The Value of Athletic Training Employment in Secondary School Athletics

Authors: Rachele E. Vogelpohl, PhD, ATC

Corresponding Author:
Rachele E. Vogelpohl
109 HC Nunn Drive
Highland Heights, KY 41099

Rachele Vogelpohl is an assistant professor and Athletic Training Program director at Northern Kentucky University, and is a certified athletic trainer. She graduated from Northern Kentucky University with a bachelor’s degree and from the University of Hawaii, Manoa with both a master’s and doctoral degree.

The Value of Athletic Training Employment in Secondary School Athletics

Millions of secondary school students participate in interscholastic athletics each year, and unfortunately, injuries occur. Athletic trainers are health care providers specifically trained in injury prevention, diagnosis, and rehabilitation. Employment of an athletic trainer in the secondary school setting ensures that the student athletes are participating in a safe environment, that they are being cared for free of charge, and that emergency situations are handled in the proper way.
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The Perceptions of Male and Female Athletic Administrators Towards Gender\Equity in Faith-Based Institutions

Authors: Martha Marra, Ed. D.
Corresponding Author:

Dr. Marty Marra is an Assistant Professor of Health and Physical Education at Longwood University in Farmville, VA. Dr. Marra has been involved in education for 30 years and continues to research and study in the areas of pedagogy, professionalism, current trends and gender equity issues in health, physical education and athletics.

Co Authors: Fred J. Cromartie, Ed. D.
DAPHNE, AL 36526

Dr. Fred J. Cromartie, is the Director of Doctoral Studies at the United States Sports Academy.

This study discusses the findings from research which was conducted in 2015. The researcher compared the perceptions of male and female athletic directors towards gender equity in their athletic programs using faith-based institutions of higher learning. The purpose of the study was to identify factors which predicted compliance with Title IX from athletic administrators at the collegiate level between two groups of faith-based institutions; those who belonged to the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU) and those who did not belong to the organization (NCCCU) but were faith-based institutions. The sample comprised of 230 colleges and universities; 115 were members of the CCCU organization and 115 were not members (NCCCU). The response rate was 52.6% with 121 surveys being returned from 230 that were sent. The study included the participation of 70 men and 51 women athletic administrators. Overall findings suggested that the women athletic administrators were less satisfied with Title IX provisions and policies than were the men athletic administrators. Media coverage, practice times, and locker room facilities were also considered inequitable from the perspectives of the female athletic administrators. The men athletic administrators were satisfied overall with the provisions for both male and female athletic programs. The disproportionate number of males to females in the study raised questions about gender equity within athletic administration. Studying gender equity within collegiate athletics provides information of how gender inequity can be perpetuated in a culture where athletics are revered, at times, above academia.
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Application of Normative Ethics to Explain Colin Kaepernick’s Silent Protest in the NFL

Authors: Daniel Kane and Dr. Bonnie Tiell

Affiliations: United States Sports Academy

Corresponding Author:
Daniel Kane
20 Ravenhurst Ave
Staten Island, NY 10310

Daniel Kane is a doctoral student at the United States Sports Academy pursuing his degree in sports management. He is also an Adjunct Lecturer at CUNY Kingsborough Community College and CUNY School of Professional Studies.

Contributing Author:
Dr. Bonnie Tiell
2696 S. Twp Rd 1195
Tiffin, OH 44883

Dr. Bonnie Tiell is a Professor of Management at Tiffin University and member of the national faculty for the United States Sports Academy (2014 Alumna of the Year). She is also founder of the Olympic Academic Experience (Athens 2004; Beijing 2008; London 2012; Rio 2016) and co-founder of the Women’s Leadership Symposium in Intercollegiate Athletics. In 2016 she was recognized as the Woman of the Year in Sports for the Cleveland Chapter of Women in Sports and Events (WISE).

