Institutional Reforms and the Recoupling of Academic and Athletic Performance in High-Profile College Sports

December 13th, 2018|Research, Sports Management|

Authors: Christopher P. Kelley, Shane D. Soboroff, Andrew D. Katayama, Mathew Pfeiffer and Michael J. Lovaglia

Corresponding Author:
Christopher P. Kelley
2354 Fairchild Dr., Ste. 6L107
U.S. Air Force Academy, CO 80840-2603

Dr. Christopher P. Kelley is an Assistant Professor of Leadership in the Department of Behavioral Science and Leadership at the United States Air Force Academy. He studies complex organizations, leadership, power, and influence processes. Dr. Kelley also serves as the Managing Editor of the journal, Current Research in Social Psychology and is an active member of the American Sociological Association and the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

Institutional Reforms and the Recoupling of Academic and Athletic Performance in High-Profile College Sports

University officials and stakeholders continue to debate the role of athletics in the mission of higher education. Reforms promoted by the National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) to promote academic integrity reflect this tension. This research investigates whether the most recent means for monitoring a team’s academic success, the Academic Progress Rate (APR), has led to changes in the academic and athletic outcomes of high profile football and basketball teams. Neo-Institutional theory provides a framework for understanding how regulations translate into organizational change through the coupling of organizational practices to institutional goals. Predictions that metrics used to assess academic progress among high profile student athletes will reflect increasing isomorphism among sports teams at the same school received support. Specifically, analyses of seven years of NCAA’s APR and athletic performance data found that APR scores became more similar among Division 1 programs, and increasingly correlated for high-profile sports within the same schools. Using Hallett’s ‘inhabited institutions’ framework and research on academic and athletic success factors, we also investigated whether improvements in APR could be attributed to coaches and if these changes impacted team athletic success, while accounting for resource differences between schools. (more…)

Kinetic Chain Injuries and Their Relationship to Subsequent ACL Tears

December 6th, 2018|Research, Sports Medicine|

Authors: Jefferson Brand, MD, Richard Hardy, Ed.D., LAT, CSCS, Christopher Butler, Ph.D., Emily Monroe, MD

Corresponding Author:
Richard Hardy Ed.D., LAT, CSCS
111 17th Ave E #101, Alexandria, MN 56308
Fax: 320-589-6428
Office number: 320-589-6443
Cell number: 320-760-2031
Email: rhardy@heartlandorthopedics.com

Richard Hardy is a certified athletic trainer and coordinator of research at Heartland Orthopedic Specialists in Alexandria, MN. He is also contracted to the University of Minnesota Morris where he serves as an instructor and provides athletic training services.

Kinetic chain injuries and their relationship to subsequent ACL tears

Purpose: The relationship between previous kinetic chain injuries and the likelihood of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries remains under-explored. We compared the number of ankle injuries between subjects that had a surgically treated ACL tear to subjects that had a surgically treated shoulder injury (e.g., labral tear). We evaluated if a previous disruption of the lower kinetic chain (e.g., ankle injury) is a predisposing factor for ACL injuries. Our hypothesis was that ACL reconstruction patients will have a higher rate of previous ankle injuries than the control group (surgically treated labral tear).

Methods: Overall, 108 patients have undergone either ACL reconstruction or labral repair surgery. To insure similarity, we assessed Tegner activity level, knee alignment, and Beighton scale. Patients completed a questionnaire about demographics, ankle injury history, and the AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot scale. ANOVA statistically tested demographic data. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine if differences in previous ankle injury rates existed between groups.

Results: Overall, 63 patients (34 males/29 females) had ACL reconstruction and 45 patients (36 males/9 females) in the control group had surgery for labral lesions. No statistical differences occurred (P>0.05) for demographic data (age, BMI), Tegner activity scale, knee alignment, Beighton scale, or AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot scores for each ankle. This suggests that the groups were comparable. Previous ankle injuries were common in both groups but not statistically significant.

Conclusions: Comparing surgically ACL injured knees to surgically treated labral tears, there was no significant difference in the rate of previous ankle injury. Therefore, previous ankle injuries may not predispose nor protect against future anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

Applications in sport: The knee is a link in the kinetic chain between the hip and ankle joints. Due to this, dysfunction of the ankle or hip joints could negatively affect the function of the knee joint. Therefore, we set out to see if ankle injury history is a predisposing factor for tears of the ACL of the knee. Through our research, we found that this was not the case; ACL tears occur independently to the kinetic chain. (more…)

Influencing Factors and Rationale for the Use of Athletic Trainers in Secondary School Athletic Programs

November 29th, 2018|Research, Sports Medicine|

Stephanie H. Clines, PhD, LAT, ATC
Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, CT.

Cailee E. Welch Bacon, PhD, ATC
A.T. Still University, Mesa, AZ.

Christianne M. Eason, PhD, ATC
Lasell College, Newton, MA.

Kelly D. Pagnotta, PhD, LAT, ATC, PES
Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.

Robert A. Huggins, PhD, LAT, ATC
Korey Stringer Institute, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.

Bonnie L. Van Lunen, PhD, ATC, FNATA
Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA.

Corresponding author:
Stephanie H. Clines, PhD, LAT, ATC
Sacred Heart University
5151 Park Ave
Fairfield, CT 06825
Phone: 203-365-4475

Stephanie Clines, PhD, ATC is a Clinical Assistant Professor in the College of Health Professions at Sacred Heart University in Fairfield, CT. She also serves as the Clinical Education Coordinator for both the Bachelor of Science and Master of Science in Athletic Training programs at the University.

