Analysis of Contemporary Anaerobic Sport Specific Training Techniques for Rock Climbing

Authors: Justin Mabe* and Stephen L. Butler, Ed.D.

Justin Mabe is a graduate student of the United States Sports Academy and a faculty member of Howard Community College where he instructs in lifetime fitness and health science courses. Previously running a rock climbing wall for the Y, Justin developed an interest in the application of sport and conditioning techniques to rock climbing.

*Corresponding Author:
Justin Mabe
6043 Tree Swallow Ct
Columbia, MD, 21044
jmmabe@students.ussa.edu
443-517-7434

ABSTRACT
This review seeks to centralize research on contemporary training techniques and their purpose in the development of training programs for elite level climbing. A needs analysis determined that elite level rock climbing demonstrates a need for muscular strength, endurance, and flexibility (namely in the hip joint) to be enhanced in order to improve performance in rock climbing.

Current research into sport specific exercises for rock climbers focuses on maximal strength in the finger flexor and forearm muscles with respect to body weight. Additional attributes that contributed to performance are the shoulder girdle and core muscles, flexibility in the hip joints, and enhanced anaerobic energy pathways.

The sport specific exercises identified for development of sport specific attributes are: hang board, campus board, system training, and hyper gravity training. Through an informal movement analysis, three phases of climbing were determined: stabilization, preparation, and displacement. Potential application of the sport specific exercises can be derived from these phases of movement. Exercises that closely replicate certain phases of movement present greater likelihood of improving performance.

Future research in performance enhancement of rock climbers needs to evaluate the efficacy of hang board, campus board, system training, and hyper gravity training in order to reliably demonstrate the value of these exercises. Furthermore, little research has been conducted evaluating the effect of leg and core strength on elite level rock climbing.

In order for coaches and athletes to apply these findings, close evaluation of climbing movement must be conducted in order to best match training apparatus to weaknesses in the athlete’s training. All of the exercises will improve maximal voluntary contractile strength in the finger flexor and forearm muscles. Improving this attribute alone will only assist in the stabilization phase of climbing movement, while each exercise can serve to improve aspects of the other phases of movement.

KEYWORDS: rock climbing, performance, system training

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On Ditching the Watch while Training: Re-examining the Pace-based Approach to Training Long-distance Runners

Authors: Patrick M Whitehead*

Patrick Whitehead is an assistant professor of psychology at Darton State College in Albany, Georgia. He has published widely in fields of psychology, philosophy, and biology. In his free time he is a recreational long-distance runner and coach.

*Corresponding Author:
Patrick M Whitehead, PhD
Division of Social Sciences
Darton State College
2400 Gillionville
Albany, GA, 31707
Patrick.whitehead@darton.edu
229-317-6809

ABSTRACT
This paper presents two arguments against the pace-based approach to running, defined as the reduction of training intensity to measures of distance/time (that is, pace). The experimental data of Daniels (5) is presented as an example of this. It is argued that the pace-based approach ignores many variables that are important in understanding the physiology and psychology of training long distance runners. The first argument examines the assumption that pace may be used as a general approximation of intensity. This ignores the role of confounding environmental factors like altitude, temperature, and wind. The second argument examines the assumption that any measure of intensity is as good as or better than another. Heart rate, blood-lactate levels, and volume of oxygen consumption are physiological markers that provide useful information for understanding levels of intensity, but their relationship is not certain.

KEYWORDS: Long-distance running, training, running by feel, Ratings of Perceived Exertion

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Great British Athletes’ Perceptions of Competing at the London 2012 Olympic Games

Author: Rachel Kent*

*Corresponding Author Address:
Rachel kent
E-mail: coach_kent@hotmail.com

Abstract
To review Great British (GB) athletes’ perceptions of home court advantage and competing ahead of the 2012 London Olympic Games a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted. The seven topics discussed in the interview were based on previous research. Five female GB Olympic sprinters were interviewed at their training facility in West London as they trained for the 2012 Olympic Games. Athlete responses were coded into categories then analysed using phenomenological analysis.

