Physical Exam Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Abnormalities in College Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review

Authors: Rose Uzoma Elekanachi

Corresponding Author:
Rose Uzoma Elekanachi. BPT, MSc, mMRTB
29 Shaw Road,
Bridgewater, MA, 02324
elekanachirose@gmail.com
5087141508

Rose Uzoma Elekanachi is a Nigerian Physical therapist and a recent Graduate of Bridgewater State University with a Masters in Physical Education with a concentration in Exercise Science. She is also a member of the Medical Rehabilitation Therapist Board in Nigeria.

Physical Exam Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Abnormalities in College Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review

ABSTRACT

The preparticipation physical examination (PPE) is an important area of the care and safety of any active athletic individuals. The evaluation involves a process that brings about the discovery of life threatening or disabling conditions that could prevent athletes’ participation from sporting activities or predispose them to injuries or death.

The preparticipation evaluation was not made to prevent or exclude athletes from participation, rather to help athletes practice safe sport participation. There has been a long ongoing debate on the inclusion and importance of cardiovascular analysis as a part of the PPE as cardiovascular abnormalities is a risk factor that predisposes collegiate athlete to sport injuries or even death. The objective of the proposed project was to identify the clinical methods that most effectively assess cardiovascular abnormalities in intercollegiate athletes through a systematic review of existing published research studies in which cardiovascular abnormalities in intercollegiate athletes were included as measurement variables.

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2019-06-20T11:20:52-05:00June 20th, 2019|Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Physical Exam Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Abnormalities in College Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review

Endurance masters athletes: A model of successful ageing with clinically superior BMI?

Authors: Mike Climstein, PhD, FASMF, FACSM, FAAESS, Joe Walsh, MSc, Ian Timothy Heazlewood, PhD, Mark DeBeliso, PhD, FACSM

Corresponding Author:
Dr. Mike Climstein
Clinical Exercise Physiology, School of Health and Human Sciences
Southern Cross University (Gold Coast Campus)
Bilinga,  Qld 4225
Australia
michael.climstein@scu.edu.au
+617 5509 3330

Dr. Mike Climstein (FASMF, FACSM, FAAESS, AEP) is with Clinical Exercise Physiology, Southern Cross University, School of Health and Human Sciences, Bilinga, Queensland, Australia; Adjunct Associate Professor with The University of Sydney, Exercise, Health and Performance Faculty Research Group, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Joe Walsh is affiliated with the Faculty of Engineering, Health, Science and the Environment, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.

Ian Timothy Heazlewood is Associate Professor and Theme Leader Exercise and Sport Science in The College of Health and Human Sciences, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.

Mark DeBeliso is Professor, Department of Physical Education and Human Performance, Southern Utah University, Cedar City, USA

Endurance masters athletes: A model of successful ageing with clinically superior BMI?

ABSTRACT

Master athletes (30yrs and older) are aged individuals who exercise regularly and compete in organized competitive sport.  The long-term physical activity/exercise should afford these individuals health benefits, one of which should be apparent in body mass index (BMI), a simple index for identifying overweight and obese athletes. 

Purpose: To investigate the BMI of endurance masters athletes and determine if this cohort demonstrated clinically favourable BMI as compared to sedentary controls or the general population.    A systematic review of electronic databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, Medline, PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science) for studies where BMI was measured in either masters athletes, World Masters Games athletes or veteran athletes.

Results:  Database searches identified 7,465 studies, of which nine met our inclusion criteria.   The mean BMI of all the studies was found to be significantly (p<0.001) lower in masters athletes as compared to controls (23.4 kg/m2 (±0.97) versus 26.3 kg/m2 (±1.68)).   Additionally, for all studies mean masters athlete BMI was classified as normal (BMI >18.5 to <25.0 kg/m2) whereas the majority (77.8%) of the controls BMIs were classified as overweight (BMI >25.0 to < 30 kg/m2).  In all studies, masters athletes had lower BMI compared to controls, this difference was found to be significant in 44.4% of the studies, where significance was not found masters athlete BMI was -2.6% to -18.6% lower than controls.    In all studies, the mean BMI was lower in masters athletes (as compared to controls) and this favourable BMI would afford masters athletes reduced risk with regard to the development of a number of cardiometabolic diseases, osteoarthritis and certain types of cancer.

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2019-05-20T09:30:30-05:00April 25th, 2019|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Endurance masters athletes: A model of successful ageing with clinically superior BMI?

Biomechanical Comparison of “Dead” and “New” Pointe Shoes in Female Professional Ballet Dancers

Authors: Jessica Aquino, MS and Tal Amasay, PhD

Corresponding Author:
Tal Amasay, PhD, CSCS, EPC
11300 NE 2nd Ave
Miami Shores, FL 33161
tamasay@barry.edu
305-899-4893

Jessica Aquino has a master degree in movement sciences, is a certified athletic trainer, and work with professional Ballet dancers. Tal Amasay is associate professor at Barry University and the head of the Motion Analysis Center. He is a certified exercise physiologist and certified strength and conditioning coach 

Biomechanical Comparison of “Dead” and “New” Pointe Shoe in Female Professional Ballet Dancers

