Recognizing ESports as a Sport

Authors: Daniel Kane, Brandon D. Spradley

Affiliations: United States Sports Academy

Corresponding Author:
Daniel Kane
20 Ravenhurst Ave
Staten Island, NY 10310
Danielskane@gmail.com
917-545-9179

Daniel Kane is a doctoral student at the United States Sports Academy pursuing his degree in sports management.

ABSTRACT
The commentary is a theoretical framework that builds on the concept that eSports should be considered a sport. The first part of the paper analyzes the definition of a sport and determines that competitive video games should apply to the meaning. The second part of the paper discusses how eSports should be recognized by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). In addition, the application of Title IX is applied to have eSports listed as an emerging sport for women.

Continue reading

The Examination of Research-Related Anxiety of Students Taking Master and Doctorate Degree in the Field of Physical Education and Sports

Authors: Ender SENEL (1), Mevlut YILDIZ (1), Mehmet ULAs (2), Hasan SAHAN
(1) Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Turkey.
(2) Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, School of Physical Education and Sport, Turkey.
(3) Akdeniz University, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Turkey.

Corresponding Author:
Ender SENEL
Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences
Kotekli/Mugla, 48000
endersenel@gmail.com
002522111951

(1) Ender SENEL is a research assistant in Physical Education and Sport Teacher Education Department at the Mugla Sitki Kocman University studying teaching and learning approaches in physical education and sport.

The Examination of Research-Related Anxiety of Students Taking Master and Doctorate Degree in the Field of Physical Education and Sports

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to examine research-related anxiety of students taking master and doctorate degree in the field of physical education and sports. 204 master and doctorate students in the field of physical education and sports participated in the study. 49% of participants were female and 51% were male. While 51.5% of the students were carrying on master program, 48.5% were taking doctorate. Anxiety Related to Research Scale, developed by Buyukozturk (1997) was used to collect data. Independent t-test, pearson correlation and one-way ANOVA in SPSS was used to analyze collected data. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to find out if the scale was fit to use in this sample. Statistically significant difference was found between female and male students, graduate programs, master and doctorate students in terms of research-related anxiety. Consequently, it can be said that research-related anxiety levels of students taking master and doctorate degrees in the field of physical education and sport were not too high. It is required that students graduated from faculties of sport sciences and schools of physical education and sport that educate teachers, coaches, managers and recreation specialist should have scientific contribution on physical education and sport. Accordingly, precautions should be taken to reduce research-related anxiety of physical education and sport students.

Continue reading

An Examination of the Coincidence Anticipation Performance of Soccer Players according to their Playing Positions and Different Stimulus Speeds

Authors: Ozcan Saygin (1), Kemal Goral (2), Halil Ibrahim Ceylan* (3), Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Turkey.

*Corresponding Author:
Halil Ibrahim Ceylan, Research Assistant
Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences
Kotekli/Mugla, 48000
halil.ibrahimceylan60@gmail.com
002522111951
(1) Ozcan Saygin is a Professor in Sports Exercise Science at the Mugla Sitki Kocman University studying physical activity and fitness
(2) Kemal Goral is an assistant professor at the Mugla Sitki Kocman University studying competition analysis, performance measurement, futsal, and soccer.
(3) Halil İbrahim Ceylan is a research assistant and doctoral student at the Mugla Sitki Kocman University studying Health and Coaching Sciences.

An Examination of the Coincidence Anticipation Performance of Soccer Players According to their Playing Positions and Different Stimulus Speeds

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study is to examine the coincidence anticipation timing of soccer players, according to different stimulus speeds and playing positions. Forty licensed soccer players (goalkeepers: 10, defense: 10; midfielder: 10, forward: 10) participated voluntarily in this study. Coincidence anticipation timing performances of the subjects at different stimulus speeds (3mph, 5mph, 8mph) were measured with a Bassin anticipation timer. In order to determine whether the coincidence anticipation timing performance values of the soccer players vary according to different stimulus speeds and player positions, the One-Way Anova Test was used. In order to find from which player position and stimulus speed the difference stemmed, the Tukey HSD Test was used. A significant difference was observed in the (3mph) stimulus speed absolute error score according to the player positions of the soccer players (p less than 0.05). The significant difference stems from the goalkeepers having less absolute error scores than defense and midfielder players and their statistically higher performance accuracy in coincidence anticipation timing. Significant differences were found between the absolute error scores at 3mph, 5mph, 8mph stimulus speeds (p less than 0.05), and it was observed that the absolute error score was less at lower stimulus speeds (3mph) when compared with higher stimulus speeds (8mph), and that the coincidence anticipation timing performance accuracy was better. As a conclusion, it is recommended that activities that improve coincidence anticipation timing of the soccer players at different stimulus speeds should be included when training programs are planned.

