The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Leadership Styles, and Burnout in NCAA Coaches

Authors: Luna Ugrenovic, M.S., West Virginia University, Kimberly Shaffer, Ph.D., Barry   University, Nataniel Boiangin, Ph.D., Barry University

Corresponding Author:
Luna Ugrenovic, M.S.
478 Harding Avenue Apt. 4
Morgantown, WV, USA, 26505
luna.ugrenovic@gmail.com
786-617-9425

Luna Ugrenovic is a first-year Ph.D. student at West Virginia University (WVU) studying Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology concurrently with Master’s in Clinical Mental Health Counseling. She is also a graduate teaching assistant and mental performance consultant trainee working with the WVU DI rowing team as well as WVU law school. 

The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Leadership Styles, and Burnout in NCAA Coaches

ABSTRACT 

Burnout in coaches has been a concerning issue for many years. It can lead to a host of medical, psychological, emotional and performance-related issues. One of the many factors that correlates with burnout is emotional intelligence (EI; 22). Additionally, research supports various leadership styles that correlate with perceived burnout in different ways (32). The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between EI, leadership styles, and perceived burnout as well as the moderating role of leadership styles on the relationship between EI and perceived burnout in NCAA coaches. The full range leadership model (2) was used in this study and proposes that there are transformational, transactional, and passive-avoidant leadership styles. A total of 244 (n = 140 male, n = 103 female, n = 1 undisclosed) coaches participated from across all three NCAA divisions. Represented sports were field/cross country, basketball, lacrosse, soccer, swimming, volleyball, and a variety of others. Consistent with previous research, the results indicated a significant moderate negative relationship between EI and perceived burnout (r = -.38, p = .000) as well as a significant weak negative relationship between transformational leadership style and perceived burnout (r = -.24, p = .000). Additionally, there was a significant weak positive relationship between passive-avoidant leadership style and perceived burnout (r = .25, p = .000). Furthermore, passive-avoidant leadership style showed a negative moderating effect on the relationship between EI and perceived burnout, accounting for 20% of the variance in perceived burnout. This means that passive-avoidant leadership weakened the negative relationship between EI and perceived burnout. Thus, coaches who are predominately passive-avoidant leaders may be more likely to experience burnout symptoms despite their high EI. Consequently, the results underline the importance of developing strong leadership competences as well as EI in NCAA coaches to decrease or even prevent burnout.  

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2020-03-04T11:00:03-06:00March 27th, 2020|Research, Sports Coaching|Comments Off on The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence, Leadership Styles, and Burnout in NCAA Coaches

Mental Toughness in Coaching: A Functional Definition Determined by Elite Coaches

Authors: William Steffen1, Conrad Woolsey2, Ronald Quinn3, Brandon Spradley4  

Affiliations: 1Wingate University, 2University of Western States, 3Xavier University, 4United States Sports Academy  

Corresponding Author:
Dr. Brandon Spradley
Chair of Sports Management
United States Sports Academy
One Academy Drive
Daphne, Alabama 36526
bspradley@ussa.edu
251-626-3303

Dr. Bill Steffen is an Assistant Professor of Sport Science at Wingate University and serves as the Chair of the United Soccer Coaches Ethics Committee and a Senior National Staff Coach. Dr. Steffen won two NCAA National Championships in women’s soccer while coaching at the University of North Carolina and has 28 years of NCAA coaching experience, in addition to playing professional soccer for five years.

Dr. Conrad Woolsey is the Director of Sport and Performance Psychology at the University of Western States. As a nationally recognized expert in the field of sport and performance psychology he is a Certified Mental Performance Consultant (CMPC) through the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) and a member of the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) Sport Psychology Registry.

Dr. Ronald Quinn is the Director of MEd in Coaching Education & Athlete Development at Xavier University. Dr. Quinn is considered a leading authority in youth soccer and coaching education presenting at prestigious national and international conferences.

Dr. Brandon Spradley is the Chair of Sports Management and an Associate Professor at the United States Sports Academy.  Dr. Spradley was a four-time NCAA regional qualifier and a two-time NCAA national qualifier in track and field running on nationally ranked relay teams for The University of Alabama.

