Psychological Determinants of Burnout, Illness and Injury among Elite Junior Athletes

Authors: F. Moen, K. Myhre and Ø. Sandbakk

Corresponding Author:
Frode Moen
E-mail address: frmoe@online.no, Tel. : +47 932 487 50
Postal address: Department of Education, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway

Frode Moen is currently the head manager of the Olympic Athlete program in central Norway, where he also has a position as a coach / mental trainer for elite athletes and coaches. He also is an associate professor at the Department of Education at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. He previously has worked as a teacher in high school where sport was his major subject, and he has been a coach for the national team in Nordic combined in Norway for several years. Frode received his Ph.D. in coaching and performance psychology from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. His research focuses mainly on coaching in business, coaching in sport, communication, performance psychology and relationship issues.

Psychological Determinants of Burnout, Illness and Injury among Elite Junior Athletes

ABSTRACT
This article looks at how psychological variables such as passion, perceived performance, affect, worries and working alliance are associated with athlete burnout and illness and injuries among junior athletes in sport. A sample of 356 junior elite athletes from different sports such as cross country skiing, biathlon, Nordic combined, shooting, ice-hockey, ice-skating, ski jumping, alpine skiing, cycling, track and field, football, orienteering, handball, football and volleyball participated in the investigation. Our results show that harmonic passion, perceived performance, positive and negative affect, worry and working alliance are uniquely associated with athlete burnout, whereas sex, perceived performance and working alliance uniquely are associated with illness and injuries. The results are discussed in regard of applied implications and possible future research.

Keywords: passion, performance, stress, worries, athlete burnout

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Vincent T. Lombardi: Three Key Lessons for Today’s Executive that Goes Beyond Football

Author: Francis Petit, Ed.D.
Associate Dean for Global Initiatives and Partnerships
Adjunct Associate Professor of Marketing
Fordham University, Gabelli School of Business
113 West 60th Street, Room 616
New York, New York 10023
(212) 636 7429 – work
(646) 256 2991 – mobile

Francis Petit serves as associate dean of global initiatives and partnerships and also serves as an adjunct associate professor of marketing at the Gabelli School of Business where he teaches a Sports Marketing course. Dr. Petit has established executive programs in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia and the Middle East.

Vincent T. Lombardi: Three Key Lessons for Today’s Executive that Goes Beyond Football

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this research was to determine what lessons, if any, professionals can learn from Vincent T. Lombardi, the Hall of Fame Coach, that goes beyond Football. The methods of this research included a historical study of the life and career of Vince Lombardi and a subsequent analysis of his decisions. The results of this study indicate that there are learning takeaways that go beyond football including the lack of balance in his life, his long professional journey before Green Bay and his potential lack of self-awareness. The conclusions of this study illustrate that professionals, beyond football, can learn valuable life lessons from this iconic coach. In addition, this relates to the world of sports in that fans should understand that sports celebrities are human and there are lessons to be learned from their journey that goes beyond the playing field.

Keywords: Lombardi, NFL, Packers, Coach, Super Bowl

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Leadership: Athletes and Coaches in Sport

Authors: Dr. Sharon P. Misasi*, Dr. Gary Morin and Lauren Kwasnowski

Dr. Sharon P. Misasi is a Professor of Exercise Science at Southern Connecticut State University. Dr. Gary Morin is a Professor of Exercise Science, Assistant Athletic Trainer and Program Director of the Athletic Training Education Program. Lauren Kwasnowski is a Research assistant for this study, undergraduate student in the Allied Health Program at the University of Connecticut and a member/captain of the UCONN Division I Lacrosse team.