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Available research on pointe shoes often compare pointe shoes to other dance footwear, however there is a lack of studies comparing dancers’ biomechanics when using “new” pointe shoes and pointe shoes that have worn down, “dead”. The aim of this study was to examine the biomechanical differences exhibited by professional ballet dancers while performing relevé, sous-sus, and pirouette in “dead” and “new” pointe shoes. Methods: Thirteen female (20.9 ± 1.9 years old) professional ballet dancers were asked to perform three trials of relevé, sous-sus, and pirouette in “new” pointe shoes and “dead” pointe shoes. Center of pressure sway area and ground reaction forces in the anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, and vertical directions were recorded using one AMTI force plate. Results: The “dead” pointe shoe condition had significantly higher sway area during relevé, sous-sus, and single pirouette (103 ± 95 mm2; 256 ± 133 mm2; 178 ±129 mm2, respectively) than the “new” pointe shoe condition (50 ± 65 mm2; 110 ± 64 mm2; 77 ± 39 mm2, respectively),  p-value < 0.05. In addition, peak ground reaction force in the anterior-posterior direction during relevé movement was higher in “new” pointe shoes (35 ± 6% body weight) than in “dead” pointe shoes (32 ± 6% body weight), p-value = 0.019. No significant differences were observed for the other dependent variables. Conclusions: A larger sway area was observed in “dead” pointe shoes compared to “new” pointe shoes, which indicates that the participant had less balance in the “dead” pointe shoes than in the “new” pointe shoes. The larger sway area in “dead” pointe shoes may indicate that decrease in shoe integrity may contribute to decrease in the support and stability of the pointe shoe while the ballet dancer maintains the ‘en pointe’ position. Moreover, higher forces in the anterior direction state that the dancers can apply more forces in the “new” point shoe. Application in sport: These results can educate ballet teachers and ballet dancers about the mechanical changes in “dead” pointe shoes, which may lead to injury and reduce in performance. Furthermore, these results may lead to enhancements in footwear design.

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2019-02-13T08:47:53-05:00February 14th, 2019|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Biomechanical Comparison of “Dead” and “New” Pointe Shoes in Female Professional Ballet Dancers

Assessing the Dietary Quality and Health Status among Division 1 College Athletes at Moderate Altitude

Authors: Jay T. Sutliffe, Julia C. Gardner, Jenny M. Gormley, Mary Jo. Carnot, and Alison Adams

Corresponding Author:
Jay Sutliffe, PhD, RD
PO Box 15095
Flagstaff AZ, 86011
Jay.sutliffe@nau.edu
928-523-7596

Jay T. Sutliffe is Associate Professor of Nutrition and Foods and the Director of the PRANDIAL Lab at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, AZ; Julia C. Gardner is a research coordinator with the PRANDIAL Lab at Northern Arizona University; Mary Jo Carnot is professor of Counseling, Psychological Sciences, and Social Work at Chadron State College in Chadron, NE.; Jenny M. Gormley is a research assistant and student at Northern Arizona University; Alison Adams, is Professor of Biology at Northern Arizona University.

Assessing the Dietary Quality and Health Status Among Division 1 College Athletes at Moderate Altitude

ABSTRACT

Student-athletes’ dietary habits are ingrained in a complex interaction as they seek to maintain the balance between student and athlete. Assessing the dietary habits and lifestyle factors associated with this highly demanding population is the focus of this study. Eighty-nine Division I Collegiate Athletes was assessed (age 19.84 ± 1.15 yr). Measurements included diet quality, body composition, blood lipid profiling, and wellness factors. Significant deficiencies in Vitamin D (football 6.68 ± 5.84; basketball 4.33 ± 3.17; swim/dive 4 ± 2.97; volleyball 4.07 ± 2.97) and Omega 3-EPA & DHA (football 125.84 ± 301.03; basketball 53.92 ± 48.05; swim/dive 29.45 ± 35.83; volleyball 42.79 ± 30.77), Calcium (swim/dive 1083.55 ± 437.88), and Potassium (swim/dive 1083.55 ± 437.88) were reported. All teams exhibited an energy deficit, however, the highest energy deficit was for football (-843.57 calories). All teams had higher than recommended levels of perceived stress, averaging 20.63, and swim/dive had higher levels of depressive symptoms (6.17 ± 3.30). All teams reported poor sleep quality, averaging 7.20. This assessment indicates variability in dietary quality and wellness factors among individuals and teams. Individualized guidelines should be recommended for those experiencing food intake challenges such as the unique needs of moderate altitude athletes.

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2019-01-31T14:42:08-05:00February 7th, 2019|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Assessing the Dietary Quality and Health Status among Division 1 College Athletes at Moderate Altitude

Evaluation of Possible Anthropometric Advantage in Sit-Up Test

Authors: David Peterson, Meighan Middleton, and Sharon Christman

Corresponding Author:
David D. Peterson, EdD, CSCS*D
Cedarville University
251 N. Main St.
Cedarville, OH 45314
ddpeterson@cedarville.edu
(937) 766-7761

Dr. Peterson is an associate professor of kinesiology at Cedarville University (CU) and currently serves as the Director of the Multi-Age Physical Education (MAPE) program at CU.

Evaluation of Possible Anthropometric Advantage in Sit-Up Test

ABSTRACT

The U.S. Navy currently employs sit-ups as part of its semi-annual physical fitness in order to assess the abdominal muscular endurance of service-members.  However, there is speculation that sit-up performance may be associated with anthropometric proportions thereby affording certain service-members with a biomechanical advantage.  To test this theory, anthropometric measurements were taken at various sites (i.e., humerus, torso, femur, and tibia) across a convenience sample of 69 participants (37 male / 32 female), to include student, active duty, and retired military personnel from the United States Naval Academy.  Humerus length (r = .297), tibia length (r = .385) and sex (r = .314) were all found to be moderately correlated with sit-up performance.  These findings, coupled with well-documented concerns of the sit-ups in terms of safety and relevance in the literature, make a compelling argument for the identification and implementation of other potential field tests to assess abdominal muscular endurance.

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2019-02-04T08:46:29-05:00January 31st, 2019|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Evaluation of Possible Anthropometric Advantage in Sit-Up Test