Keywords: Coincidence Anticipation Timing, Performance, Player Position, Soccer, Stimulus Speed

Continue reading

Vincent T. Lombardi: Three Key Lessons for Today’s Executive that Goes Beyond Football

Author: Francis Petit, Ed.D.
Associate Dean for Global Initiatives and Partnerships
Adjunct Associate Professor of Marketing
Fordham University, Gabelli School of Business
113 West 60th Street, Room 616
New York, New York 10023
(212) 636 7429 – work
(646) 256 2991 – mobile

Francis Petit serves as associate dean of global initiatives and partnerships and also serves as an adjunct associate professor of marketing at the Gabelli School of Business where he teaches a Sports Marketing course. Dr. Petit has established executive programs in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

Vincent T. Lombardi: Three Key Lessons for Today’s Executive that Goes Beyond Football

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this research was to determine what lessons, if any, professionals can learn from Vincent T. Lombardi, the Hall of Fame Coach, that goes beyond Football. The methods of this research included a historical study of the life and career of Vince Lombardi and a subsequent analysis of his decisions. The results of this study indicate that there are learning takeaways that go beyond football including the lack of balance in his life, his long professional journey before Green Bay and his potential lack of self-awareness. The conclusions of this study illustrate that professionals, beyond football, can learn valuable life lessons from this iconic coach. In addition, this relates to the world of sports in that fans should understand that sports celebrities are human and there are lessons to be learned from their journey that goes beyond the playing field.

Keywords: Lombardi, NFL, Packers, Coach, Super Bowl

Continue reading

Differences in Official Athletic Website Coverage and Social Media use Between Men’s and Women’s Basketball Teams

Authors: Steve Shih-Chia Chen, Terran Duncan, Eric Street*, and Brooklyn Hesterberg

*Corresponding Author:
Eric Street, MS
1048 Lemon Rue Way
Lexington, KY 40515
esflair@hotmail.com
859-797-1479

Steve Chen, D.S.M., is an associate professor at the Department of Management and Marketing in Morehead State University, Morehead, KY. He received his doctorate in Sport Management from United States Sports Academy in Daphne, AL. He currently serves as the chief editor of the KAHPERD (Kentucky Association of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance) Journal. (s.chen@moreheadstate.edu)

Terran Duncan, M.A., is an assistant coach of Lindsey Wilson College’s Women’s Basketball. She received her Master’s degree in Sport Management from Morehead State University, KY. (duncant@lindsey.edu)

Brooklyn Hesterberg is an undergraduate Sport Management student of Morehead State University. She is an assistant softball coach at Rowan County High School, KY. (blhesterberg@moreheadstate.edu)

Eric Street, M.S. is a doctorate student at the United States Sports Academy in Daphne, AL. He received a BA and MS in Sports Management from the University of Kentucky. He currently works as Director of Fitness and Training for LA Fitness in Lexington, KY. (esflair@hotmail.com)

ABSTRACT
Since the implementation of Title IX, there have been significant gains in the area of equity between men’s and women’s sports. Instituted in 1972, Title IX has leveled the playing field by offering the same amount of opportunity for women as men. Deficient media coverage in female sports is a less examined and recognized issue among various types of Title IX violations in collegiate sports. The study examined if there was equal coverage between men’s and women’s basketball programs on the athletic department’s webpages and social media websites. The collected data included traffics for the athletic website, Facebook, and Twitter pages of Southeastern Conference institutions. The findings indicated that there was slightly more men’s coverage than women’s (53% vs 47%). Among those 14 schools, eight schools had more content coverage for their men’s team. Only six women’s programs received more official website coverage than their male counterparts. The exact tendency also occurred regarding the number of total Twitter posts. The analysis of Facebook posts displayed an unexpected result, as 13 schools had more posts related to women’s teams than men’s teams. The results tended to support the vital promotional role that social media may play to increase the awareness and popularity of women’s sports. In general, the schools’ official website still maintained an accepted coverage proportion toward both genders without heavily gravitated toward men’s teams. Practical implications are addressed for better utilizing social media to promote women’s sports and maintain gender equity in media coverage.

Keywords: Social Media, Facebook, Twitter, Blog, Title IX

Continue reading