Peddling the Truth or Coasting Downhill? Lance Armstrong and the Use of Image Repair Strategies

Author: Greg G. Armfield, Ph. D.*
New Mexico State University
John McGuire, Ph. D,
Oklahoma State University

* Please direct all correspondence to the first author Greg G. Armfield (Ph.D. University of Missouri) Associate Professor, New Mexico State University, Department of Communication Studies, MSC 3W, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001, (575) 646-4729, e-mail: Armfield@NMSU.edu

Abstract
This study examined image repair strategies of cyclist Lance Armstrong when he admitted in January 2013 to using performance enhancing drugs while winning seven consecutive Tour de France events, the sport’s most prestigious event. The findings show Armstrong favored mortification as a primary strategy while utilizing secondary image repair strategies including forms of reducing offensiveness (e.g., attacking one’s accusers, bolstering), denial (simple, shifting blame), and evading responsibility (defeasibility). Despite Armstrong’s efforts at image repair, researchers concluded it had failed as polling done after the interview found the public had turned against one of the most popular American athletes of the 2000s. The findings suggest that Armstrong’s prolonged evasion of the truth had undercut his ability to engage in successful image repair.
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A Cross-Cultural Approach to Sport Psychology: Is Exercise Addiction A Determinant of Life Quality?

Authors: Mevlüt YILDIZ1, Erkan BİNGÖL1, Hasan ŞAHAN2, Nazmi BAYKÖSE2, Ender ŞENEL1
(1) Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Turkey.
(2) Akdeniz University, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Turkey.

Corresponding Author:
Ender SENEL
Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences
Kotekli/Mugla, 48000
endersenel@gmail.com
002522111951
(1) Ender SENEL is a research assistant in Physical Education and Sport Teacher Education Department at the Mugla Sitki Kocman University studying teaching and learning approaches in physical education and sport.

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study is to examine the life quality and exercise addiction behaviors of individuals working out in the gym and living in different countries. There were 319 volunteers going to the gym regularly that participated in this study. The mean age of participants was found to be 31.23±7.79. Of the participants, 48.9% were females and 51.1% of them were males. There were 40.1% of the participant reported married and 59.9% of them reported single. All the participants were Turkish but they live in different countries. The participants reported that they live in Turkey, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, and Norway. The Exercise Dependence Scale, developed by Hausenblas and Downs (2002) (12), adapted to Turkish by Yeltepe (2005) (46), was used to find out exercise dependence behaviors in participants. A 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), developed by Rand Corporation, adapted to Turkish by Koçyiğit et al (1999) (17), was used to determine life quality of the participants. Significant difference was found between genders in terms of physical function. Significant difference was found between participants according to countries where they were from in terms of physical functioning, role physical, role emotional, bodily pain, general health, withdrawal effects, continuance, tolerance, lack of control, reduction in other activities, time, and intention effects. Positive correlations were found between mental health and withdrawal effects, continuance, tolerance, lack of control, reduction in other activities, time, and intention effects. Negative correlations were found between withdrawal effects, continuance, lack of control, reduction in other activities, time, and intention effects. Negative correlation was found between social functioning and continuance. Negative correlations were found between general health and continuance, tolerance, and reduction in other activities. It was found that exercise addiction predicted physical functioning, mental health, physical pain, and general health. Consequently, it can be said that life quality and exercise addiction behaviors vary depending on the country that the participants are living in, gender, and marital status. The regression analysis revealed that exercise addiction predicted physical functioning, mental health, physical pain, and general health dimensions. It can be concluded that exercise addiction is a determinant of some dimensions of life quality.

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The Examination of Sportsmanship Behaviors of Beach Handball Players in Turkey

Authors: Ali Gurel Goksel * (1) Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Turkey.
Ercan Zorba (2), Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Turkey.

Corresponding Author:
Ali Gurel Goksel, PhD
Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences
Kotekli/Mugla, 48000
aligoksel@mu.edu.tr
002522111951

(1) Ali Gurel Goksel is a research assistant in Sports Exercise Science at the Mugla Sitki Kocman University studying public relations and communications in sports.

(2) Ercan Zorba is assistant professor doctor in Sports Exercise Science at the Mugla Sitki Kocman University studying Olympic philosophy and fair play in sports.

