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Positive and Negative Events Predict Burnout and Engagement in Athletes and Non-Athletes

Authors: Donna Webster Nelson, Merry J. Sleigh, & Alyssa M. Nelson

Corresponding Author:
Donna Webster Nelson, Ph.D.
801 Oakland Avenue
Rock Hill SC, 29733
nelsond@winthrop.edu
803-323-2636

Positive and Negative Events Predict Burnout and Engagement in Athletes and Non-Athletes

ABSTRACT

The researchers compared predictors of engagement and burnout in adolescent athletes and non-athletes by focusing on daily positive and negative performance-related events (e.g., performing well in team practice) and interpersonal events (e.g., sharing a laugh with teammates). Participants were recent high school graduates who retrospectively reported participation in high school sports or heavy investment in alternate activities (e.g., marching band). The athletes and non-athletes were similar in how many hours they practiced and competed each week, frequency of activity-related travel, and performance level. In addition, the two groups did not differ in the extent to which their high school identity and self-esteem were based on their participation. Results revealed no overall differences between the two groups on engagement or burnout. For both groups, positive performance events predicted activity engagement (characterized by dedication, vigor and enthusiasm).  However, the experiences of athletes versus non-athletes differentially predicted burnout (marked by emotional and physical exhaustion). In athletes, burnout related to both performance and interpersonal events. In non-athletes, burnout was only related to performance events. In addition, burnout was positively associated with coach focus on winning (a situation more common for athletes) and negatively associated with coach focus on fun (a situation more common for non-athletes). These findings indicate that experiencing positive and negative events is a precursor for engagement and burnout in high school athletes and non-athletes. Promoting positive (relative to negative) events during training, practice, competitions or performances could enhance benefits and prevent maladaptive outcomes of participation in extracurricular activities. Positive social interactions may be particularly important for preventing burnout in adolescent athletes.

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2019-03-01T09:13:45+00:00March 1st, 2019|Research, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Positive and Negative Events Predict Burnout and Engagement in Athletes and Non-Athletes

Student-Athletes vs. Athlete-Students: The academic success, campus involvement, and future goals of Division I student athletes who were university bound compared to those who would not have attended a university had they not been an athlete.

Authors: Brenda L. Vogel, Jeff Kress, and Daniel R. Jeske

Corresponding Author:
Jeff Kress, Ph.D.
Department of Kinesiology
1250 Bellflower Blvd. – MS 4901, HHS2-103
Long Beach, CA 90840
jeff.kress@csulb.edu
949-375-3958

Brenda L.Vogel is a Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice and the Director of the School of Criminology, Criminal Justice, and Emergency Management at California State University, Long Beach. She served as the CSULB NCAA Faculty Athletics Representative from 2007-2015.

Jeff Kress is an Associate Professor in the Department of Kinesiology at California State University, Long Beach and teaches in the area of Physical Education Teacher. His research interests have been in the area of sport performance enhancement through psychological methods.

Daniel Jeske is a Professor, in the Department of Statistics at the University of California, Riverside.  He has served as the UCR NCAA Faculty Athletics Representative. He is an elected Fellow of the American Statistical Associationand an Elected Member of the International Statistical Institute. He has published over 100 peer-reviewed journal articles and is a co-inventor on 10 U.S. Patents and is currently the Editor-in-Chief of The American Statistician.

Student-Athletes vs. Athlete-Students: The academic success, campus involvement, and future goals of Division I student athletes who were university bound compared to those who would not have attended a university had they not been an athlete.

