Sports Performance: A Comparison of Oral Rehydration Solutions on Hydration Biomarkers in Military Personnel

Authors: Reginald B. O’Hara1 and Brenda Moore2

1Chief, Biochemistry Services Division, Department of Clinical Investigation, William Beaumont Army Medical Center, For Bliss, TX, USA.

2 Moore Enterprises, LLC., Independent Research Contractor, Yellow Springs, OH, USA


Reginald B. O’Hara, PhD, ACSM-EP
William Beaumont Army Medical Center
Department of Clinical Investigation
Building 18509 Highlander Medics Street
El Paso, TX 79918

Reginald B. O’Hara, Ph.D., is the Chief of the Biochemistry Services Division at William Beaumont Army Medical Center, Department of Clinical Investigation, Fort Bliss, TX. His research interests focus on the clinical pathology of the disease process, human performance, exertional heat stress, and physiological fatigue and recovery in military personnel.

Brenda Moore, Ph.D., nutrition microbiologist, is retired but continues to support her own research contracting business in Yellow Springs Ohio. Dr. Moore worked as a research nutrition microbiologist under an ORISE contract from 2016-2019 in the United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine, WPAFB, OH where she conducted research on thermal stress and dehydration in military personnel.

Sports Performance: A Comparison of Oral Rehydration Solutions on Hydration Biomarkers in Military Personnel


Purpose: Exertional heat stress is a serious condition, especially for military personnel working in high-heat and humid climates, such as flight maintainers, flight crew, loadmasters, and Special Operations Forces Operators. Hence, this study assessed the effects of military-approved oral rehydration solutions (ORS) in highly fit military personnel while performing a 10-mile run. The ORS tested were Gatorade (G) and CeraSport (CS), with water (W) as the control. Methods: Fifteen “well-trained” participants (13 male, 2 female) (mean± SD: age, height, weight, % body fat, and VO2 max = 28.07 ± 5.0 yrs., 69.79 ± 4.2 in, 174.4 ± 21.53 lbs., 13.7 ± 6.7%, and 52.9 ± 5.0 mL/kg/min, respectively) completed three separate 10-mile treadmill runs, separated by a one-week recovery period. Hydration biomarkers were measured at baseline, post, and 20-minute run pause increments during each 10-mile testing trial run. Study investigators measured the following hydration biomarkers 1) Body weight change (BWC), 2) hematocrit (Hc), 3) exercise heart rate (HR), 4) blood glucose (BG), 5) blood lactate concentration ([BLa¯] b), 6) hemoglobin (Hb), and 7) total urinary output (UO). Results: No statistical difference occurred in the hydration biomarkers, likely due to the large volume (1500 mL) of fluid consumed. While no significant differences in BG were detected between G and CS, both CS and G values were significantly higher than water (p< 0.05) throughout the study. Additionally, blood lactate concentrations ([BLa¯] b) were lower during the last 40 minutes of the study when CS was consumed in comparison to G, approaching significance (p= 0.09) at Time 7 (T7).Conclusions: Outcomes from the present study provide preliminary evidence that consumption of CS in the same volume and time as G results in the preservation of BG values with lower sugar and carbohydrate consumption and without a concurrent rise in blood lactate. The present study showed that although there were no statistical differences in hydration biomarkers, potential differences may be more clearly extricated in future studies conducted in varying environmental conditions, such as higher temperatures and humidity, with a larger sample size, or a more prolonged exercise period.

Keywords: rehydration solutions, biomarkers, physical exertion, sports, military personnel

2024-01-12T15:29:30-06:00January 12th, 2024|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Sports Performance: A Comparison of Oral Rehydration Solutions on Hydration Biomarkers in Military Personnel

The impact of risk factors on Olympic travel intentions

Authors: Bonnie Tiell1 and Elizabeth Athaide-Victor2

1 United States Sports Academy and Tiffin University School of Business

2 Tiffin University School of Criminal Justice and Social Sciences

Bonnie Tiell, Ed.D.
2696 South Township Rd 1195
Tiffin, OH 44883

Bonnie Tiell, Ed.D., is a Professor of Sport Management at Tiffin University in Ohio and the U.S. Sports Academy. She has coordinated an academic experience with Olympians at every summer Games since Athens 2004.

Elizabeth Athaide-Victor, PhD., is a Professor of Forensic Psychology and Psychology. Her research interest includes jury behavior, jury cognitive processing, child sexual abuse litigation, toxic tort litigation, juror competence, and juror bias.

The impact of risk factors on Olympic travel intentions


This study explores perceptions of risk-related factors that may discourage travel to the summer Olympics. Specifically, the research analyzes the degree to which risks related to environmental concerns, instability, and personal limitations impacted travel intentions to the 2016 Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the 2020 Games in Tokyo, Japan which were held without spectators due to a global pandemic.

