Assessment of readiness of Lebanese Gyms and Sport Facilities according to ISO-97.220 – Sports equipment and facilities

Authors: Siham El Rafei1, Mohammad Nassereddine 2, Ali Hammoud 3, Adel Olleik4
1,2,3 Faculty of Sciences, Lebanese University, Beirut, LB
4GATES Company, Beirut, LB

Corresponding Author:
Siham El Rafei, MS
Lebanon- Tripoli-Tripoli- 1301

Siham El Rafei, MS, has a MS degree in Healthcare and Quality Management, and a certificate in Pilates. She is the owner of a  Pilates studio, Physiopilateslb, in Tripoli, Lebanon.

Mohammad Nasseriddine, PhD, is currently an Assistant Professor at the Lebanese University in Beirut.

Ali Hammoud, PhD, is currently an Assistant Professor at the Lebanese University in the Biomedical and Bioinformatic Department, in Beirut..

Adel Olleik, MPH, DBA, worked as a CEO, consultant, auditor, and trainer in more than 250 healthcare organizations in Lebanon. He is currently running his own consultation firm, GATES, in Beirut, LB.

Assessment of readiness of Lebanese Gyms and Sport Facilities according to ISO-97.220 – Sports equipment and facilities


It is very difficult to mitigate all the risks involved in utilizing a fitness center. For this reason, ISO-97.220 – Sports equipment and facilities established the international safety standards that should be included in the sport facilities. The purpose of this survey is to assess the degree of readiness of Lebanese gyms according to these standards.78.67% of the gyms affirmed that they used international safety standards while preparing the sport facility. Correspondingly, only 60% of the gyms have a written emergency response policy and procedure and only 66.67% of the gyms conduct a safety audit inspection. Nevertheless, 84% of them have a preventative maintenance program and 92% of them have a system for removal of damaged or broken equipment.

2020-07-16T15:52:16-05:00October 23rd, 2020|Research, Sports Management|Comments Off on Assessment of readiness of Lebanese Gyms and Sport Facilities according to ISO-97.220 – Sports equipment and facilities

Pay to Play in the NCAA: A Data Driven Playbook on How to Compensate Athletes

Author: Cameron Van, J.D.

Contributing Author:
Cameron Van, J.D.
University of California, Davis School of Law, Davis CA

400 Mrak Hall Drive, Davis, CA 95616
Phone Number: (650) 740-2235

Cameron Van is a recent UC Davis School of Law Graduate with a focus on the intersection of business and the law.


This article offers the NCAA a reputable, repeatable, and reasonable formula for a student-athlete revenue scheme that will ensure its competitive edge in an ever-encroaching market. The NCAA uses amateurism to restrict artificially the compensation of student athletes’ compensation to “cost of tuition,” at best. It is precisely this reason that more athletes are finding alternative ways to capitalize on their talents. As a result, this amateurism scheme is not Pareto Efficient. Pareto efficiency is reached when a situation cannot be modified in a way that would have one party better off without making another party worse off. Notably, Pareto efficiency does not imply equality, equity, or fairness, rather simply that there could be no economic changes that would better off the overall system. Here, this article explores a rare occurrence where the system can be made both more efficient and equal by increasing the supply of revenue generators – the athletes. This article will build upon Stocz formula for deriving a student-athlete’s salary, as well as give examples of what such a salary would look like for said athletes.

2020-07-16T11:29:28-05:00October 16th, 2020|Contemporary Sports Issues, Research|Comments Off on Pay to Play in the NCAA: A Data Driven Playbook on How to Compensate Athletes

Comparison of Four Stretching Protocols on Short-Term Power

Authors: Joni M. Boyd, PhD, CSCS*D; Janet R. Wojcik, PhD; Alice J. McLaine, PhD; Zachary Hartman, MS, ATC; and Malik McGill

Corresponding Author:
Joni M. Boyd, PhD, CSCS*D
216 L West Center
Rock Hill, SC 29732

Joni M. Boyd is an Associate Professor of Exercise Science & Coaching at Winthrop University.
Janet R. Wojcik is a Professor and Coordinator of Exercise Science at Winthrop University.
Alice J. McLaine is an Assistant Professor and Coordinator of Athletic Training at Winthrop University.
Zachary Hartman is an athletic trainer in Rock Hill, SC.
Malik McGill is a physical therapy student in Charleston, SC.

Comparison of Four Stretching Protocols on Short-Term Power


The purpose of the study was to compare different stretching protocols on vertical jump and long jump. Participants included 22 females and 16 males that completed four different stretching protocols in a randomized, cross-over treatment design. Protocols were performed on separate days, with at least 48 hours of rest in between. Each session began with a 5-minute self-paced jog, followed by one of the four stretching protocols: static-only stretch, dynamic-only stretch, ballistic-only stretch, and dynamic-plus-ballistic stretch. Each stretching protocol lasted for about five minutes. Either participants performed a vertical jump or long jump directly after finishing the stretching protocol, then switched testing conditions. There were no significant differences in vertical jump or long jump performance across the four conditions. Consequently, this study did not support previous research showing performance improvement after dynamic stretching.

