Preferred Behaviors Used by Coaches in Female Middle School Athletic Programs

Authors: Raymond Tucker

Corresponding Author:
Raymond Tucker, D.S.M, CSCS, FMSL1, USATFL1, USAWLP-1
Assistant Professor of Kinesiology
University of Houston at Victoria
3007 N. Ben Wilson
Victoria, Texas 77901
Phone: (361)-570-4381
rtbills2001@gmail.com

Raymond Tucker is an assistant professor of Kinesiology at the University of Houston at Victoria. He is a graduate of the United States Sports Academy with a Doctorate in Sports Management, and he is a certified strength and conditioning specialist by the National Strength and Conditioning Association. He is also a certified coach by the United States Track and Field Association, United States Weightlifting Federation, and Functional Movement Systems. He is certified by the state board of educator certification in Texas in health grades (EC-12) and secondary physical education (6-12).

Preferred Behaviors Used by Coaches in Female Middle School Athletic Programs

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to determine female athlete’s perception of the behavior styles of leadership used by their coaches in female middle school athletic programs. The average of these perceptions can be viewed as the actual behavior style of leadership coaches used in the treatment of their athletes. The study compared behavior styles of leadership used by coaches in female middle school athletic programs at three different middle schools. This study also compares coaches from the three different middle schools to determine if the behavior styles of leadership used are similar amongst coaches.

Data for this study was collected using the Leadership Scale of Sports (LSS) questionnaire with the permission of Dr. Packianthan Chelladurai Ph.D at Ohio State University. The questionnaire measures an athlete’s perception of their coach’s behavior style of leadership and consists of forty items that all begin with “My Coach.” These forty items represent five dimensions of leadership behavior in sports and operationally defined in the Leadership Scale of Sports.

The scoring of the Leadership Scale of Sports questionnaire was based on an ordinal scale, five-category scale that consists of a numerical number: 1. Always; 2. Often (about 75 % of the time); 3. Occasionally (50% of the time); 4. Seldom (about 25% of the time); 5 Never. Each of the forty items on the Leadership Scale of Sports questionnaire represents one of the five latent dimensions of leadership (2). These five dimensions were
1. Autocratic Behavior
2. Democratic Behavior
3. Positive Feedback
4. Social Support Behavior
5. Training and Instruction

The athletic coordinators of each school were each given instructions in person prior to the questionnaire being mailed. The questionnaires were sent back in a self- addressed stamped envelope. Athletic coordinators at the respective middle schools received communication in person, phone, and e-mail. The data was analyzed quantitatively by using the 15.0 version of the SPSS statistical software. Due to the ordinal and theoretically categorical nature of the LSS scale, nonparametric statistical methods (i.e., a test of medians rather than means) was used in all data analyses. Specially, the Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, and multi-way contingency table (log-linear) nonparametric ANOVA tests was used. To what degree was there a difference among the distribution of LSS scores on the five dimensions for eighth grade females in middle school sports? To answer this question, the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric alternative to the parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed. If a statistically significant finding was observed, post-hoc analyses was conducted to determine what leadership behaviors were preferred based on median scores.

Results of this study did detect a statistically significant difference in the behavior styles of leadership used by coaches among the middle schools between the following dimensions: (1) democratic behavior and training and instruction, (2) autocratic behavior and training and instruction, (3) social support and training and instruction, (4) positive feedback and democratic behavior, (5) positive feedback and autocratic behavior, (6) positive feedback and social support. Results of this study indicate coaches at the three respective middle school in this study place more emphasis on the social support, democratic and autocratic behavior styles of leadership. This study does not determine which behavior style of leadership is superior for the overall success of a female’s middle school athletic program. What follows is the basis for this study, procedures used to conduct the research, an analysis of the data, conclusions, and finally, recommendations for further research on this topic.

Keywords: Coaches, Coaching Climate, Effective Leadership, Female Athletes, Sports

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A Research On Soccer Teams’ Brand Associations

Authors: Yavuz YILDIZ*(1)

(1)Yavuz YILDIZ is the assistant professor at the School of Physical Education and Sports, Celal Bayar University. His primary research focus is investigating sport marketing and sponsorship.

