The Value of Athletic Training Employment in Secondary School Athletics

Authors: Rachele E. Vogelpohl, PhD, ATC

Corresponding Author:
Rachele E. Vogelpohl
109 HC Nunn Drive
Highland Heights, KY 41099
vogelpohlra@nku.edu
859-572-5623

Rachele Vogelpohl is an assistant professor and Athletic Training Program director at Northern Kentucky University, and is a certified athletic trainer. She graduated from Northern Kentucky University with a bachelor’s degree and from the University of Hawaii, Manoa with both a master’s and doctoral degree.

The Value of Athletic Training Employment in Secondary School Athletics

ABSTRACT
Millions of secondary school students participate in interscholastic athletics each year, and unfortunately, injuries occur. Athletic trainers are health care providers specifically trained in injury prevention, diagnosis, and rehabilitation. Employment of an athletic trainer in the secondary school setting ensures that the student athletes are participating in a safe environment, that they are being cared for free of charge, and that emergency situations are handled in the proper way.
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Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Automated External Defibrillator Certification of Club Coaches in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Montana, and Washington

Authors: Jessica M. Kerns, MSAT, LAT, ATC; Dani M. Moffit, PhD, LAT, ATC

Corresponding Author:
Jessica M. Kerns
Sport Science and Physical Education Department
219 S. 8th Avenue, Stop 8105
Pocatello, ID 83209-8105
208-996-6737
harrjes3@isu.edu

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Automated External Defibrillator Certification of Club Coaches in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Montana, and Washington

ABSTRACT
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) qualifications for coaches within club sport systems appear largely unregulated. This is a concern because CPR/AED qualifications should be a safety consideration. This study attempted to identify the prevalence of CPR and AED certification for club sport coaches in five states, as well as assess the availability of AEDs at practices and games. Not all coaches surveyed identified having CPR (n=84, 72.6%) and/or AED (n=83, 75%) training. A majority of coaches reported having an AED at practice (n=43, 54.4%). For games, there were fewer coaches identifying the availability of an AED (n=36, 43.4%). While the majority of coaches report having CPR/AED certification several coaches did not select having both CPR and AED certification although AED is a part of all CPR training courses. There was no consistency as to the availability of an AED at practices or games. Through investigating this topic, it was learned that there is no overarching governing body in club sports and therefore, few agreed upon regulations.

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Taking Concussion Vital Signs Neurocognitive Test Under Varied Conditions

Authors: Scott L. Bruce, EdD, AT, ATC
Sarah Stauffer, AT, ATC
Andrew Chaney, AT, ATC
Kelsey Garrison, AT, ATC
Wright State University

Corresponding Author:
Scott L. Bruce, EdD, AT, ATC
Assistant Professor/Director of Research
Wright State University
3680 Colonel Glenn Hwy
Dayton, OH 45435
937-245-7622
scott.bruce@wright.edu

Scott Bruce is an Assistant Professor and the Director of Research for the Athletic Training Program at Wright State University.

Taking Concussion Vital Signs Neurocognitive Test Under Varied Conditions

ABSTRACT
Neurocognitive test batteries are commonly used tools for concussion assessments in the medical professions. Administered at baseline and post-injury these tests provide information on a patient’s neurocognitive ability during the recovery and return-to-activity phases. In athletics, student-athletes usually take the baseline exam as a group in a computer lab prior to the season beginning. If a medical professional believes an individual has sustained a possible concussion, they will retest them and compare their post-injury and baseline results. A deficit in one of more areas of the neurocognitive test may be indicative of a possible concussion. The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not there was a difference in neurocognitive test scores from Concussion Vital Signs when tested under two different conditions: “lights out” and with distractions. Our study was a randomized control trial performed at a Midwestern NCAA, “mid-major” Division I Institution. The subjects were 15 college-aged students with an overall mean age of 19 years (1.2). There were seven females (mean age was 19 ± 0.77) and eight males (mean age was 20 ± 1.2). A paired t-test was used to determine if a difference in the neurocognitive test section scores between the conditions existed. On three of the ten test sections, there was a statistically significant difference between the baseline and distraction condition. On four of the ten test sections between baseline and the lights out condition for males, but not for females. Testing should be done in a quiet room, with distractions minimized, as distraction hinders focus and performance. The results of this study indicate males may have a more difficult time concentrating while taking neurocognitive tests than females. Administering neurocognitive testing in a quiet, well-lit room is the best condition for the patient to take these concussion-related tests.

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The Reliability and Predictive Ability of the Movement Competency Screen in a Military Population

Authors:
Milbank, E.J.1, Peterson, D.D.2, Henry, S.M.1,3
1Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT;
2U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD
3Department of Rehabilitation Therapy, University of Vermont Medical Center

Corresponding Author:
Emily Milbank
Department of Rehabilitation and Movement Science
C/o Sharon Henry
305 Rowell Building
106 Carrigan Drive
University of Vermont
Burlington, VT 05401-0068
802-324-5619
emilbank@uvm.edu

The Reliability and Predictive Ability of the Movement Competency Screen in a Military Population

ABSTRACT:
Purpose: Musculoskeletal injuries in the United States Armed Forces impacts operational readiness. Therefore, a reliable, valid screening tool that identifies injury risk and predicts performance is needed. The purpose of this study was to: (1) establish the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Movement Competency Screen (MCS) using a cohort of United States Naval Academy fourth class Midshipmen, (2) identify if a correlation exists between average total MCS scores and injury rates during training, and (3) identify if a correlation exists between average total MCS score and performance on the Physical Readiness Test (PRT).

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Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) and Former National Football League Player Suicides

Submitted by: Marcos A. Abreu*(1), Fred J. Cromartie (1), Brandon D. Spradley (1)
(1) United States Sports Academy

*Corresponding Author:
Marcos Abreu
Doctoral Student
United States Sports Academy
One Academy Drive
Daphne, Alabama 36526
mabreu@students.ussa.edu
251-626-3303

Marcos Abreu is a doctoral student at the United States Sports Academy studying sports management.

ABSTRACT
Purpose: Our understanding of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) has rapidly advanced, since 2002, when Dr. Bennet I. Omalu first discovered CTE in the brain of deceased former National Football League (NFL) player Mike Webster. Although it is clear that there is a link between the neurological diseases and exposure to repeated mild traumatic brain injuries, the explicit link between the long-term consequences that are associated with CTE and the suicide death of several former NFL players is much less clear. The purpose of this paper is to examine if the psychological and cognitive consequences that are associated with CTE are factors in the suicide death of several former NFL players.
Method: The literature used in this paper was acquired using the words NFL concussions, NFL player CTE research, CTE symptoms in NFL players, and NFL player suicide death in the EBSCOhost and Internet Explorer search engines.

Results: Although similar studies on the relationship between CTE and suicide in former NFL players determined that further research was needed to prove a connection (47, 22), the case study research and testimonial evidence discussed in this study reinforces Omula et al. (2010) findings that identified these psychological and cognitive consequences as key variables associated in suicide death of an alarming amount of NFL players, such as former Eagles and Arizona Cardinals Defensive Back Andre Waters, who resorted to suicide as a result of diminished neurological capabilities and accumulation of symptoms. Continue reading