Academic Fraud in Revenue and Nonrevenue Sports

Authors: John Adamek

Corresponding Author:
John Adamek, CSCS
4 Truman Place
Moonachie NJ, 07074
Jfadamek21@gmail.com
201-543-9142

John Adamek is a strength and conditioning coach owner of Sports Science Integration. He is also a graduate student at the United States Sports Academy.

Academic Fraud in Revenue and Nonrevenue Sports

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical overview of academic fraud in collegiate revenue and non-revenue sports, with a focus on distinguishing whether or not revenue sport programs are more likely to be at risk for academic fraud. The hypothesis is that as nonrevenue sports at universities begin over performing thus transitioning to a revenue sport, does an increased risk of academic fraud exist amongst those involved with the university. Method. The Legislative Service Database was used to gather data on academic infractions that occurred between 2003 and 2014 on universities participating in the FBS and FCS subdivisions. Data was then matched with the U.S. Departments of Education’s Equity in Athletics Data Analysis to identify the net generated revenue of the athletic department during the time of the infraction. Results show that traditional revenue sports (Men’s Basketball and Football) account for 73.9% of academic fraud cases. Of the total number of athletic programs involved in academic fraud over half, 56.5% were revenue generating. This paper should be used to educate and direct future researchers and the NCAA on developing a system to identify and manage the potential risks of academic fraud by sport and university.
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Bullying in Sports: The Definition Depends on Who You Ask

Author: Charles R. Bachand

Corresponding Author:
Charles R. Bachand, MS
112 Rock Lake Road
Longwood, Florida 32750
charles.bachand@knights.ucf.edu
407-937-9284

Charles Bachand is a Doctoral Candidate at the University of Central Florida and an athletic coaching educator/lecturer.  

Bullying in Sports: The Definition Depends on Who You Ask

ABSTRACT
Research has been conducted regarding bullying in multiple fields of study for many years. The lack of a generally identified definition has limited not only the ability to compare research studies but the ability of organizations to promote rules and regulations consistently. The purpose of this literature review was to potentially find an existing definition that encompasses all aspects of bullying and if one was not identified, to create a comprehensive definition of bullying by using seminal definitions selected based on specific criterion. Methods used to identify these definitions included data base searches using key terms and criterion based in the subject area of education, medical, psychology, and sociology. Results show that there was no definition that included all ten coded indicators of bullying, which indicated there is no existing definition that fully identifies the action of bullying. The development of a complete definition of bullying was created using the coded indicators to assist in future research studies, data collection, coaching education, and the development of rules and regulations in athletic organizations as well as those organizations outside of athletics.
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Representations of Female Athletes in Sports Nutrition Advertising

Authors: Joylin Namie & Russell Warne

Corresponding Author:
Joylin Namie, Ph.D.
Social Science Department
Truckee Meadows Community College, RDMT 334G
7000 Dandini Boulevard
Reno, NV 89512
(775) 673-8216
jnamie@tmcc.edu

Joylin Namie is an instructor in the Social Science Department at Truckee Meadows Community College. Her research centers on issues related to media, gender, culture, and health. Previous publications have addressed athlete representation and public health in sports nutrition marketing, and the dangers of sports nutrition supplements. Her current research focuses on risk management and concussions among female equestrians.

Representations of Female Athletes in Sports Nutrition Advertising

ABSTRACT
Located at the nexus of sports, media, and food, sports nutrition advertising is a rich site for examining competing discourses of gender representation. Although closely associated with male competitive sports, images of female athletes are increasingly employed in the marketing of these products. This article utilizes a social semiotic approach to analyze portrayals of female athletes in sports nutrition packaging, websites, and commercials. In a marked departure from televised sports coverage, in which this marketing is often embedded, results highlight increased visibility for women, reduced sexualization, and significant variation in the representation of physically active female bodies. Although female athletes exhibit their largest presence on product websites, they are also featured in television commercials aired during major televised sporting events, providing increased exposure of women’s athletics to general sports viewing audiences. At the same time, a number of semiotic devices are employed by marketers to preserve masculine hegemony in the sporting realm. These include the marginalization of female athletes in terms of numbers and, in the case of commercials, time onscreen. Other devices include clothing, setting, the image act and the gaze, power and the visual angle, the absence of voice, and decontextualization, rendering female athletes stereotypes, rather than individuals. It is postulated that increased visibility of female athletes in ways that emphasize their athletic ability over their sexuality may contribute to the normalization of female participation in sport for viewers in the continuing absence of television coverage of women’s athletics.
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The Examination of Relationships between Academic Self-Efficacy, Academic Procrastination, and Locus of Academic Control of Athletes in Different Sports