Mental Toughness in Coaching   

ABSTRACT

Researchers have explored the mental toughness that is associated with elite athletes as a concept relating to specific activities and sports; however, there is limited research concerning mental toughness among elite coaches. This study expanded previous research by investigating elite coaches’ (N=22) perspectives of what attributes were most important for defining mental toughness in coaching. Results of coaching focus groups interviews yielded several themes which were incorporated into a definition of mental toughness of a coach. Mental toughness of a coach is a complex interaction of several characteristics: (1) a determined mindset; (2) resiliency; (3) confidence; and (4) a strong belief in the coach’s system, processes, and actions; all of these characteristics result in consistent behaviors and emotional responses. Coaches were asked to list attributes that they felt were descriptive of the ideal mentally tough coach. Their list included confident, resilient, consistent, positive spirit, energetic, passionate, optimistic, adaptable, possessing inner strength, and patient. These attributes were discussed in consideration of coaches’ rationale for these choices. Examining mental toughness can positively assist coaches seeking to become the best they can be.

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2020-03-04T09:38:11-06:00March 20th, 2020|Research, Sports Coaching|Comments Off on Mental Toughness in Coaching: A Functional Definition Determined by Elite Coaches

The Effects of Competitive Orientation on Performance in Competition

Authors: Jeffrey C. Ives, Kristin Neese, Nick Downs, Harrison Root, Tim Finnerty

Corresponding Author:
Jeffrey C. Ives, Ph.D.
Department of Exercise Science and Athletic Training
Danby Road
Ithaca College
Ithaca, NY  14850
jives@ithaca.edu
607-274-1751

Jeffrey C. Ives is a professor of motor behavior in the Department of Exercise Science and Athletic Training at Ithaca College

The Effects of Competitive Orientation on Performance in Competition

ABSTRACT

The competitive environment is reported to influence greater exercise intensity in most persons, thus enhancing practice and training. This effect may be mediated by individual characteristics and the nature of the competitive environment. In particular, persons with non-competitive traits may find live one-on-one physical competition discouraging to full engagement and high effort, but there is little research to support this belief. The purpose of this experiment, thus, was to evaluate the influence of live competition versus no competition (i.e., solo) in persons classified as competitive versus less competitive, or athletes versus non-athlete. After informed consent, 91 subjects were scored on competitive trait using the SOQ tool and grouped into three competitive trait groups (Low, Mid, High). Subjects were also classified as a collegiate varsity athlete or non-varsity athlete.  Subjects engaged in maximal vertical jump trials and maximal 40 yard sprint trials under solo conditions and in the presence of another competitor. Maximal single trial performance in the solo condition was compared to the best competition performance and the average competition performance. Repeated measures ANOVA results indicated no significant differences from the solo best trial to the average competition trial in vertical jump height or sprint times. However, the subjects’ single best competition sprint trial was significantly faster than the best solo sprint trial, but the best competition vertical jump was not significantly higher than the solo jump. Persons grouped as having a higher competitive trait, and those classified as varsity athletes, had faster sprints and higher jumps, but all groups performed similarly in response to competition. In conclusion, competition produced similar results in all groups, indicating that even less competitive persons and non-varsity athletes respond competitively when in certain circumstances.

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2020-02-24T10:50:37-06:00February 21st, 2020|Research, Sports Health & Fitness|Comments Off on The Effects of Competitive Orientation on Performance in Competition

Concussion in the Collegiate Equestrian Athlete

Authors: Tasneem Zahira PhD,  Timothy Henry PhD ATC, Michael L. Pilato MS ATC

Corresponding Author:
Michael L. Pilato MS ATC
1000 East Henrietta Road, Rochester, NY 14623
mikep316@yahoo.com
585-329-6463

Michael L. Pilato is an athletic trainer with Monroe Community College in Rochester, N.Y. He has been researching sports medicine for the equestrian athlete since 2003 and has been published in peer and non-peer reviewed journals.

Tasneem Zaihra PhD.
Department of Mathematics State University New York College at Brockport
350 New Campus Dr, Brockport, NY 14420
tzahira@brockport.edu
585-3952075

Tasneem Zaihra is an assistant professor of statistics in the department of mathematics, SUNY Brockport. She has many presentations and publications in peer-reviewed journals, to her credit.

