The Idea of Peace as Coubertin’s Vision for the Modern Olympic Movement: Development and Pedagogic Consequences

The Origin of the Idea of Peace in the Modern
Olympic Movement

The Olympic Games took place in ancient Greece 293 times from 776 B.C.
up to 393 A.D., i.e. over a period of almost 12 centuries, in contrast
to modern times without interruption.

Continue reading

Book Review: How to Raise A Successful Athlete: What you need to know to raise a successful athlete

How To Raise a Successful Athlete is a great text for the ‘layman’
interested in expanding his or her knowledge of basic sport-related topics.
It is easy to comprehend the information regarding nutrition, physiology,
biomechanics, strength training, sport psychology, as well as coaching
and medical topics. The book describes the common occurrences of injury,
appropriate treatments and home care information so the parent or guardian
recognizes the importance of proper therapeutic remedies.

The chapters are well organized and clearly labeled for quick reference
and the information is presented in a straightforward and understandable
manner. Each chapter highlights helpful tips or bulleted information.
Specific issues are highlighted that should be of concern to the parent
or guardian.

Recommendation: This book is a good foundational reference for those
with no experience or background in exercise physiology, sport nutrition,
and/or sport-related topics. It is an introductory source for parents
or guardians seeking a better understanding of the topics and issues athletes
face in sport participation.

How to Raise A Successful Athlete: What you need to know to raise a successful athlete
By: Thomas Craig Angle
Trafford Publishing
ISBN: 1-41206372-8

Book Review: All Around Men : Heroes of a Forgotten Sport

The book is well structured. It presents a valid historical description
of the history of track and field and the evolution of multi-event contests
followed by the biographical sketch of twenty-two of the greatest All-around
athletes.

All-Around Men: Heroes of a Forgotten Sport is well researched and referenced,
providing a brief yet detailed account of the history of track and field
in America and the evolution of combined track and field events. It is
a good secondary source of information concerning the history and development
of track and field and, more specifically, the decathlon.

The author, Frank Zarnowski, is a world authority in the track and field
modality of decathlon. Zarnowski is a prolific author having published
numerous books and articles about the decathlon. Zarnowski has served
as the U.S. national team coach, manager, and delegate leader.

The biographical descriptions of the most notable all-around athletes
are well supported with statistical data.

Of the athletes featured in the book, Jim Thorpe is arguably the most
prominent. Thorpe was the gold medal winner in the initial Olympic decathlon
and pentathlon at the Stockholm Olympic Games of 1912. Thorpe also played
professional baseball for the New York Giants and professional football
until the age of forty-one.

Another featured all-around athlete deserving of special attention is
Avery Brundage, not as much for his achievements as an all-around athlete
but for his accomplishments as the president of the Amateur Athletic Union
(AAU), U.S. Olympic Committee (USOC), and International Olympic Committee
(IOC). From 1929 when he assumed the presidency of the USOC until 1972
when he stepped down as the IOC president, Avery Brundage was one of the
world’s most influential figures in amateur sports.

All Around Men : Heroes of a Forgotten Sport
By: Frank Zarnowski
The Scarecrow Press, Inc.
ISBN: 0-8108-5423-6

Hazing in Sports: The Effects and Legal Ramifications

All across the United States each year many individuals make the conscious
decision to try out for interscholastic athletic teams in the hopes of
being part of something great. These individuals also understand that
prior to the last cut; they will need to sacrifice time, energy and social
gatherings to make the team successful. However, what many of these individuals
do not recognize and understand is that try-outs don’t always end
when the last cut is made and the final team list is posted. In recent
years, an old, but very much alive problem has begun to resurface in sports,
and that is the issue of humiliating and victimizing rookie athletes through
hazing rituals. These horrible acts leave victims debilitated in many
capacities, and such practices break down the institution of sport which
has been noted for building such positive character qualities as strength,
discipline, and a strong work ethic.

Purpose

With that being said, the purpose of this paper is to identify, discuss,
and analyze how hazing rituals among athletes affect athletics at both
the high school and collegiate level. Using current research and statistical
information, I will attempt to explain how hazing affects both athletes
and the culture of the institution at hand. More specifically the following
topics will be addressed: what is hazing; types of hazing that exist;
when, where, and how does hazing occur; the legal ramifications of hazing;
problems presented for the victim; and lastly, the barriers that exist
to hazing.

Thesis

In what capacity does hazing play a role in athletics at both the high
school and collegiate level within a program? And, to what degree does
it affect the sport culture within the institution at hand? Both of these
questions deserve further investigation and understanding so that those
who work to maintain the integrity of sport can continue to do so.

