Psychological Violence and Pressure Activities Experienced by Football Referees

Authors:
Ercan Polat
Ugur Sonmezoglu
Hasan Birol Yalcin

Corresponding Author:
Dr. Ercan Polat
Ömer Halisdemir University
School of Physical Education and Sports – Department of Sports Management
Bor Road, 9.km 51700, Niğde – TURKEY
E-mail: ercihanpolat@hotmail.com
Phone: +90 388 313 0012
Fax: +90 388 313 0014

Ercan Polat is an Assistant Professor Department of Sport Management at Omer Halisdemir University, Turkey; Ugur Sonmezoglu is a Research Assistant in the Department of Sport Management at Pamukkale University, Turkey; Hasan Birol Yalcin is an Associate Professor in the Department of Sport Management at Abant Izzet Baysal University.
Psychological Violence and Pressure Activities Experienced by Football Referees

ABSTRACT
The aim of this research was to determine the psychological violence and pressure faced by football referees in Bolu and Düzce and to disclose the reasons of the events. Phenomenology, one of the qualitative research designs, was used in this research. Criterion sampling and easily accessible methods were used for sampling. Literature review was carried out and open-ended and semi-structured interview forms were obtained accordingly. Interviews were made with 4 different groups consisting of 17 participants by focus group discussion method. The content analysis method was used in the analysis of the obtained data.

In the research, it was found out that psychological violence and pressure elements faced by football referees in workplaces arise from the internal and external environment of the workplaces. The internal environment of the workplace of the referees was stated under subtopics such as social exclusion, lack of assignment, excessive number of assignments, and assignments below their capacities, etc. The external environment of the workplace of the referees was stated under the subtopics including physical violence, swearing and insults, pressure on the institution of the referee and threatening and creating pressure on the referee through public opinion.

In addition to the aforementioned results, the factors leading to the psychological violence and pressure faced by the football referees were found as legal gaps, incoherencies and frequent changes in directions and, regarding as a rival, nepotism, regionalism, jealousy, etc.
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An Investigation of the Role Communication Privacy Management Theory has in the Development of Social Media Policies

Author: Heath Wesley Hooper, Shorter University
232 Shorter Avenue
Rome, GA 30165
(706) 781-5974
hhooper@shorter.edu

ABSTRACT
The increasing social media use by student-athletes has created risks for multiple intercollegiate athletic stakeholders. Consequently, many athletic departments have turned to social media policies to reduce risk in this area. Through the lens of Communication Privacy Management Theory (CPM), the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between social media policy implementation and student-athlete social media usage, and how the size of the NCAA Division I institution moderates relationships between social media policy implementation and student-athlete privacy rights. A random sample of 59 compliance directors in the Southeastern United States was surveyed. The results indicate moderate support for the relationship between NCAA Division I social media policy implementation and privacy rights, boundary turbulence, monitoring of social media accounts, and banning of student-athlete social media use. Practical implications for athletics department compliance directors are discussed.
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Influence of Service in a Sports Environment: Case Study on Borussia Bortmund

Authors: Philipp Sauer, Brandon D. Spradley, Fred J. Cromartie

Affiliations: United States Sports Academy

Corresponding Author:
Philipp Sauer, Ed.D.
Breddestr.36
58452 Witten
Germany
japhil@t-online.de
+49 151 44510307

Philipp Sauer received his doctoral degree (Ed.D.) in Sports Management from the United States Sports Academy.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of internal and external service factors on customer satisfaction in a sports environment. The study was conducted at Germany’s largest soccer stadium, the Signal Iduna Park of Borussia Dortmund, with a capacity of 80,720 people. The study used two questionnaires: (1) a demographic survey and (2) a customer satisfaction survey on service quality. This questionnaire focused on the five dimensions of facilities, staff, security, access, and reliability.

Several statistical methods were used for analyzing the results. Descriptive statistics were used to compare and illustrate research findings. Spearman Rank-Order Correlation was used to identify correlations between customer satisfaction of service quality and demographic characteristics. In addition, regression analysis was used to investigate the relationships between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. It was used to find the equation that represents the relationship between the variables.

The findings revealed that satisfaction with employee services had the highest impact on the overall customer satisfaction. As a result, the sport managers must create an attractive organizational climate to recruit and retain highly-motivated employees who are positive and courteous every time they speak to a customer. Service managers must understand that employees have a major impact on overall customer satisfaction.

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Service Personnel as a Key Success Factor in a Sports Environment

Authors: Philipp Sauer, Brandon D. Spradley, Fred J. Cromartie

Affiliations: United States Sports Academy

Corresponding Author:
Philipp Sauer, Ed.D.
Breddestr.36
58452 Witten
Germany
japhil@t-online.de
+49 151 44510307

Philipp Sauer received his doctoral degree (Ed.D.) in Sports Management from the United States Sports Academy. Furthermore, he is an alumnus of the University of Liverpool, UK and the European University of Applied Sciences, Germany. His academic work mainly focuses on service and customer relationship management.

ABSTRACT
Organizations have learned that services contribute largely to the success of product selling. The arrival of the Internet has transferred power from the suppliers to the customers. There are several industries, which have experienced heavy changes in the last few decades. The financial and travel industries are two prime examples of how rigid structures have changed significantly.

Like organizations from traditional industries, sport organizations face the challenge of meeting the rising expectations of spectators. A successful philosophy that focuses on total quality orientation in the transaction of the provider with the consumer asks organizations to clearly define their customers for being able to identify and respond to needs, but also to influence what is perceived service quality by the targeted segment of the market (Papadimitriou & Karteroliotis, 2000).

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The Examination of Opinions of Academicians Who Are Expert on Sport Sciences about the Impact of Social Media Consumption on Institutional Image in Turkey

Authors: Ali Gurel Goksel, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Turkey.

Corresponding Author:
Ali Gurel Goksel, PhD
Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences
Kotekli/Mugla, 48000
aligoksel@mu.edu.tr
002522111951

Ali Gurel Goksel is a research assistant in Sports Exercise Science at the Mugla Sitki Kocman University studying public relations and communications in sports.

The Examination of Opinions of Academicians Who Are Expert on Sport Sciences about the Impact of Social Media Consumption on Institutional Image in Turkey 

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to examine opinions of academicians who are experts in sport sciences about the impact of social media consumption on institutional image, shared content, institutional representation of staff in social media and sanction related to shared content of academic staff in Turkey. 1512 academicians working at public universities in Turkey constitute the population of the study. 343 sport scientists voluntarily participated in this study. Data was collected by using Social Media Consumption and Institutional Image Scale, developed by Ozel (2014) and by using Personal Information form designed by the author. Collected data was analyzed by using descriptive test, independent t test for two groups, one-way ANOVA, Tukey test and Pearson Correlation test. Consequently, because universities make an effort to protect their institutional image in front of public, they can decide to suspend, investigate or remove the academicians sharing their political views including despiteful comments.

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