2020-07-15T11:52:42-05:00October 9th, 2020|Research, Sports Medicine|Comments Off on Comparison of Four Stretching Protocols on Short-Term Power

The Impact of COVID-19 on the Well-Being of Division III Student-Athletes

Authors: JoAnne Barbieri Bullard
Department of Health & Exercise Science, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ, USA

Corresponding Author:
JoAnne Barbieri Bullard, Psy.D., CSCS
201 Mullica Hill Road
Glassboro, NJ 08028

JoAnne Barbieri Bullard, Psy.D., is an Assistant Professor in the Health & Exercise Science Department at Rowan University.  She holds her doctorate in Sport Psychology and Performance and is a NSCA Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist.  She also serves as the NCAA Faculty Athletics Representative for Rowan University. 

The Impact of COVID-19 on the Well-Being of Division III Student-Athletes


The Coronavirus (COVID-19) has caused societal impact that has been intense and fast-paced, especially for college students when education was transitioned quickly into a distance learning format during the spring 2020 semester raising numerous health concerns. Spring athletic seasons were cancelled abruptly raising concern about the mental distress student athletes could be experiencing that could impact their future.  The National Collegiate Association of Athletics (NCAA) addressed the disruption that COVID-19 has caused and the negative impact it has made on both physical and mental health of athletes (14).  The purpose of this research study was to examine the mental distress and programming needs of Division III student-athletes in response to COVID-19.  Through the use of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale (GAD-7) and the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS), anxiety was assessed among participants suggesting that both genders and all academic years have experienced some level of anxiety during this pandemic which deserve to be addressed and explored on a deeper level.  Significant findings revealed that female participants were more likely than male participants to effectively manage their schoolwork, use social media at least four hours per day, express worry for the future and the fall 2020 semester related to COVID-19, experience challenges moving home, and to utilize mindfulness practices.  Findings also revealed that as compared to other races/ethnicities, white participants indicating experiencing higher challenges regarding social distancing.  Mental distress was associated with lack of resources and  the absence of available facilities to train for their sport.  This setback led student-athletes to experience decreased levels of motivation, increased feelings of stress, and general feelings of helplessness. The need for interventions to be provided both remotely and in-person to provide modalities assisting in coping with anxiety is apparent.

2020-09-28T11:39:59-05:00October 7th, 2020|Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on The Impact of COVID-19 on the Well-Being of Division III Student-Athletes

Correlations in Self-efficacy and Participation in Roller Derby

Authors: Margaret Shields1, Andrea Eklund2, and Angelina Williams3

1Department of Health Sciences, Fort Lewis College, Durango, CO, USA
2Department of Family & Consumer Sciences, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA, USA
3Department of Public Health, Charleston Southern University, Charleston, SC, USA

Corresponding Author:
Margaret Shields, PhD, CHES
1000 Rim Drive
Durango, CO 81301

Margaret Shields, PhD, CHES is an Assistant Professor of Health Sciences at Fort Lewis College in Durango, CO. Her research interests focus on veteran mental health, stress, self-efficacy, and nutrition.

Andrea Eklund, MFA is an Associate Professor of Family and Consumer Sciences at Central Washington University.  Her research interests focus on empowerment and body image, sustainable textiles, and innovative fashion design.   

Angelina Williams, CHES is a recent graduate in public health from Charleston Southern University. She is currently a family navigator for Americorps in Charleston, SC.

Correlations in self-efficacy and participation in roller derby


Roller derby has been connected with self-confidence in participants; however, little is known about the correlation of increased self-efficacy and roller derby. The purpose of this study was to examine correlation in changes of self-efficacy and participation in roller derby, specific to overall confidence, exercise patterns and body image. This study was a primary data analysis collected from a specially designed self-efficacy survey using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-efficacy for Exercise Scale. Participants were asked to give demographic and physical information. Self-efficacy was measured through three categories: exercise, appearance and general statements about daily life. Four hundred and twenty-four international participants completed the survey. Descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon Signed-ranks test were used for the pre- and post-sport data of the participants to assess and compare perceived changes in the individuals. The sample included 412 completed surveys. Participants indicated increased perception of self-efficacy given involvement in roller derby. This included significance in decisions and leadership roles, body image, and exercise.  Perceptions of decisions and leadership roles, body image, and exercise routines increased with sport involvement. Participation in roller derby was associated with increased perceived self-efficacy. This is not confined to sport alone but other day-to-day activities that may require similar amounts of resilience, self-perception, and self-reflection. By fostering these feminist beliefs, gender roles, and simultaneously building self-efficacy among women, researchers have noted the higher perception of physical attractiveness, lowered poor body image, and ability to buffer societal pressures.  With the vast struggle for improved mental and physical health to curb chronic diseases, it is important to encourage leisure sports and activities such as roller derby.  It is vital as a coach or league to urge participants to recognize growth within in the sport, not only while skating but also applying this to career and relationships outside of the sport.

2020-07-15T11:30:03-05:00October 2nd, 2020|Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Correlations in Self-efficacy and Participation in Roller Derby
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