The Perceptions of Male and Female Athletic Administrators Towards Gender\Equity in Faith-Based Institutions

Authors: Martha Marra, Ed. D.
Corresponding Author:
DR. MARTY MARRA
LONGWOOD UNIVERSITY
201 HIGH STREET
FARMVILLE, VA 23909
marraml@longwood.edu
434-395-2935

Dr. Marty Marra is an Assistant Professor of Health and Physical Education at Longwood University in Farmville, VA. Dr. Marra has been involved in education for 30 years and continues to research and study in the areas of pedagogy, professionalism, current trends and gender equity issues in health, physical education and athletics.

Co Authors: Fred J. Cromartie, Ed. D.
CONTRIBUTING AUTHOR:
DR. FRED CROMARTIE
ONE ACADEMY DRIVE
DAPHNE, AL 36526
cromartie@ussa.edu
1-800-223-2668

Dr. Fred J. Cromartie, is the Director of Doctoral Studies at the United States Sports Academy.

ABSTRACT
This study discusses the findings from research which was conducted in 2015. The researcher compared the perceptions of male and female athletic directors towards gender equity in their athletic programs using faith-based institutions of higher learning. The purpose of the study was to identify factors which predicted compliance with Title IX from athletic administrators at the collegiate level between two groups of faith-based institutions; those who belonged to the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU) and those who did not belong to the organization (NCCCU) but were faith-based institutions. The sample comprised of 230 colleges and universities; 115 were members of the CCCU organization and 115 were not members (NCCCU). The response rate was 52.6% with 121 surveys being returned from 230 that were sent. The study included the participation of 70 men and 51 women athletic administrators. Overall findings suggested that the women athletic administrators were less satisfied with Title IX provisions and policies than were the men athletic administrators. Media coverage, practice times, and locker room facilities were also considered inequitable from the perspectives of the female athletic administrators. The men athletic administrators were satisfied overall with the provisions for both male and female athletic programs. The disproportionate number of males to females in the study raised questions about gender equity within athletic administration. Studying gender equity within collegiate athletics provides information of how gender inequity can be perpetuated in a culture where athletics are revered, at times, above academia.
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Factors Influencing the Academic Performance of African American Student-Athletes in Historically Black Colleges and Universities

Authors: Ian DeVol Scott

Corresponding Authors:
Ian DeVol Scott
921 S. Cortez Street
New Orleans, LA 70125
ian_devol9@yahoo.com
(731) 444-0356

Ian Scott is a doctoral degree candidate in higher education leadership at Union University in Jackson, Tennessee. He has served in many capacities of intercollegiate athletics in higher education such as Associate Athletic Director, Director of Compliance, and Head Athletic Academic Advisor. He has over 10+ years working for historically black colleges and universities.

ABSTRACT
Based on previous research, it is evident that college students benefit significantly when they are integrated into the social and academic components of higher education institutions, especially historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Student-athletes are often isolated from the traditional student population of the institution, mainly due to increased involvement in a sport. Nonetheless, there are few studies that have researched the impact of class preparedness and readiness, cocurricular activities, and type of current living arrangements on academic performance of student-athletes at HBCUs. Historically black colleges and universities are often regarded, as a group, as low-performing institutions and much of this perception stems from comparisons of graduation rates between HBCUs and non-HBCUs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to address student-athlete academic performance at the selected HBCUs, and determine strategies and programs for improved student-athlete academic performance at these institutions. The dependent variable was self-reported academic performance of student-athletes. The independent variables included hours of preparation for class, participation in cocurricular activities, and current living arrangements. Data from the National Survey for Student Engagement was used to answer the questions for the study. The sample consisted of 223 student-athletes at HBCUs. There was a significant relationship between academic performance and current living arrangements. Participants that lived on campus performed better academically than those that lived in other housing arrangements. The findings indicate the need for student-athletes to live on campus with all options of campus involvement available and reevaluate the importance of campus living communities and access to academic success programs and offices for student-athletes.
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Psychological Violence and Pressure Activities Experienced by Football Referees

