Relative age effect-enhanced physical fitness reference standards for Turkish youths who live in Istanbul

Authors: Nuri Topsakal

Corresponding Author:
Nuri Topsakal, PhD
Duzce University Faculty of Sport Sciences,
Department of Coaching Education, Istanbul, Turkey
Mailing address: Duzce Universitesi Spor Bilimleri Fakültesi Konuralp Yerleşkesi 
Merkez/DÜZCE
81620
Telephone: +90 544 308 25 03
Fax: + 90 (380) 542 1365
Email: topsakal.nuri@gmail.com

Nuri Topsakal is an assistant professor for the University of Düzce Faculty of Sport Science. His areas of research interest are Sports & Exercise Science and Sport Performance.

Relative age effect-enhanced physical fitness reference standards for Turkish youths who live in Istanbul

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to form physical fitness reference standards based on the relative age and gender variables of Turkish female and male children between the ages of 7 and 13.

Methods: The sample of this study consisted of 13,863 children (nfemale = 5580; nmale = 8283), between the ages of 7 and 13 from 32 districts of Istanbul. The relative age factor (formed by dividing a one-year period into four subgroups) was considered in the formation of norm tables, which were based on anthropometric measurements and motor tests according to gender. All percentile values were calculated according to gender and age quarter group, with all percentile tables including 5th to 95th percentile values.

Results: The physical fitness parameters of the male and female children improved as they aged. Only the females at certain ages (11-13 years) showed no improvements in BMI, 10-20m sprint, and standing long jump values.

Conclusion: This study formed percentile norm tables that had values ranging between 5 and 95 by using the anthropometric and physical fitness test results obtained based on the standard values related to gender and relative age of Turkish children between the ages of 7 and 13.

(more…)
2020-05-29T09:22:15-05:00May 29th, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Relative age effect-enhanced physical fitness reference standards for Turkish youths who live in Istanbul

High School Competitive Diving Injuries: National Athletic Treatment Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION)

Authors: Susan M Braid & Eric Schussler

Corresponding Author: 
Susan Braid
1881 University Drive
Virginia Beach, VA 23453
sbraid@odu.edu
757-683-4563

Susan Braid is an assistant professor at the School of Nursing at Old Dominion University. She is an epidemiologist, nurse, and USA diving judge who has judged at local, national, and international competitions. 

Eric Schussler is an assistant professor at the School of Rehabilitation Sciences at Old Dominion University. He is a physical therapist and athletic trainer.

High School Competitive Diving Injuries: National Athletic Treatment Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION)

ABSTRACT

Purpose:  Elite diving coaches and USA diving officials have become increasingly concerned about injury prevention among adolescent divers. However, little is known about such injuries. The purpose of this study was to describe the injuries among high school students who participated on high school diving teams.

Subjects: High school students who participated on the diving teams of high schools that were included in the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) for 2011–2014.

Methods:  Descriptive epidemiology using injury exposure data on 56 boys’ Swimming and Diving teams and 55 girls’ Swimming and Diving teams from the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) for 2011–2014.

Results:  Only 12 injuries were reported, and 8 (67%) were concussions. The incidence of concussions was the same between boys and girls.

Conclusion:  Concussions are the highest reported injury among high school divers in the NATION data. Student athletes who had minor injuries may not have been evaluated by an athletic trainer. Researchers need better injury surveillance data for high school divers.

(more…)
2020-04-20T14:23:07-05:00May 22nd, 2020|Research, Sports Medicine|Comments Off on High School Competitive Diving Injuries: National Athletic Treatment Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION)

The Effect of Competition Level on Penalties and Injuries in Youth Soccer

Authors: Stephanie Walsh, Nicole Walden, and Tamerah Hunt

Corresponding Author:
Tamerah Hunt, Ph.D., ATC
Department of Health Sciences and Kinesiology
PO BOX 8076
Statesboro, GA 30460
thunt@georgiasouthern.edu
912-478-8620

Stephanie Walsh, BS, ATC is a 2nd year master’s student in the M.S in Kinesiology, concentration in athletic training at Georgia Southern University.

Nicole Walden, BS is a 2nd year master’s student in the M.S in Kinesiology, concentration in sport and exercise psychology at Georgia Southern University.

Dr. Tamerah Hunt, Ph.D., ATC is an Associate Professor and program coordinator of the M.S. Kinesiology concentration in athletic training at Georgia Southern University.