The Examination of Sportsmanship Behaviors of Beach Handball Players in Turkey

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to examine sportsmanship orientation of individuals doing beach handball in terms of some variables. There were 140 athletes, 58 females and 82 males, which participated in the study group that consisted of participants of the Koycegiz Yasar Sevim Universities Beach Handball Tournament. For data collection, the Multidimensional Sportsmanship Orientation Scale, developed by Vallerand, Briere, Blanchard, and Provencher (1997) which was adapted to Turkish by Sezen-Balcikanli (2010), and a personal information form designed by the authors, were used. For the analysis of collected data, frequency analysis was used to determine socio-demographic features of the participant; and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine sportsmanship orientation of beach handball players in terms of different variables. Tukey’s honest significant difference (HSD) test was used for multiple comparisons to find out which group caused the difference. The p < 0.05 significance level was considered in analysis and interpretation of the data. Consequently, statistically significant differences were found in sportsmanship orientation of beach handball players according to age, years of playing handball, and the status of playing on a team. Continue reading

Application of Normative Ethics to Explain Colin Kaepernick’s Silent Protest in the NFL

Authors: Daniel Kane and Dr. Bonnie Tiell

Affiliations: United States Sports Academy

Corresponding Author:
Daniel Kane
20 Ravenhurst Ave
Staten Island, NY 10310
Danielskane@gmail.com
917-545-9179

Daniel Kane is a doctoral student at the United States Sports Academy pursuing his degree in sports management. He is also an Adjunct Lecturer at CUNY Kingsborough Community College and CUNY School of Professional Studies.

Contributing Author:
Dr. Bonnie Tiell
2696 S. Twp Rd 1195
Tiffin, OH 44883
btiell@tiffin.edu
419.357.1381

Dr. Bonnie Tiell is a Professor of Management at Tiffin University and member of the national faculty for the United States Sports Academy (2014 Alumna of the Year). She is also founder of the Olympic Academic Experience (Athens 2004; Beijing 2008; London 2012; Rio 2016) and co-founder of the Women’s Leadership Symposium in Intercollegiate Athletics. In 2016 she was recognized as the Woman of the Year in Sports for the Cleveland Chapter of Women in Sports and Events (WISE).

ABSTRACT
Colin Kaepernick, a player in the National Football League (NFL), created a national debate when refusing to stand during the national anthem throughout the 2016 season. Kaepernick’s intentions were to bring attention to issues of social injustice, however, many believed that his actions were disrespectful to the United States of America. This article builds a theoretical framework using three sub-theories and nine principles of normative ethics to explore perceptions of Kaepernick’s silent protest as being right or wrong.
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Development Process of Adapted Physical Activities and Reviewing Attitudinal Levels of Turkish Sports Education Administrators towards Sports Activities for Individuals with Mental Disabilities

Authors: Huseyin KIRIMOGLU * (1), Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Turkey.

Corresponding Author:
Huseyin KIRIMOGLU, Assoc. Dr.
Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences Kotekli/Mugla, 48000
hkirim2005@gmail.com
002522111951

(1) Huseyin KIRIMOGLU is an Associate Professor in Sports Exercise Science at the Mugla Sitki Kocman University studying intellectual disabilities and self-concept in sports.

ABSTRACT
The current study focused on reviewing attitudinal levels of academic and administrative team of Faculty of Sports Sciences (FSS) and School of Physical Education and Sports (SPES) who teach physical education and sports science in Turkish State Universities towards sportive activities for individuals with mental retardation (MR) in terms of various variables in relation to development process of physical activities adapted to disabled individuals. As data collection tools, “Personal Information Form” designed by the researcher and Attitude Scale of Individuals Having Mental Disabilities towards Sports Activities (ASIHMDSA) designed by Ilhan, Esenturk, and Yarimkaya (2016) were employed. Attitudinal levels of the participants were compared in relation to gender, academic title, administrative service, duration of academic service and whether or not receiving sports education for the disabled during their education. Besides, the literature was screened and development process of adapted physical activities and what kind of effects it had upon participants’ attitudinal levels were discussed. The population of the study was composed of academic staff (deans, school directors and deputy directors and heads of academic departments) who executed administrative services for FSS and SPES of state universities (36 Universities) during 2016-2017 academic year and sample of the study was consisted of a total of 151 academic administrators (17 female and 134 male administrators) who volunteered to join the study. For the assessment of the data and exploration of calculated values; SPSS 22.0 statistical software was used. Whether or not the data followed a normal distribution was tested through Levene’s (variance-ratio) test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and non-parametric tests of Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis H tests were used for those data that did not follow a normal distribution according to normality test. As a result, as far as the results of the current study was concerned, it may be suggested that academic and administrative team of Faculty of Sports Sciences (FSS) and School of Physical Education and Sports (SPES) of who serve in physical education and Sports science in Turkish State Universities had a high and positive attitudes towards supporting establishment of Exercise and Sports Departments for the Disabled and participation of the individuals with mental disabilities in sportive activities.
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