Normative profiles for serve speed for the training of the serve and reception in volleyball

Submitted by José Manuel Palao¹ and David Valadés²

1 Department of Physical Activity and Sport, Faculty of Sport Science at the University of Murcia, Spain.
2 Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Alcalá University, Alcalá de Henares. Madrid, Spain.

ABSTRACT

The objectives of the present study were: a) to assess normative profiles for the serve speed of peak-performance volleyball players in order to guide practice sessions for men´s teams (study 1) and women´s teams (study 2), and b) to establish the possibilities and the ranges of speed that a volleyball throwing machine can offer for working on reception in volleyball (study 3). In studies 1 and 2, the serve techniques and the maximal speeds were analysed in men´s (2097 serves) and women´s (2056 serves) volleyball. Study 3 consisted of analysing the release speeds of the ball that are generated from the various speed settings that can be programmed with the throwing machine. The results provide normative profiles for the ranges of speed of the different types of serve for both men´s and women´s volleyball. Additionally, they indicate the speeds that a volleyball throwing machine provides for reception training in volleyball.

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A Case Study Exploring Self-Team Evaluations and Feedback through Team-Designed Behavior Scales

Submitted by Robert Brill, Fernando Cifuentes and Logan Stano

Robert Brill is an Associate Professor of Psychology at Moravian College where he teaches courses and conducts research in Industrial / Organizational Psychology and Sports Psychology. He also consults with a number of organizations in the Lehigh Valley area of Pennsylvania. Fernando Cifuentes and Logan Stano are Psychology majors and student researchers at Moravian College.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This case study set out to explore a feedback intervention that incorporated team-generated scales created from best practice research principles from industrial / organizational psychology.  METHOD: A college men’s soccer team developed behaviorally-based anchored rating scales on 14 performance dimensions, and then provided self and team member ratings on each dimension.  Each player received feedback on team average ratings about them relative to self-ratings.  Player perceptions were assessed prior to scale development, prior to ratings, and after feedback was received.  RESULTS:  Findings indicate that the experience was challenging but positive; perceptions of potential and current ability changed significantly in opposite directions between ratings and feedback suggesting that players experienced a simultaneous improvement in motivation and reality check on their perceived potential.  CONCLUSION: The data suggests that this feedback intervention may be a worthwhile endeavor to help motivate individuals and strengthen team cohesion.  APPLICATIONS IN SPORT:  In order to supplement a coach’s feedback and unify teammate performance expectations, the creation and administration of behavior-based self and peer ratings may be a needed and viable option.  If so, this case study offers a good model to attempt such an intervention.

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Sartrean Ethics and Sport for Development and Peace Programs

Submitted by Zachary Smith

Zachary Smith is a graduate student in sport studies at the United States Sports Academy and currently resides in Grand Rapids, MI.

ABSTRACT

The United Nations recently declared the first ever International Day of Sport for Development and Peace in recognition of “the power of sport to erase cultural barriers and mobilize people around the world” (9). Unfortunately, while many organizations recognize the ethical neutrality of sport in name, this is often functionally forgotten as sport is co-opted for use by other programs. This paper aims to briefly outline this functional issue by observing the cognitive dissonance within the UN’s statement and its characterization of the Olympics and World Cup events as archetypes of sport for development and peace programs. It will briefly examine this dissonance through the lens of a Sartrean ethic of ambiguity and recast the Olympic and World Cup events as archetypes of cultural hegemony. Finally, it will be suggested that until this dissonance is reconciled, SDP’s will suffer from “inauthenticity,” severely hampering the program’s ability to achieve stated development and peace goals, jeopardizing the “survival of sport as a noble human enterprise” (Morgan, 1976 p. 93) and turning it into a “mere vehicle for the exploitation of man’s own self interests” (Morgan, 1976 p. 91).

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Perceived Qualifications Necessary for Black Females Seeking Head Collegiate Basketball Coaching Positions

Submitted by Joan Sloan, Ph.D.

Dr. Jo Sloan is an Assistant Professor at Lane College teaching in the areas of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, and is also a certified Personal Trainer through the American Council on Exercise.

ABSTRACT

Surveys were sent to 231 randomly selected athletic administrators from the 2008-09 NCAA Directory of Colleges and Universities across the United States in Divisions I, II, and III seeking their perception of qualifications necessary for Black females seeking opportunities to head coach Women’s basketball programs at the Division I, II, or III level. The rate of return for the surveys was 67%. The statistical significance of the information was tested using t-tests, one-way ANOVAs, and the Tukey’s Post Hoc procedures. There were items of significance from the Athletic Directors across the divisions as it related to education (p<.00), qualifications (p<.00), being unaware of openings (p<.02), experience at their level (p<.00) and being single (p<.02).  There was a significant result from the Commissioners as it related to experience (p<.02) for the division at its level. With the passage of Title IX some 42 years ago, the adoption of affirmative action guidelines and the increase in the number of women in sports one would be lead to believe that things would change especially for the Black female. However the number of minority women head coaches have not increased (Abney & Richey, 1992). Given as the top five perceived qualifications necessary for the employment of Black females according to athletic administrators were: strong communication skills, ability to recruit/travel, personality, educational level, and Division 1 coaching experience. Each division believed that experience at their level was definitely necessary. Having four out of the five qualifications and the Black female is still denied the opportunity. Between the years of 2000 and 2002, 90.3% of those new positions were filled by men (Acosta & Carpenter, 2002).

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