The Effects of Competitive Orientation on Performance in Competition

Authors: Jeffrey C. Ives, Kristin Neese, Nick Downs, Harrison Root, Tim Finnerty

Corresponding Author:
Jeffrey C. Ives, Ph.D.
Department of Exercise Science and Athletic Training
Danby Road
Ithaca College
Ithaca, NY  14850
jives@ithaca.edu
607-274-1751

Jeffrey C. Ives is a professor of motor behavior in the Department of Exercise Science and Athletic Training at Ithaca College

The Effects of Competitive Orientation on Performance in Competition

ABSTRACT

The competitive environment is reported to influence greater exercise intensity in most persons, thus enhancing practice and training. This effect may be mediated by individual characteristics and the nature of the competitive environment. In particular, persons with non-competitive traits may find live one-on-one physical competition discouraging to full engagement and high effort, but there is little research to support this belief. The purpose of this experiment, thus, was to evaluate the influence of live competition versus no competition (i.e., solo) in persons classified as competitive versus less competitive, or athletes versus non-athlete[A1] . After informed consent, 91 subjects were scored on competitive trait using the SOQ tool and grouped into three competitive trait groups (Low, Mid, High). Subjects were also classified as a collegiate varsity athlete or non-varsity athlete. [A2] Subjects engaged in maximal vertical jump trials and maximal 40 yard sprint trials under solo conditions and in the presence of another competitor. Maximal single trial performance in the solo condition was compared to the best competition performance and the average competition performance. Repeated measures ANOVA results indicated no significant differences from the solo best trial to the average competition trial in vertical jump height or sprint times. However, the subjects’ single best competition sprint trial was significantly faster than the best solo sprint trial, but the best competition vertical jump was not significantly higher than the solo jump. Persons grouped as having a higher competitive trait, and those classified as varsity athletes, had faster sprints and higher jumps, but all groups performed similarly in response to competition. In conclusion, competition produced similar results in all groups, indicating that even less competitive persons and non-varsity athletes respond competitively when in certain circumstances.

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2020-01-31T09:59:04-06:00February 21st, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on The Effects of Competitive Orientation on Performance in Competition

Concussion in the Collegiate Equestrian Athlete

Authors: Tasneem Zahira PhD,  Timothy Henry PhD ATC, Michael L. Pilato MS ATC

Corresponding Author:
Michael L. Pilato MS ATC
1000 East Henrietta Road, Rochester, NY 14623
mikep316@yahoo.com
585-329-6463

Michael L. Pilato is an athletic trainer with Monroe Community College in Rochester, N.Y. He has been researching sports medicine for the equestrian athlete since 2003 and has been published in peer and non-peer reviewed journals.

Tasneem Zaihra PhD.
Department of Mathematics State University New York College at Brockport
350 New Campus Dr, Brockport, NY 14420
tzahira@brockport.edu
585-3952075

Tasneem Zaihra is an assistant professor of statistics in the department of mathematics, SUNY Brockport. She has many presentations and publications in peer-reviewed journals, to her credit.

Timothy Henry PhD. ATC
Department of HPERD State University New York College at Brockport
350 New Campus Dr, Brockport, NY 14420
thenry@borckport.edu
585-395-5357

Timothy Henry is director of the athletic training program at SUNY Brockport. He is also a reviewer for The Journal of Sport Rehabilitation and The Journal of Athletic Training.