Athletes had a range of reasons why they believed they had a ‘home advantage.’ All athletes agreed that media representation could be good if media was positive but was bad when the media coverage was negative. Athletes reported a range of expectations some expressing high expectations and associated higher levels of performance anxiety. Athletes reporting lower levels of expectations had lower levels of performance anxiety. Athletes reported different sources of expectations and the significance of the source to them and their anxiety. The implications of the research findings suggest recommendations for media and sponsors, coaches, family, and friends to help provide the athletes with the optimum levels of unconditional support to aid in performance and prevent pressure, stress and pre-competitive anxiety.

KEYWORDS: Olympic Games, Olympics, Home Court Advantage, Expectancy Theory, Self-fulfilling prophecy, Media bias, Athletes, Phenomenological Analysis

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Volunteering: Is it a Waste of Time or Best Experience Ever?

Authors: Meliha Atalay Noordegraaf*

Meliha Atalay Noordegraaf is a PhD freelance researcher in Izmir, Turkey. Her PhD and MS are in Sport Management.

*Corresponding Author:
Meliha Atalay Noordegraaf, PhD
Tepecik Mah. 1509. Sokak
Asiyan Sitesi 1/5
Seferihisar/Izmir, Turkey
atalaymel@hotmail.com
(+90) 532 5510724

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to examine the volunteering experiences of experienced and inexperienced volunteers who were physical education and sport students, during “recreational events”. In this study qualitative research design and action research approach (emancipating/enhancing/critical science mode) were used. This research was carried out with 41 university students (16 female, 25 male) who participated in “recreational events” as volunteers during the fall semester of 2015-2016. Research data was collected in two different ways. The first one was by semi-structured focus group interviews. The second one was by diaries which were kept by the volunteers. This research was conducted as two different “recreational events within the educational content”. According to the results of both experienced and inexperienced volunteers four main themes emerged. These themes were: 1. Definition of voluntarism, 2. Motivations, 3. Gains and 4. Continuity.

KEYWORDS: Volunteerism, volunteer, recreational education

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New York Cosmos: Twice in a Lifetime; A New Business Look at a Legendary Sports Franchise

Authors: Sarbjit Singh*

Sarbjit Singh is Assistant Professor, Sport Management, at Farmingdale State College in New York

*Corresponding Author:
Sarbjit Singh, MBA/JD
Farmingdale State College
2350 Broadhollow Road
Farmingdale, NY 11735
singhs@farmingdale.edu
631-794-6212

ABSTRACT
The New York Cosmos were the dominant professional soccer franchise, on and off the field, during the 1970s and ‘80s. However, the team folded just a few years after its peak, succumbing to excessive spending and lagging revenues. Twenty-five years later, the Cosmos returned seeking a place on the local, national and global sports scenes. Via a case study, we take a look at the team’s history, its relaunch, and factors such as facility development and league affiliation impacting the team’s business plans. Like the franchise itself, the reader is tasked with determining whether the team’s new strategy and efforts can make it a profitable enterprise. The reader is also encouraged to think of practical ideas that will connect the team with both its first-generation of fans who regaled in their winning history and attract new fans who may not know their history and may be impatient when it comes to the team’s performance on the field.

The “Twice in a Lifetime” case study is grounded with a review of historical and recent literature on the life of the Cosmos brand, providing a foundation for readers to understand the birth of the Cosmos franchise, its subsequent evolution, and those impacting the direction in which the team would go, e.g. Stephen Ross, Warner Communications, the NASL, and Pele. The proposed discussion builds on this understanding and the specifics of the Cosmos relaunch and asks us to act like real-life managers who may have some important information, but not all, and still must make important decisions determining the fate of the franchise.

KEYWORDS: Strategy, Sports Business, Entrepreneurship, Brand Management, International, Case Study Continue reading