*Corresponding Author:
Yavuz YILDIZ, PhD
School of Physical Education and Sports, Celal Bayar University
Manisa Turkey, 45040
yavyildiz@hotmail.com
+902362314645

ABSTRACT
The identification of brand associations of consumers with respect to sports teams has a crucial role in decisions of sports managers who aim at enhancing the efficiency of their marketing endeavors. The objective of this research is to measure brand associations considering soccer teams and investigate the significance of brand associations attached to soccer teams. Seven-hundred and forty-nine soccer team supporters participated in this research. As a result of the research, it has been found that success, social interaction and brand marks are the most significant brand association dimensions for soccer teams.

KEYWORDS:brand associations, sports, soccer teams
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Examination of Gender Equity and Female Participation in Sport

Author: Joshua A. Senne*(1)

(1) Joshua A. Senne is a doctoral student at the United States Sports Academy located in Daphne, Alabama. His doctoral emphasis is sports fitness and health, with a specialization in sport marketing. He currently holds a master of science in recreation and sport management from Indiana State University, a business credential from the Harvard Business School, and is a Stanford Certified Project Manager.

*Corresponding Author:
Joshua Senne, MS, SCPM
5068 Argus Dr. Apt 1
Los Angeles, CA 90041
jasenne@students.ussa.edu
225-202-6787

ABSTRACT
This paper presents an overview of five topics related to gender equity and sports. These topics include (a) history of gender equity in sports and Title IX, (b) gender equity in sport governance, (c) gender equity issues in athletics, (d) gender equity, sports participation, and Title IX, (e) and gender equity in coed sports. For each topic, the author presents an overview as well as a reason for selecting the topic. Further, the author presents information about the importance of each topic to gender equity in sports, plus any relevant social, ethical, or legal concerns.

KEYWORDS:gender equity, sports, sports governance, Title IX, coed sports.
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Comparison of Confucianism with Coubertin’s Olympism in Selected Dimensions

Submitted by Manfred Messing
Manfred Messing , Dr.phil, Dr.social sciences , Prof. em. at the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz for Sport Sociologie

Introduction
Hans Lenk, German Olympic Gold Medallist in Rome and acknowledged sport philosopher had stated already in 1972 (p. 15) that the Olympic aims are characterized by a cultural “multi-compatibility.” This includes the proposition, that the Olympic Idea is compatible with the different world religions and dominant philosophical and ideological systems. However, this proposition was not proved in concrete detail. Therefore the researchers took the Olympic Games in Beijing as an impulse to sketch out a comparison of the philosophies of Confucius and Coubertin. The researchers admit that such a comparison is connected with methodological problems, which are not discussed here. One is the assumption, that Confucianism is still influential in China, even if in the Peoples Republic of China the official ideological base is a communist one.

The question is, how far Confucianism corresponds with the main ideas of Coubertin’s Olympic philosophy? Is it true, what Rudyard Kipling writes in the first two lines of his ballad of East and West: “…East is East and West is West, and never the twain shall meet, Till Earth and Sky stand presently at God’s great Judgement Seat…”?

It is assumed, that high agreement between Coubertin and Confucius exists, if
1. The very concrete formulations show conformity.
2. Important elements of the two concepts are directly exchangeable;
3. Elements of one philosophical system fill up a gap, being a deficiency of the other.
4. The context of these elements is exchangeable (e.g. a relation to a ritualized physical contest).
Was Coubertin’s Personal Motto Derived from Confucius’ Teachings?

A test of the first question we owe to Susan Brownell, University of Missouri, who wrote Norbert Müller (2008, January 19), that she wonders if the phrase “voir loin, parler franc, agir ferme,” which is on the “ex libris” emblem that Coubertin put into his books, was inspired by a similar Chinese phrase, appearing in the “Way of the Mean” (Zhong Yong), one of the sections of the “Book of Rites” namely: “Study (learn) broadly, ask carefully, think prudently, distinguish (argue) clearly, act sincerely (earnestly, seriously)” (citation according to Brownell).

