Differences in Official Athletic Website Coverage and Social Media use Between Men’s and Women’s Basketball Teams

Authors: Steve Shih-Chia Chen, Terran Duncan, Eric Street*, and Brooklyn Hesterberg

*Corresponding Author:
Eric Street, MS
1048 Lemon Rue Way
Lexington, KY 40515
esflair@hotmail.com
859-797-1479

Steve Chen, D.S.M., is an associate professor at the Department of Management and Marketing in Morehead State University, Morehead, KY. He received his doctorate in Sport Management from United States Sports Academy in Daphne, AL. He currently serves as the chief editor of the KAHPERD (Kentucky Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance) Journal. (s.chen@moreheadstate.edu)

Terran Duncan, M.A., is an assistant coach of Lindsey Wilson College’s Women’s Basketball. She received her Master’s degree in Sport Management from Morehead State University, KY. (duncant@lindsey.edu)

Brooklyn Hesterberg is an undergraduate Sport Management student of Morehead State University. She is an assistant softball coach at Rowan County High School, KY. (blhesterberg@moreheadstate.edu)

Eric Street, M.S. is a doctorate student at the United States Sports Academy in Daphne, AL. He received a BA and MS in Sports Management from the University of Kentucky. He currently works as Director of Fitness and Training for LA Fitness in Lexington, KY. (esflair@hotmail.com)

ABSTRACT
Since the implementation of Title IX, there have been significant gains in the area of equity between men’s and women’s sports. Instituted in 1972, Title IX has leveled the playing field by offering the same amount of opportunity for women as men. Deficient media coverage in female sports is a less examined and recognized issue among various types of Title IX violations in collegiate sports. The study examined if there was equal coverage between men’s and women’s basketball programs on the athletic department’s webpages and social media websites. The collected data included traffics for the athletic website, Facebook, and Twitter pages of Southeastern Conference institutions. The findings indicated that there was slightly more men’s coverage than women’s (53% vs 47%). Among those 14 schools, eight schools had more content coverage for their men’s team. Only six women’s programs received more official website coverage than their male counterparts. The exact tendency also occurred regarding the number of total Twitter posts. The analysis of Facebook posts displayed an unexpected result, as 13 schools had more posts related to women’s teams than men’s teams. The results tended to support the vital promotional role that social media may play to increase the awareness and popularity of women’s sports. In general, the schools’ official website still maintained an accepted coverage proportion toward both genders without heavily gravitated toward men’s teams. Practical implications are addressed for better utilizing social media to promote women’s sports and maintain gender equity in media coverage.

Keywords: Social Media, Facebook, Twitter, Blog, Title IX

Continue reading

The Multi-Sport Sampling Plan: A Price Bundling Option for Collegiate Athletics

Authors: Mark Mitchell*(1) and Dennis Rauch (2)

(1) Mark Mitchell (DBA, Mississippi State) is Professor of Marketing and Chair of the Department of Marketing and Hospitality at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, SC.

(2) Dennis Rauch (PhD, University of Iowa) is Professor of Marketing at Coastal Carolina University in Conway, SC.

*Corresponding Author:
Mark Mitchell, DBA
Chair, Dept. of Marketing and Hospitality
Professor of Marketing
NCAA Faculty Athletics Representative (FAR)
Coastal Carolina University
P. O. Box 261954
Conway, SC 29528
mmitchel@coastal.edu
(843) 349-2392

ABSTRACT
This manuscript examines the potential for a Multi-Sport Sampling Plan as a price bundling strategy for collegiate athletics. Here, fans would receive entry to one game per sport to be used at their discretion. Such a sampling plan could increase current revenue and fan attendance while concurrently developing future ticket sales opportunities to these new fans based on their positive game day experience. This manuscript examines: (1) current price bundling strategies in the hospitality industry applied to athletics; (2) local market conditions that could aid in the successful development of a Multi-Sport Sampling Plan, and (3) implementation issues for athletic ticketing professionals.

KEYWORDS: ticket mini plans, athletic ticketing, price bundling Continue reading

Technology and a Golfer’s Course Preference: Does the increase in emerging technology increase the golfer’s playing preference?

Submitted by Kevin D. Rubel, Dr. Randall Griffiths and Dr. Annette Craven

Abstract

The golf industry has become a highly volatile space due in part to recent economic troubles. Combining an increase in the number of courses with a shrinking number of rounds of golf being played has resulted in competition reaching new levels of intensity. Golf course managers are seeking new ways to respond to the increased competition. Some are introducing new and interesting amenities to retain and attract golfers to their courses.  Recently, amenities in the form of new technologies have been developed and made available that aim to enhance the golfers playing experience. Websites now have the capability to provide online tee reservation systems similar to hotel reservations systems that allow golfers to start their game with a minimum of disruptions upon arriving at the course.  Global Positioning Systems (GPS) make it easier to see where you are in relation to the hole, how far you are from the green, and which particular club you choose to make each shot.  Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a new technology that includes putting a transmitter in the ball and using handheld receiver to track the ball, allowing the golfer to find the ball quicker.  However the return for investing in these new technologies has not been assessed. The need to assess the impact of this technology is especially important given that the typical golfer is older and my not value the types of technology being implemented.  A survey of 56 golfers of all ages, playing levels, and experience was conducted to determine which factors impact a golfer’s choice to play a particular course, with technology being the main focus. The results indicate there are moderate correlations between demographics items and these new technologies. However, these correlations do not provide as much predictability as other factors typically used in customer segmentation.  Several interesting significant correlations were found between gender and price as well as gender and location that could be of beneficial use for future study. Implications for golf course practice are discussed.

Continue reading

The Roethlisberger Effect: Steelers Fans and the Marketing of a Regional Superhero

Submitted by Joshua Shuart, Ph.D.

ABSTRACT

This paper bridges a theoretical gap between early celebrity endorsement and hero worship literature.  Additionally, the model connects a successful, winning athlete with several established branding constructs.  The Roethlisberger Effect takes early theory proposed over 35 years ago in “The Namath Effect” and applies it with a modern touch.  Given that the NFL is often referred to as a “copycat league” – i.e. when something works, all other teams work quickly to replicate it – the impact that Roethlisberger has had upon other league and team management philosophies is rather profound.

This paper is an updated version of a poster presentation I authored for the 7th Sport Marketing Association (SMA) Conference (2009).

Continue reading

Unraveling team sponsorship in World Cup: What are the influencing factors?

Submitted by Cindy Lee* & Gonzalo Bravo

ABSTRACT

There are three parties involved in a simple sponsorship mechanism: the sponsor, the sponsored event or team, and the consumers (fans). However, this structure becomes more complicated in some cases where sub-sponsors exist such as in international sporting events. In these cases, would an overarching event influence sub-sponsorship such as team sponsorship?  Based on this question, this study aims to investigate the influence of overarching brand on team sponsorship effect, along with consumers’ attitudes toward team sponsors, team identification, and patriotism.

This study was conducted in the context of the 2010 World Cup with the United States team as a target subject. A total of 455 usable surveys were collected from the students at a Division I university two weeks prior to the 2010 World Cup. The results of multiple regression showed that only identification with the US National team (β= .54) and attitude toward the sponsoring companies (β= .28) were significant predictors (F(4,450) = 128.43, p < .00, R2=.53), explaining 53 percent of intention to purchase sponsors’ product. Interestingly, the attitude toward the World Cup and patriotism were not influencing factors on respondents’ intention to purchase sponsors’ products.
Continue reading