Authors:
Ercan Polat
Ugur Sonmezoglu
Hasan Birol Yalcin

Corresponding Author:
Dr. Ercan Polat
Ömer Halisdemir University
School of Physical Education and Sports – Department of Sports Management
Bor Road, 9.km 51700, Niğde – TURKEY
E-mail: ercihanpolat@hotmail.com
Phone: +90 388 313 0012
Fax: +90 388 313 0014

Ercan Polat is an Assistant Professor Department of Sport Management at Omer Halisdemir University, Turkey; Ugur Sonmezoglu is a Research Assistant in the Department of Sport Management at Pamukkale University, Turkey; Hasan Birol Yalcin is an Associate Professor in the Department of Sport Management at Abant Izzet Baysal University.
Psychological Violence and Pressure Activities Experienced by Football Referees

ABSTRACT
The aim of this research was to determine the psychological violence and pressure faced by football referees in Bolu and Düzce and to disclose the reasons of the events. Phenomenology, one of the qualitative research designs, was used in this research. Criterion sampling and easily accessible methods were used for sampling. Literature review was carried out and open-ended and semi-structured interview forms were obtained accordingly. Interviews were made with 4 different groups consisting of 17 participants by focus group discussion method. The content analysis method was used in the analysis of the obtained data.

In the research, it was found out that psychological violence and pressure elements faced by football referees in workplaces arise from the internal and external environment of the workplaces. The internal environment of the workplace of the referees was stated under subtopics such as social exclusion, lack of assignment, excessive number of assignments, and assignments below their capacities, etc. The external environment of the workplace of the referees was stated under the subtopics including physical violence, swearing and insults, pressure on the institution of the referee and threatening and creating pressure on the referee through public opinion.

In addition to the aforementioned results, the factors leading to the psychological violence and pressure faced by the football referees were found as legal gaps, incoherencies and frequent changes in directions and, regarding as a rival, nepotism, regionalism, jealousy, etc.
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An Investigation of the Role Communication Privacy Management Theory has in the Development of Social Media Policies

Author: Heath Wesley Hooper, Shorter University
232 Shorter Avenue
Rome, GA 30165
(706) 781-5974
hhooper@shorter.edu

ABSTRACT
The increasing social media use by student-athletes has created risks for multiple intercollegiate athletic stakeholders. Consequently, many athletic departments have turned to social media policies to reduce risk in this area. Through the lens of Communication Privacy Management Theory (CPM), the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between social media policy implementation and student-athlete social media usage, and how the size of the NCAA Division I institution moderates relationships between social media policy implementation and student-athlete privacy rights. A random sample of 59 compliance directors in the Southeastern United States was surveyed. The results indicate moderate support for the relationship between NCAA Division I social media policy implementation and privacy rights, boundary turbulence, monitoring of social media accounts, and banning of student-athlete social media use. Practical implications for athletics department compliance directors are discussed.
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Influence of Service in a Sports Environment: Case Study on Borussia Bortmund

Authors: Philipp Sauer, Brandon D. Spradley, Fred J. Cromartie

Affiliations: United States Sports Academy

Corresponding Author:
Philipp Sauer, Ed.D.
Breddestr.36
58452 Witten
Germany
japhil@t-online.de
+49 151 44510307

Philipp Sauer received his doctoral degree (Ed.D.) in Sports Management from the United States Sports Academy.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of internal and external service factors on customer satisfaction in a sports environment. The study was conducted at Germany’s largest soccer stadium, the Signal Iduna Park of Borussia Dortmund, with a capacity of 80,720 people. The study used two questionnaires: (1) a demographic survey and (2) a customer satisfaction survey on service quality. This questionnaire focused on the five dimensions of facilities, staff, security, access, and reliability.

Several statistical methods were used for analyzing the results. Descriptive statistics were used to compare and illustrate research findings. Spearman Rank-Order Correlation was used to identify correlations between customer satisfaction of service quality and demographic characteristics. In addition, regression analysis was used to investigate the relationships between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. It was used to find the equation that represents the relationship between the variables.

The findings revealed that satisfaction with employee services had the highest impact on the overall customer satisfaction. As a result, the sport managers must create an attractive organizational climate to recruit and retain highly-motivated employees who are positive and courteous every time they speak to a customer. Service managers must understand that employees have a major impact on overall customer satisfaction.

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