Influencing Factors and Rationale for the Use of Athletic Trainers in Secondary School Athletic Programs

Purpose: Secondary school student-athletes often lack appropriate medical care during school sponsored sport participation. Athletic trainers (ATs) are qualified healthcare professionals that can fill this need. Barriers to hiring ATs have been identified, however the rationale regarding the use of ATs in schools remains unexplored. Understanding this phenomenon has the potential to guide strategies to improve access to ATs, thus improving athlete safety. Our objective was to explore high school athletic directors’ perceptions of the roles and services provided by ATs working in the secondary school setting and to understand the needs of the athletic program and school regarding the use of athletic training services.

Methods: Following a qualitative methodology, ten high school athletic directors employed by schools with full-time ATs completed telephone interviews. All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis followed the consensual qualitative research (CQR) approach.

Results: Procurement of athletic training positions was influenced by various personnel, community organizations, and policy. Rationale for requiring ATs within athletic programs included specialized training by ATs which was perceived to enhance safety and decrease liability. Participants viewed ATs as ideal athletic healthcare providers. Coaches were not supported as appropriate staff to fulfill this role. Financial and logistical challenges to the initiation and maintenance of AT positions were also discussed. Conclusions: The decision to utilize ATs is complex and influenced by multiple factors. Applications in Sport: Consideration of these factors may improve the success of athletic director’s efforts to initiate or maintain athletic training positions to support the safety and well-being of student-athletes within secondary school athletic programs.


Attendance Still Matters in MLB: The Relationship with Winning Percentage

November 22nd, 2018|Research, Sports Management|

Authors: Mitchell T. Woltring, University of South Alabama

Corresponding Author:
Mitchell T. Woltring, Ph.D.
171 Jaguar Drive
HKS 1016

Dr. Mitchell Woltring is an assistant professor of Sport Management at the University of South Alabama. He teaches undergraduate classes in the Leisure Studies program which serves both sport management and therapeutic recreation students. He received his Ph.D. in Human Performance from Middle Tennessee State University, an M.S. in Sport Management from Middle Tennessee State University, and a B.S. in Sport Management from Minnesota State University, Mankato. He has worked in the sport industry with several baseball teams at the MLB, college, and amateur levels, as well as coaching at the high school level.

Attendance Still Matters in MLB: The Relationship with Winning Percentage

The relationship between average attendance and winning percentage for Major League Baseball (MLB) teams across a 16-year period, from 1998-2013 was investigated. Attendance in baseball is an important topic because with a schedule at least twice as long as any other major North American league, MLB has the potential to gain a competitive advantage by maximizing attendance.

The relationship between attendance and winning percentage has been researched by looking at how winning percentage affects future attendance (3, 7). However, there is also evidence of a bidirectional relationship between attendance and winning percentage which suggests that attendance could be acting on winning percentage (3, 6). The excitement caused by a capacity crowd has the potential to influence the home team to perform better, which is exhibited by Baade and Tiehen’s postulation that attendance of at least 75% of stadium capacity can, “generate a different sense of excitement” (1).

An innovative method to examine attendance was used; rather than relying on aggregate attendance numbers, average attendance was recorded as a proportion of total stadium capacity. MLB stadiums range in capacity from 34,078 to 56,000, so aggregate numbers do not accurately reflect the potential differences in attendance between teams.

Four different statistical analyses were run which controlled for year, stadium capacity, and team payroll to determine the relationship between average attendance measured as a proportion of stadium capacity and winning percentage. Analyses of crosstabs, ANOVA, regression, and logistic regression all found a significant relationship between average attendance as a proportion of stadium capacity and winning percentage. Based on the research question, regression analysis proved to be the most applicable of the results. Regression results showed that average attendance as a proportion of stadium capacity was positively related to winning percentage, R2 = .242, p <.001.

The results indicate that attendance has the potential to increase winning percentage, which should be of interest to any MLB team. It should especially be of interest considering that over the course of the present study, MLB stadiums were only filled to 67% capacity.


The Working Alliance and Satisfaction with the Coach-Athlete relationship among Norwegian elite swimmers

November 15th, 2018|Research, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|

Authors: F. Moen(1), R. Anstensen(1), M. Hrozanova(2), T. C. Stiles(3)

Corresponding Author:
Frode Moen, PhD
Department of Education and Lifelong learning, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway
+47 93 24 87 50

Frode Moen is a mental trainer for elite athletes and coaches at the Norwegian Olympic Sports Center in the Mid-Norway region, where he also is the manager. He is also an associate professor at the Department of Lifelong Learning and Education at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology where his research focuses on coaching in business, coaching in sport, communication, performance psychology, athlete burnout, attention, motivation, education, and relationship issues.

1) Centre for Elite Sports Research, Department of Education and Lifelong Learning, Faculty of Social and Educational Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
2) Centre for Elite Sports Research, Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
3) Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social and Educational Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

The Working Alliance and Satisfaction with the Coach-Athlete relationship among Norwegian elite swimmers

The current study investigates how the three dimensions of the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI); bond, goal and task, uniquely explain the perceived satisfaction among Norwegian swimmers with their coach-athlete relationships. The current study uses regressions analysis to investigate the research question and the analysis shows that only the bond dimension uniquely explains the swimmers’ satisfaction with their relationships with their coaches. Bond explains 50% of the variance in athletes’ satisfaction with their coaches. The results are discussed in regard of applied implications and possible future research. (more…)