In the translation by James Legge (1885), it is said: He [the man who wants to have a clear understanding of what is good] “extensively studies what is good; inquires accurately about it; thinks carefully over it; clearly discriminates it; and vigorously practices it” (p. 318).

Brownell commented:
“Since the Zhong Yong was translated by Jesuits into Latin in the 17th century and into French in the late 19th century, it seems to me that he [Coubertin] could have read it while a student, or later.”

Of course there is a probability that Coubertin did read the “Way of the Mean,” because of his educational ethical interest, and of his “eclecticism” (Wirkus, 1987).
In fact, Coubertin had mentioned Confucius several times in his writings:
– Revue mensuelle du Touring-Club de France, March 20th, 1920, pp. 146-150
– Revue Olympique, April 1907 “Aux Champs-Elysées”
– Pedagogie Sportive. Paris, G. Crès, 1922
– Histoire Universelle, Vol. I: Les Empires d’Asie. Aix-en-Provence, 1926-27. Here he gives a concise judgement about Confucius: L’homme est sympathique; la doctrine est pauvre” (p. 56).

Obviously Coubertin did not see the similarities between his own central term “Eurhythmics” and the teachings of Confucius in the “Way of the Mean.” It is therefore doubtful, that Coubertin had more than a superficial knowledge of Confucius’ philosophy.
The probability of borrowing Confucius’ ideas for Coubertin’s own personal motto would be considered high, if three of the five Chinese imperatives would not only appear but follow in the same order. Comparing Coubertin’s phrase with the text from the “Zhong Yong” or – as Legge (1885) translated the title of the book – “The State of Equilibrium and Harmony,” we can see only one equivalent: Practice vigorously: act firmly (p. 300).

In both cases this is the last step in order. The Chinese text makes that explicitly clear by the following admonition, that the scholar should not proceed to the next step, if he has not grasped perfectly the step before.

TABLE 1

Translation of Legge Citation of,Brownell Coubertin
1. “extensively studies” study broadly
1. “extensively studies” ask carefully
3. “thinks carefully” think prudently (1. see afar)?
4. “clearly discriminate” distinguish clearly
5. “vigorously practice” act sincerely 3. act firmly
2. speak frankly

The third imperative has a small connotation to “see afar,” because the prudent thinker should be aware of the future consequences of wrong conclusions. However, we stress the meaning of “see afar” as having a wide perspective, considering at least the near future and not only the next day (as the claim for sustainable development implies).

In the Li Gi, careful thinking alone is not enough to foresee the future. That is a result of “self-completion” and “wisdom” (Legge, 1885, p. 321): “It is characteristic of him, who is entirely perfect that he can foreknow” (p. 320)

“Speak frankly” contradicts partly the admonition No. 18 in “The Book Dsong Dsi” (Chapter 6 of Li Gi, p. 155) “Cautious in speaking”: “If you could say something, which would not believed in [by others], so you should better not say it.” On the other hand it is said: “If he [the nobleman] does not believe in the words of others, he should not agree with them.” Of course, according to the rule beforehand others should not say something I cannot agree upon – otherwise the harmony would be disturbed. This is certainly not the meaning of Coubertin’s “Speak frankly.”
On Compatibility of Confucianism with Coubertin’s Olympism

In the following, the focus is on 10 dimensions which are meaningful for Coubertin’s Olympism as well as for the teachings of Confucius. These dimensions are:
1. Metaphysical Orientations
2. Historical Configurations, in which the Philosophies developed
3. Leading Ideas
4. Sources of Inspiration of the Philosophers
5. Recommended Means of Education
6. Aims of Education
7. Main Clients, the Philosophies are addressed to
8. Rank Order of Values
9. Usefulness of Philosophies in Everyday Life
10. Projections of a Future Society

(1) In this section we refer to German texts, which are translated into English by M. Messing. For a more elaborated investigation see: Messing, Müller, and Bohnstedt (2008, pp. 223-248). – As far as the text Li Gi is concerned (including the book, The State of Equilibrium and Harmony), we should be aware, that it is not written by Confucius himself, but contains almost everything, what has grown out of his ideas during the first centuries… (Wilhelm, R., 2007 [1930], p. 23).

