Committee. Such professional experiences allow Dr. Carter to promote issues of diversity in exercise and sport psychology.

(2) John Coumbe-Lilley, Ph.D. is a Clinical Assistant Professor in the Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition at the University of Illinois-Chicago. Dr Coumbe-Lilley, is a Certified Consultant with the Association of Applied Sport Psychology and a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist. He is a member of the USOC sport psychology registry and a seasoned sport psychology consultant.

(3) Brenton Anderson, is a graduate student at Adler University.

*Corresponding Author:
John Coumbe-Lilley, PhD, CC-AASP, CSCS
University of Illinois at Chicago
Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition
901 W. Roosevelt Road
MC 194
Chicago IL , 60608

Marathon running has increased in popularity and first time participants. Novice marathon runners are often highly motivated with positive attitudes at the start of their training. However, they are often unprepared for the mental and emotional demands of training and the race itself. This paper discusses the common psychological experience of “hitting the wall” and a range of challenges a novice might face on their way to race completion. A case example shows how a marathon runner might prepare to complete a marathon race and a multi-modal mental skills training approach is recommended as a complementary race preparation strategy to physical and technical preparation.

KEYWORDS: marathon, mental skills training, novice
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