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to analyze the degree to which risk-related factors significantly impacted Olympic tourism intentions.

Methods: Almost identical surveys were administered in the United States (U.S.) and the People’s Republic of China approximately two months before the opening ceremony for the 2016 Rio Olympics and again before the originally scheduled 2020 Tokyo Olympics. The only change to the updated 2020 instrument was replacing the Zika virus with Covid-19 as one of the variables measured. Analysis of Variances (ANOVAs) and Dunnett’s Planned Comparison were used for the statistical analysis. 

Results: The study herein represented an analysis of 882 responses including 728 usable surveys from 2016 and 154 from 2020. Risks that related to instability and environmental health that were uncertain in nature were perceived to be greater deterrents to Olympic tourism than known risks related to personal limitations. When conducting paired comparisons of risk factors that would deter travel to the summer Olympics, 17 significant differences were found between the mean scores.

Conclusions: Perceptions of travel risks that are uncertain or unable to be controlled are typically a greater deterrent to Olympic tourism than risks that are certain and seemingly able to be controlled.        

Application in Sport: Understanding the types and degree to which risk factors influence travel intentions to the summer Olympics or a mega-event can assist organizers in framing communications with potential visitors and local businesses.

Key Words: tourism, Zika, COVID-19, Environmental risks, instability, terrorism, mega-event, nationality, sport travel, personal limitations related to travel, travel health

2024-01-05T15:50:06-06:00January 5th, 2024|Olympics, Research, Sports Studies|Comments Off on The impact of risk factors on Olympic travel intentions

Comparing Cardiovascular and Metabolic Demands between Two Bouts of High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT)

Authors: Shane S. Robinson1, Jason C. Casey2, Gregory Palevo3

1GME Senior Research Project Manager, Northeast Georgia Medical Center, Gainesville, GA, USA

2Associate Professor, Metropolitan State University of Denver, Denver, CO, USA

3Assistant Professor, Albany State University, Albany, GA, USA


Shane S. Robinson, MS, CSCS
549 Paxton LN
Jefferson, Georgia 30549

Shane Robinson, MS, CSCS is a Senior Research Project Manager for Graduate Medical Education at Northeast Georgia Medical Center and Adjunct Faculty for Kinesiology at the University of North Georgia. His research interests include acute cardiovascular and metabolic responses to high-intensity exercise and adaptations to resistance training and cardiovascular disease.

Jason Casey, Ph.D., CSCS*D, ACSM-EP, is an Associate Professor of Exercise Science at Metropolitan State University of Denver, CO. His research interests focus on fatigue and recovery associated with exercise, athlete monitoring, and sport-related measurement issues.

Gregory Palevo, PhD, ACSM-EP, AACVPR Fellow, is an Assistant Professor of Exercise Science at Albany State University in Albany, GA. He continues to pursue his research interests in heart failure patients, studying the effects of nitric oxide supplementation and exercise.

Comparing Cardiovascular and Metabolic Demands between Two Bouts of High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT)


Purpose: The overall objective of this study is to determine if the wide variety of exercise selections in High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) affects the metabolic demands between each workout. Methods: A crossover design with six experienced participants were used to compare the mean and maximum values of heart rate, oxygen consumption, the difference between post-exercise and resting blood lactate accumulation, immediate post-exercise rating of perceived exertion, and total caloric expenditure from exercise and 15-minute post-exercise oxygen consumption between a seven-minute workout of burpees and an eight-minute workout box jumps and ascending weight and repetitions of the barbell deadlift. An independent T-test was used to compare the outcome variables between the two workouts. Results: Mean and maximal oxygen consumption was significantly greater in the seven minutes of maximum burpees compared to the eight minutes of box jumps and deadlifts. There was no significant difference in mean and maximal heart rate, blood lactate accumulation, rating of perceived exertion, and total caloric expenditure between the two workouts. Conclusion: Both bouts of HIFT were executed to complete as many repetitions as possible, which lead to similar cardiovascular and metabolic measures except for the participants’ oxygen consumption. This difference was primarily due to the ascending weights and the repetitions of the deadlift. All participants’ average repetitions completed per minute decreased significantly when they came across the 275-pound barbell for 25 repetitions. Applications in Sport: These findings show that even though all HIFT workouts are performed at high intensity, the variance in exercise selection can impact the participant and how they respond to each workout requires further research into how these different modalities and variations can impact exercise participants and their limitations to better understand HIFT and how it can compare to other forms of exercise.