A qualitative content analysis of Confucian thought and Coubertin’s Olympic Idea is presented in Table 2. One must be aware of the fact, that common features do not exclude differences, and differences can be variations of the same topic.

1. At a metaphysical level Confucius and Coubertin approximate each other insofar, as their central lifework is inner-worldly directed. Namely in an audience at the Duke Ai of Lu Confucius advises to maintain the customs of sacrifice to serve the gods, but adding skeptically: “However, I don’t know if this will keep away mischief from heaven” (Li Gi, 2007, 132 f.).

Coubertin, who was educated in a gymnasium of Jesuits in Paris, did not found his Olympism on an ascetic Christian teaching. This seems to be logical, because of his model in a polytheistic Greek Antiquity and the universal orientation of his educational program.

Tab. 2: Comparison of two Philosophies

Dimension Confucius (K.) Coubertin (C.)
1. Metaphysical Inner-worldly
orientation, but respect in front of the unexplorable
Inner-worldly oriented
“religion athletae” (C. 137)
2. Historical Configuration Decline of the old order Defeat of France, 1871
3. Leading Idea Harmony Progress and Eurhythmics
Concrete aims Re-establishment of
social order by “rectification of names” (K. 154)
At the beginning: “Rebronzer
la France” (C. 1888),Later: “Brotherhood of body an
spirit” (C. 130)
4. Sources of inspiration
Abstract History History
concrete Old imperial times: “I
follow the morals of Dschou.” (which are still practiced today) (Li Gi, p. 49)
Olympic Competitions in
antiquity
5. Means of Education
Abstract Master instruction and
his good example, self education
Sports force “to measure and
excess” (C. 66)
Sport education
concrete music Olympic Games as unity
of sports and art
Customs as rituals Rules of sport with
ritual character, Olympic ceremonies

2. Both pedagogical reformers found in social crises of their times causes for their activity: Confucius regrets the decay of the old feudal order and Coubertin the defeat of France in the war of 1870/71, which resulted in the proclamation of the German Empire.
3. Leading ideas of both reformers – harmony and eurhythmics – seem to mean basically the same. Eurhythmics is understood by Coubertin as the “taste for due measure” (1918). This principle is inseparable combined with the Olympic Idea of progress “Citius – Altius – Fortius.” Coubertin in this relation stands in contradiction to Confucius, when he praises passionate sport engagement.

In his own words:
“Mankind has always been passionate, and heaven may protect us from a society, where the expression of over foaming feeling could be forced into a too tight circle of conventions” (180, 21).

The overall aim of bringing about a harmonious equilibrium shall be realized in different ways. As his first action in case of governmental responsibility at the Ruler of Wei Confucius would “rectify the names.” That is, that he would take care that signs and reality would coincide and by this way state affairs would be put in order. The noticed social chaos reminds us of Shakespeare’s sonnet LXVI, where the poet complains about the following inversions of the right order:
“ And right perfection wrongfully disgrac’d.
And strength by limping sway disabled,
And art made tongue-tied by authority,
And folly (doctor-like) controlling skill,
And simple truth miscall’d simplicity,
And captive good attending captain ill (…)”
Coubertin’s way to eurhythmics can be marked at the beginning as “Rebronzer la France,” later as “brotherhood of body and spirit,” “social integration” – concerning the class conflict – and “peaceful internationalism.”

4. Confucius and Coubertin are inspired by looking back at a seemingly better past to construct an ideal model for present time and future. The Chinese finds this model in the Dschou-epoch (11th – 5th century B. C.), the Frenchman in the Olympic competitions of classical Hellas.