ABSTRACT

This study examined the differences between two groups of Division I student athletes: those who would have attended a 4-year university regardless of their participation in athletics and those who would not have attended a 4-year university had it not been for the opportunity afforded them through their athletic ability.  The researchers examined a number of academic factors including GPA, participation in intensive academic experiences, class participation and preparation, perception of academic experience, importance of graduation, major selection, and participation in extracurricular activities, future goals, and identification as an athlete or student. The data from the NCAA’s Growth, Opportunities, Aspirations and Learning of Students in College (GOALS) survey that was administered to a nationwide, random sample of NCAA student athletes in 2006 are discussed. Our results suggest that there were significant differences between the two groups in several of the domains measured.  For example, our findings suggest that student athletes who identify as athletes first and students second think less about academics when choosing a college, are less likely to major in mathematics and science, are less likely to select a major to prepare for graduate school or a specific career, have lower GPAs, are less likely to participate in classes, are less likely to be involved in extracurricular activities, are less willing to sacrifice on athletics participation for academics, feel graduation is less important to them and to their families, and believe becoming a professional athlete is more likely. Implications for the NCAA and college athletics programs are discussed.

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2019-02-21T15:03:34+00:00February 21st, 2019|Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Student-Athletes vs. Athlete-Students: The academic success, campus involvement, and future goals of Division I student athletes who were university bound compared to those who would not have attended a university had they not been an athlete.

Biomechanical Comparison of “Dead” and “New” Pointe Shoes in Female Professional Ballet Dancers

Authors: Jessica Aquino, MS and Tal Amasay, PhD

Corresponding Author:
Tal Amasay, PhD, CSCS, EPC
11300 NE 2nd Ave
Miami Shores, FL 33161
tamasay@barry.edu
305-899-4893

Jessica Aquino has a master degree in movement sciences, is a certified athletic trainer, and work with professional Ballet dancers. Tal Amasay is associate professor at Barry University and the head of the Motion Analysis Center. He is a certified exercise physiologist and certified strength and conditioning coach 

Biomechanical Comparison of “Dead” and “New” Pointe Shoe in Female Professional Ballet Dancers

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Available research on pointe shoes often compare pointe shoes to other dance footwear, however there is a lack of studies comparing dancers’ biomechanics when using “new” pointe shoes and pointe shoes that have worn down, “dead”. The aim of this study was to examine the biomechanical differences exhibited by professional ballet dancers while performing relevé, sous-sus, and pirouette in “dead” and “new” pointe shoes. Methods: Thirteen female (20.9 ± 1.9 years old) professional ballet dancers were asked to perform three trials of relevé, sous-sus, and pirouette in “new” pointe shoes and “dead” pointe shoes. Center of pressure sway area and ground reaction forces in the anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, and vertical directions were recorded using one AMTI force plate. Results: The “dead” pointe shoe condition had significantly higher sway area during relevé, sous-sus, and single pirouette (103 ± 95 mm2; 256 ± 133 mm2; 178 ±129 mm2, respectively) than the “new” pointe shoe condition (50 ± 65 mm2; 110 ± 64 mm2; 77 ± 39 mm2, respectively),  p-value < 0.05. In addition, peak ground reaction force in the anterior-posterior direction during relevé movement was higher in “new” pointe shoes (35 ± 6% body weight) than in “dead” pointe shoes (32 ± 6% body weight), p-value = 0.019. No significant differences were observed for the other dependent variables. Conclusions: A larger sway area was observed in “dead” pointe shoes compared to “new” pointe shoes, which indicates that the participant had less balance in the “dead” pointe shoes than in the “new” pointe shoes. The larger sway area in “dead” pointe shoes may indicate that decrease in shoe integrity may contribute to decrease in the support and stability of the pointe shoe while the ballet dancer maintains the ‘en pointe’ position. Moreover, higher forces in the anterior direction state that the dancers can apply more forces in the “new” point shoe. Application in sport: These results can educate ballet teachers and ballet dancers about the mechanical changes in “dead” pointe shoes, which may lead to injury and reduce in performance. Furthermore, these results may lead to enhancements in footwear design.