Keywords: HIFT, metabolic demands, AMRAP, burpees, box jumps, deadlifts, EPOC, intermittent exercise, body composition

2023-12-21T11:48:35-06:00December 29th, 2023|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Comparing Cardiovascular and Metabolic Demands between Two Bouts of High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT)

Assessing the Impact of Gender and Expertise in Athletic Product Endorsement in China

Authors: Jiayao Chee Qi1, Marshall J. Magnusen2, Jun Woo Kim3, and Jeffrey C. Petersen2

1Department of Sport and Entertainment Management, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA
2Department of Educational Leadership, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA
3School of Global Business, Arcadia University, Glenside, PA, USA

Corresponding Author:

Marshall J. Magnusen, PhD
Marrs McLean Science
One Bear Place #97312
Waco, TX 76798

Jiayao Chee Qi, MSEd, is a doctoral candidate at the University of South Carolina. His advisor is Dr. Sam Todd, the associate dean for faculty, operations, and international partnerships. His current research interests focus on sport organization behavior, realistic job previews, and personnel selection.

Marshall J. Magnusen, PhD, is an associate professor of sport management at Baylor University. Magnusen’s research interests include leadership, recruiting and personnel selection, and wellbeing.
Jun Woo Kim, PhD, is an associate professor of sport management at Arcadia University. His research interests are in the areas of sport consumer behavior, marketing, and sports analytics.
Jeffrey C. Petersen, PhD, is a professor of sport management at Baylor University. He has research interests in the areas of sport consumer behavior as well as facility and event management.

Assessing the Impact of Gender and Expertise in Athletic Product Endorsement in China


Product-endorser relationships are critical to the success of marketing campaigns involving the sponsorship of an individual to promote a product or service. The significance of such relationships can be understood in part through the “match-up hypothesis.” This theory suggests endorsers are more effective when “fit” is stronger between a product and the endorser of the product. In this study, Chinese consumers’ perceptions of gender-sport fit, expertise, and endorser-product fit were evaluated. Images of two sets of athletes participating in different sports, with one being mixed martial arts (MMA) and the other one being gymnastics, were compared in a two-part study by 649 sport consumers from Shanghai, China. In Study 1, a 2 (male athlete and female athlete) × 2 (MMA and gymnastics) model compared Chinese consumers’ perceptions of gender-sport fit on endorser-product fit. In Study 2, a 2 (gender-sport fit: high and low) × 2 (expertise: highly skilled and less skilled) model evaluated whether consumers’ perceptions of endorser-product fit were more strongly influenced by athlete gender-sport fit or sport expertise. Gender-sport fit was shown to outperform expertise. Though expertise is important, an endorsement lacking sufficient gender-sport fit may not maximize the effectiveness of the endorsement relationship.

Key Words: consumer behavior; culture; endorsers; international; marketing; MMA; sponsorship; sport management

2023-12-08T10:17:32-06:00December 8th, 2023|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on Assessing the Impact of Gender and Expertise in Athletic Product Endorsement in China

Coincidence anticipation timing requirements across different stimulus speeds in various sports: A pilot study

Authors: Haneol Kim

Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI, 54601, USA

Haneol Kim
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
124 Mitchell Hall, La Crosse, WI 54601
Cell: 765-586-5878

Haneol Kim is a faculty member in the Department of Exercise and Sport Science at University of Wisconsin-La Crosse. His areas of research interest include biomechanics, motor control and learning in sports.

Coincidence anticipation timing requirements across different stimulus speeds in various sports: A pilot study


The ability of coincidence anticipation timing is directly related to athletic performance in sports, and anticipation timing requirements vary according to the sports type. This case study aimed to investigate the coincidence anticipation timing of male university athletes in various sports across different stimulus speeds such as slow (3 mph), moderate (6 mph), and fast (9 mph). Nineteen university athletes from soccer (n = 5), tennis (n = 7), and volleyball (n = 7) participated voluntarily in this study and were compared to non-athletes (n = 6). All participants pressed the button when the light stimulus arrived at the target location of a Bassin anticipation timer to assess anticipation timing accuracy in terms of constant, absolute, and variable errors. A speed effect in constant error (p < 0.001) and a group by speed interaction in variable error (p = 0.044) were found. However, no significant difference was found in absolute error. In conclusion, coincidence anticipation timing requirements are different across sports types. Racket sports such as tennis might be more beneficial to improving anticipation timing skills than other sports or non-athletes.

Keywords: sports performance, anticipation timing accuracy, athletes, male

2023-11-14T15:11:22-06:00November 17th, 2023|Research, Sports Studies|Comments Off on Coincidence anticipation timing requirements across different stimulus speeds in various sports: A pilot study
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