Concussion in the Collegiate Equestrian Athlete

ABSTRACT

Equestrian sports, in general, pose a significant risk of concussion. Minimizing the risk of concussion has been a focal point in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to describe concussion and explore potential association(s) between groups of musculoskeletal injuries and Body Mass Index (BMI) on the risk and odds of concussion in the collegiate equestrian athlete. Forty-three schools, ranging from DI to DIII, from the Eastern United States were selected from the NCAA and Intercollegiate Horse Show Association’s websites. Self-reported injury and demographic data was collected through an online survey created in Mach Forms. Seventy-three participants completed the online survey (women n=71, men=2). Aggregate descriptive data is reported on all subjects. After removing data on 2 men, and a single female with incomplete data, the data from 70 females with complete data was analyzed using chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests and ordinal logistic regression. Pearson’s chi-squared as well as Fisher’s exact test (p-value =.0288 and.0297 respectively) indicates the risk of having concussion with 0 UE injury is not the same as with 1 or 2+ injuries. The average number of injuries per athlete increased from 0 to 2(+) concussions. Concussion is a commonly reported injury. Upper extremity injury is identified as having the strongest association with concussion risk in the equestrian athlete. Knowing UE injury status could be useful in gaging the risk and odds of concussion in equestrian athletes.

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2020-01-31T09:20:28-06:00February 7th, 2020|Research, Sports Medicine|Comments Off on Concussion in the Collegiate Equestrian Athlete

Ancient Olympic Superstars and the Remarkable Skills They Could Teach Today’s Athletes

Authors: Raymond Stefani

Corresponding Author:
Raymond Stefani
25032 Via Del Rio
Lake Forest, CA 92630
Raystefani@aol.com
949-586-1823

Dr. Raymond Stefani is a professor emeritus of the California State University, Long Beach with over 160 publications covering individual sports, team sports and sports history

Ancient Olympic Superstars and the Remarkable Skills They Could Teach Today’s Athletes

ABSTRACT

A data base of Ancient Olympic events was exhaustively researched by the Perseus Project and combined into one table by Wikipedia, containing nearly 900 results. The Wikipedia table was sorted to obtain the distribution of events and to identify the most successful Olympians of Ancient Greece. From 776 BC through 277 AD, just 30 events were contested, eight of which were offered only once. An average of only 3.5 events were contested in each Olympics. Of the five sports, track and field (called athletics internationally) comprised 49% of all contested events with the 200 m stadion sprint, comprising 30% of all contested events. Competition was so highly focused that winning once was very difficult and winning repeatedly was remarkable. From the sorted winners, 12 superstars of antiquity are chosen for discussion. These superstars include the most unlikely winner in that men’s Olympics, a woman, Kyniska of Sparta, who became a double winner by owning and training the horses that won two chariot races. Leonides of Rhodes won all three of the major running events four times successively, for 12 individual wins, not exceeded until 2016 by Michael Phelps. Herodoros of Megara won the trumpeter’s competition nine consecutive times. Two wrestlers won the boy’s event followed later by five successive wins in the open competition. The emperor Nero of Rome won six times, showing venerability by acting and playing the lyre in public. The pentathlete Phayllos of Kroton outfitted and commanded a battleship at the 480 BC Battle of Salamis, helping Greece defeat Persia. One of the few recorded measurements of Ancient Greece, his long jump of 55 feet has been nearly duplicated by five successive standing long jumps, each employing a re-invented strategy for jumping with weights in each hand. The remarkable skills of those 12 may serve as inspirations for today’s athletes.

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2019-12-24T10:05:42-06:00January 17th, 2020|Research, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Ancient Olympic Superstars and the Remarkable Skills They Could Teach Today’s Athletes

The Role of Organized Youth Sports in Reducing Trends in Childhood Obesity

Authors: Alysia Cohen, Heidi Wegis, Darren Dutto, Viktor Bovbjerg

Corresponding Author:
Alysia Cohen, PhD, ATC, CSCS
1435 Village Drive
Ogden, UT 84408
alysiacohen@weber.edu
801-626-7115

Alysia Cohen is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Athletic Training at Weber State University.