Timothy Henry PhD. ATC
Department of HPERD State University New York College at Brockport
350 New Campus Dr, Brockport, NY 14420
thenry@borckport.edu
585-395-5357

Timothy Henry is director of the athletic training program at SUNY Brockport. He is also a reviewer for The Journal of Sport Rehabilitation and The Journal of Athletic Training.

Concussion in the Collegiate Equestrian Athlete

ABSTRACT

Equestrian sports, in general, pose a significant risk of concussion. Minimizing the risk of concussion has been a focal point in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to describe concussion and explore potential association(s) between groups of musculoskeletal injuries and Body Mass Index (BMI) on the risk and odds of concussion in the collegiate equestrian athlete. Forty-three schools, ranging from DI to DIII, from the Eastern United States were selected from the NCAA and Intercollegiate Horse Show Association’s websites. Self-reported injury and demographic data was collected through an online survey created in Mach Forms. Seventy-three participants completed the online survey (women n=71, men=2). Aggregate descriptive data is reported on all subjects. After removing data on 2 men, and a single female with incomplete data, the data from 70 females with complete data was analyzed using chi-squared and Fisher’s exact tests and ordinal logistic regression. Pearson’s chi-squared as well as Fisher’s exact test (p-value =.0288 and.0297 respectively) indicates the risk of having concussion with 0 UE injury is not the same as with 1 or 2+ injuries. The average number of injuries per athlete increased from 0 to 2(+) concussions. Concussion is a commonly reported injury. Upper extremity injury is identified as having the strongest association with concussion risk in the equestrian athlete. Knowing UE injury status could be useful in gaging the risk and odds of concussion in equestrian athletes.

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2020-01-31T09:20:28-06:00February 7th, 2020|Research, Sports Medicine|Comments Off on Concussion in the Collegiate Equestrian Athlete

Ancient Olympic Superstars and the Remarkable Skills They Could Teach Today’s Athletes

Authors: Raymond Stefani

Corresponding Author:
Raymond Stefani
25032 Via Del Rio
Lake Forest, CA 92630
Raystefani@aol.com
949-586-1823

Dr. Raymond Stefani is a professor emeritus of the California State University, Long Beach with over 160 publications covering individual sports, team sports and sports history

Ancient Olympic Superstars and the Remarkable Skills They Could Teach Today’s Athletes

ABSTRACT

A data base of Ancient Olympic events was exhaustively researched by the Perseus Project and combined into one table by Wikipedia, containing nearly 900 results. The Wikipedia table was sorted to obtain the distribution of events and to identify the most successful Olympians of Ancient Greece. From 776 BC through 277 AD, just 30 events were contested, eight of which were offered only once. An average of only 3.5 events were contested in each Olympics. Of the five sports, track and field (called athletics internationally) comprised 49% of all contested events with the 200 m stadion sprint, comprising 30% of all contested events. Competition was so highly focused that winning once was very difficult and winning repeatedly was remarkable. From the sorted winners, 12 superstars of antiquity are chosen for discussion. These superstars include the most unlikely winner in that men’s Olympics, a woman, Kyniska of Sparta, who became a double winner by owning and training the horses that won two chariot races. Leonides of Rhodes won all three of the major running events four times successively, for 12 individual wins, not exceeded until 2016 by Michael Phelps. Herodoros of Megara won the trumpeter’s competition nine consecutive times. Two wrestlers won the boy’s event followed later by five successive wins in the open competition. The emperor Nero of Rome won six times, showing venerability by acting and playing the lyre in public. The pentathlete Phayllos of Kroton outfitted and commanded a battleship at the 480 BC Battle of Salamis, helping Greece defeat Persia. One of the few recorded measurements of Ancient Greece, his long jump of 55 feet has been nearly duplicated by five successive standing long jumps, each employing a re-invented strategy for jumping with weights in each hand. The remarkable skills of those 12 may serve as inspirations for today’s athletes.

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2019-12-24T10:05:42-06:00January 17th, 2020|Research, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Ancient Olympic Superstars and the Remarkable Skills They Could Teach Today’s Athletes