High School Competitive Diving Injuries: National Athletic Treatment Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION)

Authors: Susan M Braid & Eric Schussler

Corresponding Author: 
Susan Braid
1881 University Drive
Virginia Beach, VA 23453
sbraid@odu.edu
757-683-4563

Susan Braid is an assistant professor at the School of Nursing at Old Dominion University. She is an epidemiologist, nurse, and USA diving judge who has judged at local, national, and international competitions. 

Eric Schussler is an assistant professor at the School of Rehabilitation Sciences at Old Dominion University. He is a physical therapist and athletic trainer.

High School Competitive Diving Injuries: National Athletic Treatment Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION)

ABSTRACT

Purpose:  Elite diving coaches and USA diving officials have become increasingly concerned about injury prevention among adolescent divers. However, little is known about such injuries. The purpose of this study was to describe the injuries among high school students who participated on high school diving teams.

Subjects: High school students who participated on the diving teams of high schools that were included in the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) for 2011–2014.

Methods:  Descriptive epidemiology using injury exposure data on 56 boys’ Swimming and Diving teams and 55 girls’ Swimming and Diving teams from the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) for 2011–2014.

Results:  Only 12 injuries were reported, and 8 (67%) were concussions. The incidence of concussions was the same between boys and girls.

Conclusion:  Concussions are the highest reported injury among high school divers in the NATION data. Student athletes who had minor injuries may not have been evaluated by an athletic trainer. Researchers need better injury surveillance data for high school divers.

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2020-04-20T14:23:07-05:00May 22nd, 2020|Research, Sports Medicine|Comments Off on High School Competitive Diving Injuries: National Athletic Treatment Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION)

Survey Return Rates for Athletic Trainers

Authors: Robert Bradley, Scott Bruce

Corresponding Author:
Robert Bradley, EdD, LAT, ATC
PO Box 910
State University, AR. 72467
rbradley@astate.edu
870-972-3766

Robert Bradley is the program director of the master of athletic training program at Arkansas State University. He is an assistant professor in the College of Nursing and Health Professions and the curriculum coordinator for the Arkansas Athletic Trainers Association.

Scott Bruce is a research faculty member for the master of athletic training program at Arkansas State University.  He is an associate professor in the College of Nursing and Health Professions.

Survey Return Rates for Athletic Trainers

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To determine which method of survey distribution produces higher return rates. Researchers ask athletic trainers to complete surveys to gather data using electronic and non-electronic means.  There are no publications looking at the return rates and the method of distribution of survey instruments. This article seeks to determine which method of survey distribution produces higher return rates

Methods:  The writer searched research articles published between January 2008 and December 2017 within the Journal of Athletic Training and the Athletic Training Education Journal with the term “survey”. Eligible studies included only those surveys where the intended audience were certified athletic trainers and found within the natajouranls.org website. The writer excluded articles that did not indicate how they distributed the survey, did not report their return rates or failed to provide the number of participants in their sample.

Results: Between 2008 and 2017, 81 publications included data obtained using a survey. 87.65% of surveys were sent via email or electronic form and 13.2% with a mailed survey. Electronically send surveys (e-mails) were exceedingly popular, the return rates for electronic surveys was 34.21% while non-electronically (mailed) surveys had a return rate of 66.9%.

Conclusions: When researchers send surveys to certified athletic trainers, those athletic trainers tend to respond in larger numbers (increased return rate) if those surveys were sent through the mail, than with emails.

Application in sport: Any attempt to garner information from athletic trainers either for research or marketing purposes will find that athletic trainers respond at higher rates with mailed surveys, than with electronically sent surveys.

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2020-03-31T10:24:41-05:00May 1st, 2020|Sports Medicine|Comments Off on Survey Return Rates for Athletic Trainers

Concussion in the Collegiate Equestrian Athlete

Authors: Tasneem Zahira PhD,  Timothy Henry PhD ATC, Michael L. Pilato MS ATC

Corresponding Author:
Michael L. Pilato MS ATC
1000 East Henrietta Road, Rochester, NY 14623
mikep316@yahoo.com
585-329-6463

Michael L. Pilato is an athletic trainer with Monroe Community College in Rochester, N.Y. He has been researching sports medicine for the equestrian athlete since 2003 and has been published in peer and non-peer reviewed journals.