6. Abstract aims of Education Spiritual aristocracy Aristocracy through,“perfection of muscles” (C. 37)
concrete Control of passions,
composure, understanding the meaning of rites to stabilize ritual culture,
emotional forming by music
“noble minded and moral,purity, (…) edurance and psychic energy” (C. 116)
7. Main Clients Leading class, civil
servants
Athletes
8. Rank of Values
Money vs. Honour “His heart (of the noble) is
not for sale.” (Li Gi, 253)
Protect modern sports from
commercialism (C. 9),“disqualify pseudo-amateurs”
(C. 1931, 105)
Way vs. Aim “Harmony is the way on
earth leading to the aim.” (Li Gi, 32)
“Essentially is not to
be victorious, but to have fought in a gallant good way.” (C. 22)
9. Usefulness of Philosophy Without limitations “how many a courageous
swimmer let discourage himself in the floods of human ocean (…)” (C. 57)
10. Future Society Golden era, if “saints
have got the Empire (…)” government by “trustworthyness of goodness” (Li Gi,
135 passim)
“the society of future will,be altruistic, or it will be not exist (…)” (C. 142)

Legend:
C. = de Coubertin, P. Der Olympische Gedanke. Schorndorf 1967.
C. 1931 = de Coubertin, P. Olympische Erinnerungen. Frankfurt am Main – Berlin 1996 [1931].
K. = Konfuzius. Gespräche (Lün Yü). Kettwig 1989.
Li Gi: Das Buch der Riten, Sitten und Gebräuche. Köln 2007 [1930].
C. 1888, in: Une Campagne de 35 ans. In: Revue de Paris: 30 (1923), 11, p.688.

5. The selected means of education are different: at one side Confucianistic instruction by discourse and right exemplary living of the master, at the other side physical education after an English model and Olympic Games as unity of sports and art to create harmony of excess and measure.
The different educational means – like practiced customs and the rules of sports – have both a ritual character – an example for commonness within the difference.

6. Confucius aims at a spiritual aristocracy, which everybody can attain by master or self education. Coubertin stresses the aristocracy of muscles, which is connected after all with a noble mind – analogous to Confucius.

7. and 8. Aristocracies of spirit and of muscles should not make themselves dependent on money: especially in the case of civil servants – a group which Confucius addressed – the orientation at one’s own interests instead of the common good leads to corruption.
Coubertin rejects the “Mercantilization” of sports and pseudo-amateurs, but in 1931 (“Olympic Memories”) he moderates his rigid defense of an exclusive admission of amateurs to Olympic Games, saying, “that there are many false amateurs, who have to be sanctioned as well as professionals, who deserve indulgence …”

Although in high achievement sports the “Victory-Defeat-Code” (Bette, 2005, p. 172) seems to be the guiding principle, Coubertin underlines, that in life “essentially is not to be victorious, but to have fought in a gallant good way.”
Here he is in principal agreement with Confucius, that “on earth” only the way of harmony leads to any aim.

9. Probably both philosophers understood that only striving for human cultivation is socially useful. However, Coubertin, who propagated the forming of a good character by sports, is realistic enough to know that characteristics shown in sports are difficult to transfer into other spheres. Such limitations in the transfer of virtues could not be found in the analyzed texts of Confucius.

10. The difference should not be exaggerated. In the last analysis Coubertin’s philosophy is about a reform of society by an education directed towards altruism. According to Immanuel Kant “only that one is worth a positive honour, whose actions contain more than he is obliged to do.”
This “more giving than receiving” corresponds in its extreme form with the type of a “saint,” who sacrifices himself/or herself for a community. Goodness is a voluntary limitation of selfishness and origin of harmony. In that sense we can understand the projection of a “Golden Age,” where “saints rule the Empire” by Bo I, clerk of the Ruler of Yü. According to Bo I, in Chinese antiquity such characters were “organizers of a world empire,” who regulated state and people “on the base of mutuality” (Li Gi, p. 135). Within the hierarchy of values they appreciated “on top the goodness and then the rank order, followed by strength, beauty, archery and coach-driving.”

The often-exaggerated contrast of Eastern and Western thought seems here to be mitigated with regards to Plato’s “Rule of Philosophers” as a Western counterpart. According to Kant the “last determination of mankind (…)” is “the greatest moral perfection,” based on freedom and attained by education. In spite of many differences, Confucius and Coubertin stand for two ways of man’s “cultivation.”

Therefore, we can follow the conclusion of Li-Hong Hsu (2012), from Da-Yeh University in Taiwan, that “it would be inappropriate and unfair to assume that the ideals of Western oriented Modern Olympism and East Asian Confucianism have nothing in common for us to learn and inform from each other.