Colin Kaepernick, a player in the National Football League (NFL), created a national debate when refusing to stand during the national anthem throughout the 2016 season. Kaepernick’s intentions were to bring attention to issues of social injustice, however, many believed that his actions were disrespectful to the United States of America. This article builds a theoretical framework using three sub-theories and nine principles of normative ethics to explore perceptions of Kaepernick’s silent protest as being right or wrong.
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Contextualization of a Shifting Perspective Regarding the Steroid Era

Authors: Patrick Antinori and Rodney J. Blackman

Corresponding Author:
Dr. Rodney Blackman
United States Sports Academy
One Academy Drive
Daphne, Alabama 36526
Phone: 251-626-3303

Patrick Antinori is Director of Global Sales for Phoenix Bats, a hardwood bat supplier for Major League Baseball. He is also a graduate student at the United States Sports Academy.

Rodney J. Blackman, is an Associate Professor and Chair of Recreation Management at the United States Sports Academy

To a young fan whose innocence is preserved, baseball can represent the very best of life. Adult fans support this in a variety of ways. But, the history of the game has a less-than-noble side. The steroid era in baseball has been widely considered as a blemish on the visage of baseball, leaving the people involved and the game itself open to disdain and disparagement. Until recently, the writers who elect people to the Baseball Hall of Fame have echoed these sentiments by holding to a very narrow view of that era, and the effects thereof can be likened to staring at their shoes. But a certain shift is appearing regarding perceptions about the steroid era – a view given to greater forbearance, in the larger context of the history of baseball, and how best to preserve the integrity of the game.

Over time, there has also been a greater societal demand for full disclosure. This has created a wealth of information about the steroid era in relation to the history of the game of baseball, including chronicled accounts of what people did and what they said, and did not say, at the time. However, ascertaining culpability was not the purpose of this study. Rather, the purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and describe historical accounts of pre-steroid and steroid era behaviors and their after-effects, as well as to contextualize these choices and consequences that shaped the steroid era within the historical past and coming future of the game. Moreover, the data effectively also yielded the presence and contextualization of a discernible shift in perspective regarding the steroid era.
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Development Process of Adapted Physical Activities and Reviewing Attitudinal Levels of Turkish Sports Education Administrators towards Sports Activities for Individuals with Mental Disabilities

Authors: Huseyin KIRIMOGLU * (1), Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Turkey.

Corresponding Author:
Huseyin KIRIMOGLU, Assoc. Dr.
Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences Kotekli/Mugla, 48000

(1) Huseyin KIRIMOGLU is an Associate Professor in Sports Exercise Science at the Mugla Sitki Kocman University studying intellectual disabilities and self-concept in sports.

The current study focused on reviewing attitudinal levels of academic and administrative team of Faculty of Sports Sciences (FSS) and School of Physical Education and Sports (SPES) who teach physical education and sports science in Turkish State Universities towards sportive activities for individuals with mental retardation (MR) in terms of various variables in relation to development process of physical activities adapted to disabled individuals. As data collection tools, “Personal Information Form” designed by the researcher and Attitude Scale of Individuals Having Mental Disabilities towards Sports Activities (ASIHMDSA) designed by Ilhan, Esenturk, and Yarimkaya (2016) were employed. Attitudinal levels of the participants were compared in relation to gender, academic title, administrative service, duration of academic service and whether or not receiving sports education for the disabled during their education. Besides, the literature was screened and development process of adapted physical activities and what kind of effects it had upon participants’ attitudinal levels were discussed. The population of the study was composed of academic staff (deans, school directors and deputy directors and heads of academic departments) who executed administrative services for FSS and SPES of state universities (36 Universities) during 2016-2017 academic year and sample of the study was consisted of a total of 151 academic administrators (17 female and 134 male administrators) who volunteered to join the study. For the assessment of the data and exploration of calculated values; SPSS 22.0 statistical software was used. Whether or not the data followed a normal distribution was tested through Levene’s (variance-ratio) test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and non-parametric tests of Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis H tests were used for those data that did not follow a normal distribution according to normality test. As a result, as far as the results of the current study was concerned, it may be suggested that academic and administrative team of Faculty of Sports Sciences (FSS) and School of Physical Education and Sports (SPES) of who serve in physical education and Sports science in Turkish State Universities had a high and positive attitudes towards supporting establishment of Exercise and Sports Departments for the Disabled and participation of the individuals with mental disabilities in sportive activities.
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