Exposure to Women’s Sports: Changing Attitudes Toward Female Athletes

Authors: Travis Scheadler, Audrey Wagstaff, Ph.D., MJE

Corresponding Authors:
Travis Scheadler
(937) 751-5799
6811 Oakland Rd
Loveland, OH 45140
Wilmington College

Audrey Wagstaff, Ph.D., MJE
(937) 481-2253
1870 Quaker Way
Pyle Box 1221
Wilmington, OH 45177
Wilmington College

Exposure to Women’s Sports: Changing Attitudes Toward Female Athletes

Many sports fans argue that women’s sports are boring compared to men’s sports. Simultaneously, women’s sports, compared to men’s sports, are rarely broadcasted in the media. Therefore, could the media be making sports fans believe that women’s sports are less desirable by giving them less coverage? Using the Agenda-Setting Theory, Framing Theory, and Mere Exposure Effect, an intervention was developed to promote women’s sports to sports fans. Half of the participants received watched highlight films of women’s sports each week for 4 weeks. Results indicate that the intervention decreased prejudice towards female athletes after 3 weeks but had no effect on interest towards women’s sports. Future studies should immerse participants into the live action of women’s sports rather than highlight footage.
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Effect of National-Level Field Hockey on Physical Fitness and Body Composition Parameters In Turkish Females

Submitted by Yılmaz Ucan1, Ph.D*

1* Abant Izzet Baysal University, School of Physical Education and Sports

Yılmaz Ucan, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Coaching Science at the Abant Izzet Baysal University, Turkey. 


To be successful in field sports such as soccer, rugby, football and hockey, players need to be enhancing some bio-motor abilities like endurance, strength, speed and flexibility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of national-level field hockey on physical fitness and body-composition parameters in Turkish females. Twenty-four female subjects (12 non-sporting healthy controls aged 19 to 22, 12 elite, national level field hockey players aged 18 to 21) participated in this study. Body composition, 30-meter sprint, leg power, handgrip strength, posture balance were measured. At the end of measurements, there was a significant differences in body-fat percentage (p < 0.014), fat mass (p < 0.044), speed (p < 0.000), leg power (p < 0.006), grip strength (p < 0.022), but no significant differences in fat-free mass (p > 0.442) and fall index (p > 0.258) were observed between hockey players and non-sporting controls. Results suggest that regular participation to hockey training programs improves body composition, speed, and lower- and upper-extremity strength, with no effect on fat-free mass and posture balance in young females. Additional studies may identify effects of field hockey training on physical fitness and body composition in males and different age groups.

Key words: Field hockey, fat mass, speed, strength, posture balance

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Athlete Support for Title IX

Submitted by James N.  Druckman, Northwestern University; Mauro Gilli, Northwestern University; Samara Klar, University of Arizona; Joshua Robison, Northwestern University.


Purpose: Few policies have been deemed as successful as Title IX, which, in theory, ensures equal educational opportunities for women.  While the language of the law makes no mention of athletics, Title IX has nonetheless become a cornerstone of equality in athletics and the basis of expansion of sports programs for female athletes.  As with any public policy, however, there is much debate about the ramifications, potential, and implementation of Title IX.  Additionally, change and interpretation can be traced back, to a large extent, to public support or opposition.  Yet, virtually no work explores public opinion about Title IX, particularly among the very issue public most affected by the law: college athletes.

Methods: A wide-scale survey of opinion and knowledge of Title IX among college athletes.

Results: The key correlates explaining support for Title IX are identified.  A key finding is that nearly half of college respondents do not fully grasp the breadth of Title IX, which potentially limits the impact of the law.

Conclusions: Much educational efforts are needed concerning Title IX.

Application in Sport: The results show what characteristics shape support for Title IX, thereby providing guidance to individuals interested in promoting (or arguing against) the law.  Perhaps most importantly, many affected student-athletes do not fully understand Title IX and thus educational efforts continue to be needed.

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Differences of body dimensions in female volleyball players (cadets) in relation to volleyball playing position

Submitted by Aleksandra Vujmilović and Tamara Karalić

This research presents a test of the hypothesis that there are differences in morphological characteristics, which affect effective realization of the elements of the game, which are influenced by many factors from the area of anthropological status of the volleyball players. The study examines the relations of body-dimensions of cadet female volleyball players and provides the answers to a question of how different are they in that segment, depending on which position in the team they play. The research was conducted on a sample of 55 female volleyball players. The sample was grouped as follows: opposites, middle blockers, outside hitters, setters and liberos. To determine the physical size differences between groups, the authors used the univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA), while for the precise determination of the sources of variability between groups the authors used a Post Hoc analysis, Tukey HSD test as a method of multiple comparisons. A model of physical dimensions was used, that contains the five (5) variables: body height (ATV), range of hands (RAR), body weight (ATT), maximum reach with one hand from a place (MDOH1RM) and maximum reach with two hands from a place (MDOH2RM). With this model the differences have been found in body height (ATV) p=0.001, range of hands (RAR) p=0.003, maximum reach with one hand from a place (MDOH1RM) p=0.000, and maximum reach with two hands from a place (MDOH2RM) p=0.000. Based on the results of a post hoc analysis, statistically significant differences have appeared between the group Liberos and other groups of specialists. In scientific research practice there is a lack of research of this kind. In this sense, this research is conceived as a small contribution to the advancement of the profession especially in the domain of training technologies and optimal functioning of female volleyball players in training process, and manner of its planning and programming.
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A Woman’s Guide to Climbing the Corporate Ladder: One Swing at a Time

Submitted by Justin Barnes, Scott P. Barnicle and Amber M. Lee

Golf is a game played and enjoyed by millions, yet this enjoyment can quickly turn to frustration when psychological factors become overwhelming. More important, how one chooses to play and behave on the golf course may provide benefits to professional development if practiced properly. Grounded in sport enjoyment theory (Scanlan & Lewthwaite, 1986; Stodel, 2004), this study examines the difference in the psychological factors, which contribute to sport enjoyment and stress in female amateur golfers. With support from five state golf associations, this mixed-methods study (n=50) demonstrated statistically significant results regarding the socialization process of females in golf participation to better understand the purpose of a round, and to enjoy the experience more, regardless of performance. This research can help golf organizations such as the PGA and LPGA of America, PGM Programs, and developmental academies improve training and tailor instruction and marketing strategies to female recreational and professional golf populations. In addition, this research could serve as a guide to individuals, especially females who may use golf as a catalyst to enhance professional development as well as provide understanding to the positive relational impact a round of golf may have on participants.
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