Tasneem Zaihra PhD.
Department of Mathematics State University New York College at Brockport
350 New Campus Dr, Brockport, NY 14420
tzahira@brockport.edu
585-3952075

Tasneem Zaihra is an assistant professor of statistics in the department of mathematics, SUNY Brockport. She has many presentations and publications in peer-reviewed journals, to her credit.

Timothy Henry PhD. ATC
Department of HPERD State University New York College at Brockport
350 New Campus Dr, Brockport, NY 14420
thenry@borckport.edu
585-395-5357

Timothy Henry is director of the athletic training program at SUNY Brockport. He is also a reviewer for The Journal of Sport Rehabilitation and The Journal of Athletic Training.

Concussion in the Collegiate Equestrian Athlete

ABSTRACT

Equestrian sports, in general, pose a significant risk of concussion. Minimizing the risk of concussion has been a focal point in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to describe concussion and explore potential association(s) between groups of musculoskeletal injuries and Body Mass Index (BMI) on the risk and odds of concussion in the collegiate equestrian athlete. Forty-three schools, ranging from DI to DIII, from the Eastern United States were selected from the NCAA and Intercollegiate Horse Show Association’s websites. Self-reported injury and demographic data was collected through an online survey created in Mach Forms. Seventy-three participants completed the online survey (women n=71, men=2). Aggregate descriptive data is reported on all subjects. After removing data on 2 men, and a single female with incomplete data, the data from 70 females with complete data was analyzed using chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests and ordinal logistic regression. Pearson’s chi-squared as well as Fisher’s exact test (p-value =.0288 and.0297 respectively) indicates the risk of having concussion with 0 UE injury is not the same as with 1 or 2+ injuries. The average number of injuries per athlete increased from 0 to 2(+) concussions. Concussion is a commonly reported injury. Upper extremity injury is identified as having the strongest association with concussion risk in the equestrian athlete. Knowing UE injury status could be useful in gaging the risk and odds of concussion in equestrian athletes.

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2020-01-31T09:20:28-06:00February 7th, 2020|Research, Sports Medicine|Comments Off on Concussion in the Collegiate Equestrian Athlete

The Workplace Experiences of Athletic Trainers in the Professional Sports Setting

Authors:

Katelyn A. Zweigle DAT, LAT, ATC
Neuromechanics, Interventions, and Continuing Education Research (NICER) Laboratory Department of Applied Medicine and Rehabilitation
Indiana State University
Terre Haute, IN
E-mail: kzweigle@sycamores.indstate.edu

Stephanie M. Mazerolle Singe PhD, ATC, FNATA
Department of Kinesiology
University of Connecticut
Storrs, CT
E-mail: Stephanie.mazerolle@uconn.edu

Zachary K. Winkelmann PhD, SCAT, ATC
Neuromechanics, Interventions, and Continuing Education Research (NICER) Laboratory Department of Applied Medicine and Rehabilitation
Indiana State University
Terre Haute, IN
E-mail: zwinkelmann@indstate.edu

Elizabeth R. Neil PhD, LAT, ATC
Neuromechanics, Interventions, and Continuing Education Research (NICER) Laboratory Department of Applied Medicine and Rehabilitation
Indiana State University
Terre Haute, IN
E-mail: eneil@sycamores.indstate.edu

Nicholas J. Spangler DAT, LAT, ATC
Neuromechanics, Interventions, and Continuing Education Research (NICER) Laboratory Department of Applied Medicine and Rehabilitation
Indiana State University
Terre Haute, IN
E-mail: nspangler@sycamores.indstate.edu

Lindsey E. Eberman PhD, LAT, ATC*
Neuromechanics, Interventions, and Continuing Education Research (NICER) Laboratory Department of Applied Medicine and Rehabilitation
Indiana State University
Terre Haute, IN
E-mail: lindsey.eberman@indstate.edu

Corresponding Author:
Lindsey Eberman, PhD, LAT, ATC
Department of Applied Medicine and Rehabilitation
Indiana State University
567 North 5th Street,
Terre Haute, IN 47809
E-mail: lindsey.eberman@indstate.edu
Phone: 812-237-3961

The Workplace Experiences of Athletic Trainers in the Professional Sports Setting

ABSTRACT:

Purpose: Previous literature has reported that athletic trainers in the professional sports setting (PSS) experience role strain from extreme organizational expectations and demands, resulting in perceived limitations in patient care and work-life balance.Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of athletic trainers working in the PSS.