The Role of Organized Youth Sports in Reducing Trends in Childhood Obesity

Abstract

Purpose: To examine physical activity (PA) levels of children playing youth sports and the relationship of recommended levels of PA to contextual factors of the organized youth sports environment that may boost fitness and health during childhood and adolescence.  Methods: Accelerometer-measured PA was obtained from 167 children (85 male, 82 female) aged 7-13 years. Sport contextual factors were recorded via direct observation of 29 coaches. PA levels were examined by age, gender, and between group variability. Direct observation intervals were analyzed by category using the Chi-square statistic for degree of association to moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA).  Results: On average children spent 21.9 ±7.9 minutes in MVPA during sport practices (< 50% of practice time).  Proportion of practice time MVPA was lower among females (28.7 ± 7.2%) than males (35.0 ± 9.1%). Proportion of practice time MVPA was higher among children (male and female) aged 7-9 years (32.6 ± 1.4%) compared to children aged 10-13 years (30.66 ±1.25%). Longer practice times were not shown to increase the proportion of time spent in MVPA. The most frequently observed sport activities were sports drills (51.6%), activities involving all players (37.8%), management/general instruction (52.3%), and proximal positioning of the coach (99.5%). Management and general instruction coaching behavior was not significantly associated with MVPA but did consume a prominent proportion of practice time. Health-related fitness activities made up 1.7% of practice time.  Conclusions: In comparison with recommendations, youth sports appear active, however, a large portion of practice time is sedentary suggesting room for improvement.  Including fun non-specific or specific sport activities that promote participation from all players and increase heart rate. Fun play experiences during sport practices may encourage greater in active play within and outside of sport with behaviors persisting into adolescence and adulthood.  Applications in Sport: Training coaches to teach fun sport activities that engage all players would improve within practice active time and enjoyable experiences that may promote future participation in sport or activity outside of sport.

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2019-12-12T15:48:17-06:00December 27th, 2019|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on The Role of Organized Youth Sports in Reducing Trends in Childhood Obesity

Weight Discrimination among Students from a Diverse Urban University

Authors: Guillermo Escalante1, Rafael Alamilla1, Eric Vogelsang2, Christopher Gentry1, Jason Ng1

1Department of Kinesiology, California State University, San Bernardino, USA; 2Department of Sociology, California State University, San Bernardino, USA

Corresponding Author:
Guillermo Escalante, DSc, MBA, ATC, CSCS, CISSN
California State University- San Bernardino, Department of Kinesiology
5500 University Parkway
San Bernardino, CA 92407
gescalan@csusb.edu
(909) 537-7236

Weight Discrimination among Students from a Diverse Urban University

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To examine the association between university students’ weight discrimination and their academic discipline, gender, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, explicit overweight bias, personal body perceptions, and their personal experiences with weight loss. Methods: Sixty-two students (Age: 23.9 ± 4.7 y) from various disciplines completed 1) a 41-question survey that addressed the participant’s explicit overweight bias, prior struggles with body weight, and body perceptions; 2) the Weight-Implicit Association Test (WIAT) to address overweight implicit bias; and 3) measurement of height, weight, and body fat. Chi-Square tests were performed between the participant’s WIAT results and academic discipline, BMI, body fat, explicit bias, personal experience with their body fat, and body perception. Moreover, differences in BMI and body fat percentage were examined with two separate 2 (gender) × 2 (academic discipline) repeated measures ANOVAs. Results: ANOVA results revealed a relationship between an explicit bias and WIAT implicit bias. No relationships were found between the results of the WIAT and academic discipline, BMI classification, body fat classification, personal experience with body fat, or perceptions of their body. Conclusions: An implicit anti-fat bias exists regardless of academic discipline, percent body fat, BMI, explicit anti-fat bias, prior struggles with body fat, or perceptions of their body. These findings support previous literature that suggests individuals have an unconscious negative prejudgment of overweight people. Applications in Sport: Current physical educators, healthcare professionals, fitness professionals, sport coaches, and university faculty preparing students for these professions must begin to take the steps necessary to eliminate weight bias from their environments. The authors recommend that all members of the aforementioned communities develop an understanding of the factors that may lead to weight gain and develop strategies of encouraging overweight individuals to reduce their weight without further perpetuating weight stigma.   

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2019-12-12T14:21:11-06:00December 20th, 2019|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on Weight Discrimination among Students from a Diverse Urban University