Review of Literature

Hazing

What is hazing? To begin, because hazing is such a broad term
covering a variety of situations it is easily noted that an assortment
of definitions exist. However, for that same reason it is important that
one look to a definition that covers a variety of situations on a variety
of levels. With that being said, Mothers Against School Hazing (2005),
also known as MASH, has done a great deal of research to develop a definition
that attempts to cover all areas of hazing. According to MASH (2005),

…hazing is a broad term encompassing any action or activity which
does not

contribute to the positive development of a person; which inflicts or
intends to

cause physical or mental harm or anxieties; which may demean, degrade
or

disgrace any person regardless of location, intent or consent of participants…any

action or situation which intentionally or unintentionally endangers
a student for

admission into or affiliation with any student organization.

Although this definition does an excellent job at defining the acts that
constitute hazing, the problem lies in the fact that many believe that
initiation and hazing are two separate things, and that initiation is
okay even though in many situations it constitutes hazing.

Difference between initiation and hazing. While it may be true
that not all initiation involves hazing, all hazing is done as an initiation;
and because of this there is no real difference between the two terms.
According to the Webster’s Dictionary (1995) initiation is, “to
admit as a member into a fraternity or club, etc., esp. with a special
or secret ceremony.” Although basic in its definition, initiation
aims to accomplish the same thing as hazing does, admit a member into
a group. Unfortunately, the problem with this definition is that it limits
itself by omitting the fact that it does not say that the ceremonies are
good, nor are they bad. It is in that fact that many who agree with hazing
find their loophole. Those who choose to support that hazing is right
of passage because it falls under an incomplete definition of initiation
are allowing for inappropriate and violent acts to continue at staggering
numbers.

How often does hazing occur? With that being said, how often
do such acts of deviance occur? It would be nice to say that such behaviors
are few and far between, but unfortunately that is not the case. In research
conducted by Alfred University, acts of hazing were seen in high numbers
from the middle school level through the collegiate level (Bushweller,
2000). According to this research, eight out of ten athletes had been
subjected to hazing during college; more than four out of every ten athletes
had been subjected to some form of hazing during high school; and lastly,
at least one out every twenty athletes faced acts of hazing during their
middle school years. These numbers are staggering, but what is more staggering
is the fact that these numbers may not be the true depiction of how many
athletes are actually hazed. Many fail to report incidents of hazing because
of embarrassment, possible repercussions following a report, and feelings
of guilt that the incident was their fault. Therefore, it is very difficult
to understand why so many acts occur. However, through more detailed research
we may be able to get a better understanding why this behavior continues
at such high numbers by evaluating the characteristics and cultures that
perpetuate acts of hazing.

Characteristics of people who haze. In order to understand where
we are now with hazing it is important to understand where such behaviors
began. It would be nice to say that this is a new problem that needs to
be fixed, but unfortunately hazing is a problem that has been able to
endure centuries of time. Beginning in fourth century Carthage, it was
noted that students taunted and bullied incoming freshman as an initiation
into the ancient learning environments. And, later in the Middle Ages,
it was recorded that first year students at universities were forced to
drink urine and endure skin scrapings as the initiation into university
(Rosellini, 2000). So where are we today and are there characteristics
specific to those who initiate hazing rituals?

According to current research, hazing practices of today do not vary
much from the past and nor do the reasons why individuals haze. Often
times it can be theorized that the hazer will have an aggressive disposition,
struggles with power relationships and uses violence as an outlet (Nestor,
2000). In addition to this, a person who is involved in hazing other individuals
will often times lack self-esteem, is searching for meaning in their own
life, and lastly is seeking retaliation on someone else for their own
displaced emotions of hazing incidents that they may have had to endure
(Nestor, 2000).

Even though it is unclear why people may haze, it is very clear according
to research that the problem is getting worse. Whether hazing occurs because
of character traits or the surrounding cultures, hazing has been able
to reach grotesque levels and because of this, three types of hazing categories
have been identified.

Types of Hazing

Types of hazing. Since a variety of hazing rituals have been
recorded it is essential that such acts be categorized based on the severity
of the incident. According to research (MASH, 2005) three categories exist
to identify and define the different levels of hazing. The three categories
are, starting with the least debilitating: subtle hazing, harassment hazing,
and bodily harm hazing. However, to fully understand what each of these
categories represent we must look at each of them individually.

To begin, let’s first examine subtle hazing. According to MASH
(2005) subtle hazing is,

…actions that are against accepted and organization standards
of conduct,

behavior and good taste. An activity or attitude directed toward a student
or an act which ridicules, humiliates, and/or embarrasses.

When an individual is forced to endure subtle hazing, he or she is enduring
the least debilitating form of hazing. However, although the examples
found under this umbrella may seem childish, the emotional effects on
the victim can be very costly. Some examples of subtle hazing may include
and are not limited to, ostracizing an individual from the group, calling
an individual names and/or depriving an individual certain privileges.
Although this may seem insignificant, forcing an individual to endure
these behaviors or situations does, in fact, constitute hazing.