*Corresponding Author:
Sharon P. Misasi PhD, AT.
Southern Connecticut State University
501 Crescent Street
PE 002B
New Haven CT 06515
misasis1@southernct.edu

ABSTRACT
This study investigated the interpersonal aspects and perceptions of the coach-athlete relationship as it pertains to collegiate athletes at Division I and II universities and athletes and coaches of different genders. Electronic surveys were emailed to 50 NCAA Division I and 50 Division II head coaches in the Northeast. Coaches were requested to respond to the survey and email the athlete survey to their respective athletes. These surveys were completed by both coaches and athletes: Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire (CART-Q), Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS). The final instrument, Coaching Behavior Scale for Sports (CBS-S), was completed by only the athletes. There were no significant differences found with the CART-Q. The LSS illustrated several areas of significances in the categories of Training, Democratic Behavior, Autocratic Behavior and Social Support. Although there was no significance found in Positive Feedback there was an interesting finding in that female coaches felt they were less likely to provide positive feedback than their male counterparts. The CBS-S has subscales which include: physical training and planning, technical skills, mental preparation, competition strategies, personal rapport and negative personal rapport. Statistical significance was found in the following subscales: competition strategies, personal rapport and negative personal rapport. The coach is a meaningful person in the lives of athletes and the role they play is vital in the athlete’s sport experience. Our results indicate that the level of competitive division appears to play a role in how athletes perceive their coaches and how coaches perceive themselves. In addition, gender differences among coaches’ affect responses of the athletes and the coaches. Leadership is not a simple process. There is no one way to lead and what works for one may not work for all. Therefore, the best one can do is get to know their athletes and work hard to understand their goals, motivations and needs.

KEYWORDS: Coaching, Effective Leadership, Successful Leadership

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On Ditching the Watch while Training: Re-examining the Pace-based Approach to Training Long-distance Runners

Authors: Patrick M Whitehead*

Patrick Whitehead is an assistant professor of psychology at Darton State College in Albany, Georgia. He has published widely in fields of psychology, philosophy, and biology. In his free time he is a recreational long-distance runner and coach.

*Corresponding Author:
Patrick M Whitehead, PhD
Division of Social Sciences
Darton State College
2400 Gillionville
Albany, GA, 31707
Patrick.whitehead@darton.edu
229-317-6809

ABSTRACT
This paper presents two arguments against the pace-based approach to running, defined as the reduction of training intensity to measures of distance/time (that is, pace). The experimental data of Daniels (5) is presented as an example of this. It is argued that the pace-based approach ignores many variables that are important in understanding the physiology and psychology of training long distance runners. The first argument examines the assumption that pace may be used as a general approximation of intensity. This ignores the role of confounding environmental factors like altitude, temperature, and wind. The second argument examines the assumption that any measure of intensity is as good as or better than another. Heart rate, blood-lactate levels, and volume of oxygen consumption are physiological markers that provide useful information for understanding levels of intensity, but their relationship is not certain.

KEYWORDS: Long-distance running, training, running by feel, Ratings of Perceived Exertion

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Great British Athletes’ Perceptions of Competing at the London 2012 Olympic Games

Author: Rachel Kent*

*Corresponding Author Address:
Rachel kent
E-mail: coach_kent@hotmail.com

Abstract
To review Great British (GB) athletes’ perceptions of home court advantage and competing ahead of the 2012 London Olympic Games a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted. The seven topics discussed in the interview were based on previous research. Five female GB Olympic sprinters were interviewed at their training facility in West London as they trained for the 2012 Olympic Games. Athlete responses were coded into categories then analysed using phenomenological analysis.

Athletes had a range of reasons why they believed they had a ‘home advantage.’ All athletes agreed that media representation could be good if media was positive but was bad when the media coverage was negative. Athletes reported a range of expectations some expressing high expectations and associated higher levels of performance anxiety. Athletes reporting lower levels of expectations had lower levels of performance anxiety. Athletes reported different sources of expectations and the significance of the source to them and their anxiety. The implications of the research findings suggest recommendations for media and sponsors, coaches, family, and friends to help provide the athletes with the optimum levels of unconditional support to aid in performance and prevent pressure, stress and pre-competitive anxiety.

KEYWORDS: Olympic Games, Olympics, Home Court Advantage, Expectancy Theory, Self-fulfilling prophecy, Media bias, Athletes, Phenomenological Analysis

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