Authors: Zehra CERTEL1, Melek KOZAK2
(1) Akdeniz University, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Turkey.
(2) Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University, High School of Physical Education and Sports, Turkey.

Corresponding Author:
Zehra CERTEL
Akdeniz University, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Turkey
Konyaaltı/Antalya, 07070
zcertel@akdeniz.edu.tr
(0242) 310 6825

(1) Zehra CERTEL is an assistant professor in Physical Education and Sport Education Department at the Akdeniz University studying teaching and learning approaches in physical education and sport.

The Examination of Relationships between Academic Self-Efficacy, Academic Procrastination, and Locus of Academic Control of Athletes in Different Sports

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study is to examine locus of academic control, academic procrastination, and academic self-efficacy of athletes participating in university sports games in terms of academic achievement, sport branches, and gender. Moreover, it is aimed to reveal the relationship among locus of academic control, academic procrastination, and academic self-efficacy. The sample of this study consisted of 302 athletes (individual athletes = 121, team athletes = 181) participating in the 13th “KOÇ SPORT FEST” University games organized in Antalya, Turkey. The average age of athletes is 21.45 ± 2.22 and the average license years of them are 8.43±3.93. The personal information form, “Locus of Academic Control Scale,” “Academic Procrastination Scale,” and “Academic Self-Efficacy Scale” were used as data collection tools. In the analysis of the data, since the data showed normal distribution, a t-test was used for paired comparison; and the Pearson correlation coefficient was used for examining the relationship among variables. There is a statistically significant difference between external locus of academic control and academic procrastination in terms of the gender of the athletes. The academic achievement of the athletes is significantly different from their academic self-efficacy, locus of control academic external and internal, and academic procrastination. External locus of academic control is significantly different in terms of participating on a team or individually. Significant relationships have been found among external and internal locus of academic control, academic procrastination, and academic self-efficacy. When external locus of academic control in athletes increases, academic procrastination levels within them increases. When internal locus of academic control in athletes increases, the self-efficacy level within them increases. It is found that male athletes have higher scores on external locus of academic control and academic procrastination than female athletes. Athletes with high academic success have better internal locus of academic control and academic self-efficacy scores. Athletes participation on team sports have higher external locus of academic control scores than individual athletes.
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Can the working alliance between coaches and athletes explain athlete burnout among junior athletes?

Authors: Frode Moen(1) and Kenneth Myhre(2).

Corresponding Author:
1. E-mail address: frmoe@online.no, Tel.: +47 932 487 50.
Centre for Elite Sports Research, Department of Education and Lifelong Learning, Faculty of Social and Educational Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.

2. Centre for Elite Sports Research, Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.

ABSTRACT
Research suggests that the numbers of athletes who are suffering from burnout symptoms are considerably. In this study, the authors explore associations of working alliance between coaches and athletes on positive- and negative affect, worry and athlete burnout in a group of Norwegian junior elite athletes. An online survey, consisting of the Working Alliance Inventory, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Worry Questionnaire and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire was completed by a sample of 358 junior elite athletes. Data analysis was conducted using structural equation modelling. The theoretical model in this study explained 66 % of the variance athlete burnout. These effects mainly derived from positive affect, negative affect, worry and the working alliance directly. However, working alliance also showed a significant indirect effect through the mediating variables positive affect, negative affect and worry. These results are discussed in a cognitive and affective activation-perspective.
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