Methods: We recruited 18 participants from various professional sports who partook in a semi-structured, one-on-one phone interview. A 3-person data analysis team used a multi-phased process to identify emerging domains and core ideas, ultimately developing a consensus codebook. Trustworthiness was established with member checking, multiple researcher triangulation, and external auditing.

Results: Three domains emerged: 1) job attractors, 2) feeling valued, and 3) characteristics of the workplace environment. Participants reported being attracted to athletic training in the PSS to work with elite athletes, because of supportive coworker relationships, having a network of athletic trainers, and increased access to resources and education. Athletic trainers reported feeling valued by employers through increasing professional responsibilities and increasing compensation or recognition.  They also reported having trusting relationships with their patients. Participants described mutual organizational and employee loyalty in their workplace environment. Participants detailed examples of inappropriate behaviors and a sub-culture of acceptance, whereby these workplace experiences were accepted as a byproduct of the PSS.  Participants discussed common coworker tensions related to miscommunication.  Although participants were overall positive about their workplace’s experiences, they acknowledged sacrifices to acquire and retain their positions, including significant time commitments, regular travel expectations, family compromises, and fewer opportunities for promotion.

Conclusion: Athletic trainers in the PSS feel valued for their work despite the long hours, family and promotional sacrifices. Positive coworker environments and access to resources continue to attract athletic trainers to the PSS. A sub-culture of accepting inappropriate workplace behavior within the PSS should be further explored. 

Application in Sport: Athletic trainers in the professional sports setting feel that they have added job attractors that may include access to resources and education. The professional sports setting may include a sub-culture of acceptance, where inappropriate behavior is overlooked as a result of the setting.  

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2020-01-28T10:40:48-06:00January 31st, 2020|Sports Medicine|Comments Off on The Workplace Experiences of Athletic Trainers in the Professional Sports Setting

Concussions in Cheerleaders Reported from a Countywide Concussion Injury Surveillance System

Authors: Luis Gude, MD, Gillian Hotz, PHD

Corresponding Author:
Gillian Hotz Ph.D
Lois Pope LIFE Center – 1-40, (R-48)
1095 NW 14th Terrace, Miami, Florida 33136
ghotz@med.miami.edu
305-243-4004

Gillian A. Hotz, PhD is a research professor at the University of  Miami, Miller School of

Medicine and a nationally recognized behavioral neuroscientist and expert in pediatric and adult neurotrauma, concussion management, and neurorehabilitation. Dr. Hotz is the director of the KiDZ Neuroscience Center, WalkSafe, BikeSafe, and SkateSafe programs, and has been co-director of the Miller School of Medicine’s Concussion Program since 1995. She continues to assess and treat many athletes from Miami-Dade County public and private high schools, the University of Miami, and from other colleges and the community.

Concussions in Cheerleaders Reported from a Countywide Concussion Injury Surveillance System

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to advocate for the acceptance of cheerleading as a sport so that its athletes are eligible for the same resources available to other sports, such as concussion education programs and injury surveillance systems. The subjects of this study were cheerleaders from Miami Dade County public high schools who sustained a sports related concussion (SRC) from August 2015 to June 2019, identified from the Miami Concussion Model Concussion Injury Surveillance System. The database is compiled from reports submitted by certified athletic trainers after a suspected concussion, from post-injury ImPACT tests, and from patients who present to the University of Miami Sports Concussion Clinic for evaluation. A total of 29 cheerleaders were identified. The 2018-19 academic year accounted for 45% of reported concussions, representing a large increase in number compared to previous years. This was observed after increased emphasis was placed on certified athletic trainers to report SRC in cheerleaders. On average cheerleaders with SRC were withheld from sport for 26.2 days, and 38% had prolonged recovery of >28 days. Cheerleaders perform complex athletic maneuvers that put them at risk of injury, particularly SRC. If considered a sport, cheerleading would be afforded the same benefits as other sports, including resources for better facilities, mandatory concussion education, ATC availability, baseline neurocognitive testing, and inclusion in injury surveillance systems. Increased knowledge of the long-term sequelae of concussions and repetitive head injuries has led to the development of concussion education programs and injury surveillance systems to protect athletes from these types of injuries. Although competitive cheerleading has been recognized as a sport, cheerleading as a whole has not, putting its athletes at risk as its participants are not included in these safety programs. 

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2019-10-29T08:27:26-05:00November 15th, 2019|Research, Sports Medicine|Comments Off on Concussions in Cheerleaders Reported from a Countywide Concussion Injury Surveillance System