Perceptions of NCAA Division I Athletes on Strength Training

Authors: Joni M. Boyd, Ashley M. Andrews, Janet R. Wojcik, & Charles J. Bowers

Corresponding Author:
Joni M. Boyd, PhD
Winthrop University
216L West Center
Rock Hill, SC 29733
boydj@winthrop.edu
803-323-4936

Joni Boyd is an Assistant Professor of Exercise Science in the Department of Physical Education, Sport, and Human Performance at Winthrop University in Rock Hill, South Carolina.

ABSTRACT
Understanding the beliefs and attitudes of student athletes (at all levels) in regards to their perception of their strength and conditioning programs is pivotal to an effective program. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions regarding the impact of strength training of student athletes at a mid-major Division I university. This study employed a cross-sectional descriptive design using a volunteer sample of 123 college student athletes from a Division I university. Surveys measured student athletes’ perceptions on the importance of strength training in relation to sport-specific training. Results showed no significant differences in perceptions of strength training between genders or class rank. Significant differences were evident between the sports surveyed, specifically noting that some sports (baseball, track and field) felt their strength training program was more beneficial to their performance than other sports (softball, men’s soccer). These results show the differences in some athletes’ beliefs and perceptions regarding their strength training program, which could ultimately hinder results. The strength and conditioning professional can use this information to educate and monitor certain athletes or sports that may not feel their strength program is effective to enhancing performance.

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Challenge, Commitment, Community, and Empowerment: Factors that Promote the Adoption of CrossFit as a Training Program

Authors
Duncan Simpson Ph.D1*; Tanya R. Prewitt-White, Ph.D2*; Yuri Feito, Ph.D, MPH, FACSM3*; Julianne Giusti, MS1; Ryan Shuda, MS4;
* Equal contributors

Institution
1 IMG Academy, Bradenton, FL, USA
2 University of Illinois – Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
3 Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA, USA
4 Adler University, Chicago, IL, USA

Corresponding Author
Yuri Feito, Ph.D, MPH, FACSM
Dept. Exercise Science & Sport Management, Kennesaw State University
520 Parliament Garden Way NW
MD 4104 | Bldg. 41 | Office 4233
Kennesaw, GA 30144
Email: yfeito@kennesaw.edu

ABSTRACT
CrossFit training is a relatively new training program characterized by “high intensity, constantly varied, functional movements” (Glassman, 2007). Considering the initiation of exercise is usually affected by multiple factors, the authors qualitatively examined the factors that encourage individuals with more than three months of CrossFit training experience to adopt and maintain this high-intensity training modality. Seventeen individuals over 25 years old were purposively sampled and contacted by an investigator for an interview. Semi-structured interviews were selected as the primary form of data collection. Analyses of the interviews led to the following four overarching themes: Accepting and Overcoming Challenge, Commitment, Connection and Community, and Empowerment and Transformation.

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Recognizing ESports as a Sport

Authors: Daniel Kane, Brandon D. Spradley

Affiliations: United States Sports Academy

Corresponding Author:
Daniel Kane
20 Ravenhurst Ave
Staten Island, NY 10310
Danielskane@gmail.com
917-545-9179

Daniel Kane is a doctoral student at the United States Sports Academy pursuing his degree in sports management.

ABSTRACT
The commentary is a theoretical framework that builds on the concept that eSports should be considered a sport. The first part of the paper analyzes the definition of a sport and determines that competitive video games should apply to the meaning. The second part of the paper discusses how eSports should be recognized by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). In addition, the application of Title IX is applied to have eSports listed as an emerging sport for women.

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Spiritual Experiences: Understanding Their Subjective Nature in Peak Performance

Authors: Lynda Flower

Corresponding Author:
Lynda Flower, MA
The University of Queensland
Brisbane, Australia
lynda.flower1@uqconnect.edu.au
+ 61 481 735 994

Lynda Flower is an Honorary Research Fellow (Studies in Religion), Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Over the past thirty years, sport and spirituality has grown into a major international research discipline. Of particular interest has been the reported spiritual experiences of athletes during peak performance. With many athletes interpreting peak episodes such as the ‘runners high’ as having not only physiological but also spiritual aspects it is becoming increasingly important that these altered states of consciousness are clearly understood.

While current best practice peak performance coaching acknowledges the importance of physical and mental enhancements such as injury prevention, nutrition, communication, goal setting, and athlete development the spiritual component is often overlooked. In order to provide greater understanding and a context for coaching, this paper will review the origins and historical development of spiritual transcendent states in the West from medieval times, the early 1900s, the postmodern and New Age era, and present day occurrences in sport.

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Physical, Affective and Psychological determinants of Athlete Burnout

Authors: Frode Moen, Kenneth Myhre, Christian A. Klöckner, Kristin Gausen and Øyvind Sandbakk.

Corresponding Author:
Frode Moen
E-mail address: frmoe@online.no, Tel. : +47 932 487 50
Postal address: Department of Education, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway

Frode Moen is currently the head manager of the Olympic Athlete program in central Norway, where he also has a position as a coach / mental trainer for elite athletes and coaches. He also is an associate professor at the Department of Education and lifelong learning at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. He previously has worked as a teacher in high school where sport was his major subject, and he has been a coach for the national team in Nordic combined in Norway for several years. Frode received his Ph. D. in coaching and performance psychology from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. His research focuses mainly on coaching in business, coaching in sport, communication, performance psychology and relationship issues.

ABSTRACT
This article examined how training load, illness and injuries, perceived performance, affect and worry predict athlete burnout in sport. A sample of 358 Norwegian junior elite athletes from a variety of sports with cross country skiing (28 %), soccer (22 %) and biathlon (13 %) being those most frequently reported participated in the investigation. The results show that the theoretical model in this study explains 57% of the variance in athlete burnout, and the direct effects on athlete burnout are mainly derived from the variables positive affect, worry and negative affect. In addition, our model also shows that performance, illness/injuries and worry indirectly affect athlete burnout through the mediating variables in the model. The results are discussed in regard of applied implications and possible future research.

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