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2019-02-13T08:47:53+00:00February 14th, 2019|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Biomechanical Comparison of “Dead” and “New” Pointe Shoes in Female Professional Ballet Dancers

Assessing the Dietary Quality and Health Status among Division 1 College Athletes at Moderate Altitude

Authors: Jay T. Sutliffe, Julia C. Gardner, Jenny M. Gormley, Mary Jo. Carnot, and Alison Adams

Corresponding Author:
Jay Sutliffe, PhD, RD
PO Box 15095
Flagstaff AZ, 86011
Jay.sutliffe@nau.edu
928-523-7596

Jay T. Sutliffe is Associate Professor of Nutrition and Foods and the Director of the PRANDIAL Lab at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, AZ; Julia C. Gardner is a research coordinator with the PRANDIAL Lab at Northern Arizona University; Mary Jo Carnot is professor of Counseling, Psychological Sciences, and Social Work at Chadron State College in Chadron, NE.; Jenny M. Gormley is a research assistant and student at Northern Arizona University; Alison Adams, is Professor of Biology at Northern Arizona University.

Assessing the Dietary Quality and Health Status Among Division 1 College Athletes at Moderate Altitude

ABSTRACT

Student-athletes’ dietary habits are ingrained in a complex interaction as they seek to maintain the balance between student and athlete. Assessing the dietary habits and lifestyle factors associated with this highly demanding population is the focus of this study. Eighty-nine Division I Collegiate Athletes was assessed (age 19.84 ± 1.15 yr). Measurements included diet quality, body composition, blood lipid profiling, and wellness factors. Significant deficiencies in Vitamin D (football 6.68 ± 5.84; basketball 4.33 ± 3.17; swim/dive 4 ± 2.97; volleyball 4.07 ± 2.97) and Omega 3-EPA & DHA (football 125.84 ± 301.03; basketball 53.92 ± 48.05; swim/dive 29.45 ± 35.83; volleyball 42.79 ± 30.77), Calcium (swim/dive 1083.55 ± 437.88), and Potassium (swim/dive 1083.55 ± 437.88) were reported. All teams exhibited an energy deficit, however, the highest energy deficit was for football (-843.57 calories). All teams had higher than recommended levels of perceived stress, averaging 20.63, and swim/dive had higher levels of depressive symptoms (6.17 ± 3.30). All teams reported poor sleep quality, averaging 7.20. This assessment indicates variability in dietary quality and wellness factors among individuals and teams. Individualized guidelines should be recommended for those experiencing food intake challenges such as the unique needs of moderate altitude athletes.

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2019-01-31T14:42:08+00:00February 7th, 2019|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Assessing the Dietary Quality and Health Status among Division 1 College Athletes at Moderate Altitude

Evaluation of Possible Anthropometric Advantage in Sit-Up Test

Authors: David Peterson, Meighan Middleton, and Sharon Christman

Corresponding Author:
David D. Peterson, EdD, CSCS*D
Cedarville University
251 N. Main St.
Cedarville, OH 45314
ddpeterson@cedarville.edu
(937) 766-7761

Dr. Peterson is an associate professor of kinesiology at Cedarville University (CU) and currently serves as the Director of the Multi-Age Physical Education (MAPE) program at CU.

Evaluation of Possible Anthropometric Advantage in Sit-Up Test

ABSTRACT

The U.S. Navy currently employs sit-ups as part of its semi-annual physical fitness in order to assess the abdominal muscular endurance of service-members.  However, there is speculation that sit-up performance may be associated with anthropometric proportions thereby affording certain service-members with a biomechanical advantage.  To test this theory, anthropometric measurements were taken at various sites (i.e., humerus, torso, femur, and tibia) across a convenience sample of 69 participants (37 male / 32 female), to include student, active duty, and retired military personnel from the United States Naval Academy.  Humerus length (r = .297), tibia length (r = .385) and sex (r = .314) were all found to be moderately correlated with sit-up performance.  These findings, coupled with well-documented concerns of the sit-ups in terms of safety and relevance in the literature, make a compelling argument for the identification and implementation of other potential field tests to assess abdominal muscular endurance.

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2019-02-04T08:46:29+00:00January 31st, 2019|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Evaluation of Possible Anthropometric Advantage in Sit-Up Test