REFERENCES
References
Bette, K.H. (2005). Körperspuren. Zur Semantik und Paradoxie moderner Körperlichkeit. Bielefeld (2nd ed.).

de Coubertin, P. (1908). Die Treuhänder der Olympischen Idee. Les Trustees de l´Idée Olympique. In: Der Olympische Gedanke. Reden und Aufsätze. Schorndorf bei Stuttgart 1967, 20-22.

de Coubertin, P. (1918, November 2). Briefe zur Olympischen Idee. Lettres Olympiques IV In: P. de Coubertin. Der Olympische Gedanke. Reden und Aufsätze. Schorndorf bei Stuttgart 1967, pp.65f.

de Coubertin, P. (1923). Une Campagne de 35 ans. In: Revue de Paris: 30 (11), pp. 688.

de Coubertin, P. (1926-1927). Histoire Universelle, Vol. I: Les Empires d´Asie. Aix-en Provence. Citation from: Coubertin, P. de: Empires de l´Est: Chine et Tibet. In: Müller, N./Messing, M. (Eds.): Olympism – Erbe und Verantwortung. Olympism – Heritage and Responsibility. Kassel 2008, pp.51-68.

de Coubertin, P. (1931). Olympische Erinnerungen (mit einem Vorwort von Prof. Dr. h.c. Willi Daume, Anmerkungen von Volker Kluge). Frankfurt am Main, Berlin 1996.

de Coubertin, P. (1967). Der Olympische Gedanke. Reden und Aufsätze. Schorndorf bei Stuttgart.

Hsu, L.H. (2012). An inquiry on compatibility between East Asian Confucianisms and modern Olympism – a humanistic and global perspective. Paper (very first draft). Da-Yeh University Taiwan.

Konfuzius. (1989). Gespräche (Lün Yü) (nach der englischen Übersetzung von J. Legge, neu herausgegeben von K. Bock). Kettwig.

Legge, J. (Translator). (1885). The sacred books of China. The texts of Confucianism. Part IV. The Li Ki, XI-XLVI. Oxford.

Lenk, H. (1972). Werte, Ziele, Wirklichkeit der modernen Olympischen Spiele. Schorndorf bei Stuttgart (2nd ed.).

Li Gi. (1930). Das Buch der Ritten, Sitten und Gebräuche. Aus dem Chinesischen übersetzt und herausgegeben von Richard Wilhelm. Köln 2007.

Messing, M., Müller, N., & Bohnstedt, K. (2008). Coubertins Eurythmie-Prinzip als chinesischen Philosophie. In: Müller, N./Messing, M. (Eds.) with cooperation of K. Bohnstedt: Olympismus – Erbe und Verantwortung. Olympism – Heritage and Responsibility. Kassel 2008, pp.223-248.

Wilhelm, R. (1930). Einleitung. In: Li Gi. Das Buch der Riten, Sitten und Gebräuche. Aus dem Chinesischen übersetzt und herausgegeben von Richard Wilhelm. Köln 2007, 11-30.

Wirkus, B. (1987). Pierre de Coubertin´s philosophical eclecticism as the essence of Olympism. In: Müller, N. (Dir.ed.): L´actualité de Pierre de Coubertin. The Relevance of Pierre de Coubertin Today. Rapport au Symposium du 18 au 20 mars 1986 à l´Université de Lausanne. Report of the Symposium 18th to 20th march 1986 at the University of Lausanne. Niedernhausen/Taunus 1987, 179-190.

Sports Department vs. News Department: Editorial Control in Television Newsrooms

Submitted by Dr. John McGuire1*, Mr. Ray Murray1*, and Dr. Stan Ketterer1*.

1* Associate Professor, School of Media and Strategic Communications, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Okla.

Abstract

This exploratory research study examined the attitudes of television sports directors (n=108) concerning editorial judgments made in covering local sports and how such judgments are supported by or come into conflict with other newsroom personnel. Findings included sports directors (a) believed their editorial judgments on stories were frequently questioned, and  (b) had sports stories regularly reassigned to news personnel.

Keywords: Editorial judgment, newsroom practices, sports  Continue reading