The Effect of Competition Level on Penalties and Injuries in Youth Soccer

ABSTRACT

There are an estimated 3 million youth soccer participants in the United States. As concern rises for the safety of youth athletes, organizations are changing the rules to make the game safer, potentially resulting in more penalized behaviors. Differences in competition levels may contribute to varying numbers of fouls and injuries. PURPOSE: Examine the effect of competition level on the number of fouls and injuries in youth soccer. METHODS: During the competitive season, two soccer organizations were observed to examine behaviors associated with sportsmanship, fouls, and injuries during a game situation. The organizations consisted of teams from a recreation department and a travel academy soccer club located in South Georgia. Teams consisted of male and female athletes ranging from 6-16 years old, whom were divided by pre-determined age groups within the leagues. Observational data was collected on game statistics which included spectator, coach and athlete behavior, as well as fouls and injuries, within the soccer organizations. A total of 86 recreational (n=52) and club (n=34) games were observed. RESULTS: Club soccer teams had a greater number of fouls (n=224, mean ± SD 1.22 ± 1.28, ranging from 0-18) compared to recreational teams (n=61, mean ± SD 1.22 ± 1.28, ranging from 0-5). The number of injuries were not affected by the level of competition in club (n= 26; 0.76 + 0.99, ranging from 0-3 per game) and recreation (n=27; mean ± SD 0.53 ± 0.83, ranging from 0-3) youth soccer teams. CONCLUSION: This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that competition level may be the driving force of behaviors that lead to penalties. Regardless of the number of penalties for both organizations, the number of injuries were minuscule; thus, severing the link between aggressive behaviors and injury in youth soccer. Therefore, it seems that a greater level of competition in youth soccer leads to more fouls, but not more injuries. Future research should consider situational factors that may impact these findings such as coaches and parent’s behaviors throughout the game.

(more…)
2020-04-20T14:07:23-05:00May 15th, 2020|Research, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on The Effect of Competition Level on Penalties and Injuries in Youth Soccer

How the Perceived Effectiveness of a Female Coach is influenced by their Apparent Masculinity / Femininity

Authors: Paula Murraya, Rhiannon Lordb, & Ross Lorimerb (aLoughborough College, UK, bAbertay University, UK)

Corresponding Author:
Dr Ross Lorimer
Abertay University
Dundee, UK, DD1 1RG
Ross.Lorimer@Abertay.ac.uk
+44 (0)1382 308426

How the Perceived Effectiveness of a Female Coach is Influenced by their Apparent Masculinity / Femininity

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate how the apparent masculinity/femininity of a coach influenced others’ perceptions of their ability to interact successfully with their athletes.  Seventy-three participants (44 males, 29 females, Mage=23.8 SD= ± 8.41) watched four videos depicting a coach working with a group of athletes.  Each video was the same but featured the four combinations of masculinised/feminised coach and male/female athletes.  Participants rated the coach on perceived relationship quality, empathy, and competency.  There was a main effect in relationship quality (closeness) and three of four subscales of coaching competency, with the masculinised coach rated higher than the feminised coach.  There was also a non-significant trend for the feminised coach to score higher in relationship quality and competency when working with male athletes compared to female athletes, and the masculinised coach to score higher with females.  For affective empathy, there was a main effect for athlete sex, with both coaches rated higher working with male athletes.  There was also a non-significant trend for both coaches’ cognitive empathy to be rated higher when working with male athletes.  The perception of the masculinity/femininity of a coach influences how others understand their interactions even when the behaviors of that coach are similar across situations. Coaches need to be aware that gender-based stereotypes may influence how others perceive their competency. This could potentially affect coach effectiveness and career progression.

(more…)
2020-03-27T08:58:21-05:00April 24th, 2020|Research, Sports Coaching|Comments Off on How the Perceived Effectiveness of a Female Coach is influenced by their Apparent Masculinity / Femininity

An Empirical Investigation of the Variables Influencing Contributions in NCAA Division I Athletics: A Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Kyle J. Brannigan, University of Northern Colorado & Dr. Alan L. Morse, University of Northern Colorado

Corresponding Author:
Kyle J. Brannigan
4750 W29th Street APT 1210
Greeley CO, 80634
Kbrannigan429@gmail.com
845-216-0965

Second Author:
Dr. Alan L. Morse
Butler-Hancock 261A University of Northern Colorado Sports & Exercise Science
Campus Box 118
Greeley, CO 80639
Alan.Morse@unco.edu

An Empirical Investigation of the Variables Influencing Contributions in NCAA Division I Athletics: A Quantitative Analysis

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to identify variables that influence contributions to help athletic departments become more efficient with their fundraising efforts. In addition, this study was expected to provide a better understanding of the effect each explanatory variable has on contributions. The researchers conducted a multiple linear regression, using the data, which spanned over three years (2015, 2016, and 2017), to investigate what factors influence contributions to Division I, public schools, in the Power Five conferences. A regression was conducted to clarify further the studies significance. The researchers tested for assumptions, collinearity, correlations, normality, and variance. The significant variables in the study were 1) Average announced attendance for football 2) Enrollment, 3) Football winning percentage 4) Population of Metropolitan Statistical Area or MSA, 5) Fundraising years of experience. In addition, every conference was significant with the Southeastern Conference having the largest part correlation, which demonstrated influence for each variable. Other interesting findings in this study were overall ticket sales were almost significant and Texas A&M is an influential observation because its contributions are much higher than other institutions. The results of this study may aid athletic departments in determining focus to maximize donations. As enrollment was a significant factor, the results further strengthen the case that athletic departments should be using their alumni bases even more to solicit donations. Another implication is that getting into a Power 5 conference can help your contribution levels. In addition, it is crucial for athletic departments to focus on hiring experienced directors of fundraising to guide the staff in maximizing donations. Lastly, athletic departments may want to continue using ticket sales to solicit donations. If athletic departments take into consideration variables that affect donations the most and focus on these variables, they may be able to increase overall athletic donations.

(more…)
2020-03-18T11:14:48-05:00April 17th, 2020|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on An Empirical Investigation of the Variables Influencing Contributions in NCAA Division I Athletics: A Quantitative Analysis