Next, is harassment hazing. Again, according to MASH (2005), harassment
hazing,

…is anything that causes anguish or physical discomfort to a student…any
activity or activity directed toward a student or activity which confuses,
frustrates or causes undue stress.

In the realms of hazing this is the midway point between non-aggressive
and aggressive forms of exploitation of individuals. In harassment hazing
the victim may be forced to endure verbal abuse, they may have to wear
ridiculous clothing, do stunts or skits of lewd and crude nature, and/or
answer questions while in a sexual stance with another individual. All
of these acts may result in emotional distress for the victim; they may
constitute sexual harassment if charges were to be filed. All in all,
this form of harassment can be very debilitating.

Lastly, is bodily harm hazing which is the most offensive of the three
categories of hazing. Bodily harm hazing is defined as,

…any form of action that may cause physical punishment, or any
action that may cause bodily harm and/or touching in private places and/or
de-clothing of a student (2005).

When an individual is forced to take part in a hazing ritual that uses
this form of harassment he or she may be subjected to such rituals as,
being hit/punched/kicked with or without an object, performing or pretending
to perform a sexual act towards another, being sodomized, or drinking
until they vomit or pass out. Of the three categories of hazing this category
is the most severe. Many of the rituals found in this category constitute
criminal acts which will hold up in court if the evidence is available.

The three categories of hazing leave no room for someone to say that
they are at all acceptable. No matter what category one examines, the
definition clearly shows that one individual is subordinate to another.
And, whether it is a male or female who initiates these rituals the reality
of the situation is that these rituals are wrong and hazing knows no gender.

Hazing: A male or female issue? As mentioned earlier hazing
knows no gender. Unfortunately many would like to believe that such barbaric
acts could not be committed by females, but the truth of the matter is
that hazing is seen with both males and females. According to research
done by Alfred University (1999), when looking at the variety of hazing
incidents that are conducted, women usually lag behind the men with the
same situation by about five to eight percentage points on the average.
For example, when examining acts that fall under harassment hazing the
amount of men involved constituted 68% while women involved amounted to
63%. This is proof that hazing is not a gender issue, but that it is an
issue that must be examined more closely as a sport issue on the whole.

Since we are able to conclude based on the research data that this is
a sport issue, we must further examine when and where such incidents are
able to occur.

Hazing in the Media

High school hazing. As we have noted throughout the paper,
hazing is not an issue to be taken lightly. It knows no boundaries as
to when and where it will happen and it is not gender sensitive. And,
for those reasons in recent years more and more headlines have surfaced
about hazing situations within academic institutions. So in order to fully
understand the dynamics of how much of an impact hazing has had on high
school athletics and individuals we must examine a few examples.

First, one of the most notable cases took place on Long Island, New York
at Mepham High School. This case involved the boy’s varsity and
junior varsity football teams where the defendants engaged in a category
three hazing incident, bodily harm hazing. In this situation three varsity
football players were charged with sodomizing three younger J.V. players
(Weir, 2003). The three boys who led the hazing attacks were later charged
as minors on counts of aggravated assault and involuntary deviate sexual
intercourse. In addition to this, the coaches were fired from their coaching
positions for allowing previously known behaviors to spiral out of control.

Although these individuals were held accountable and given a sentence
in juvenile detention, the sentence for the victims was far worse. In
this situation the boys who endured the acts of sodomy have life sentences.
For one of the boys, he will have to go through numerous surgeries, another
has had to face continuous taunting from peers, and lastly, all three
of them have to live each day knowing that this type of situation could
have been prevented if the coaches had listened to the warnings prior
to camp that harassment by older players towards younger players had begun.
All in all, if the warning signs were taken seriously this incident may
have been preventable (Smith, 2003).

Another example of hazing that received a great deal of publicity in
high school athletics took place in Northbrook, a small suburb of Chicago,
Illinois. Unlike the previous example, this one explores the hazing rituals
of females. In this situation approximately twenty-eight girls and four
boys were involved in the annual powder puff football game where senior
girls turned a fun event into a violent attack on junior females (Kelly,
2003). In this instance, the brutal attack was videotaped. The annual
Powder Puff game was an unsanctioned school affair where senior girls
initiate junior girls for reasons that were undisclosed.

The nightmarish incident was not part of a sanctioned event and the students
involved only received a ten day suspension; the harshest possible sentence
according to the superintendent (Heyman, Sandler, & Williams, 2003).
Again, much like the victims in the previous example above, the junior
girls paid the ultimate price. One female was sent to the hospital for
stitches, another left with a broken ankle and yet numerous others ended
up with concussions all because prior warnings about hazing behaviors
were not taken seriously (Heyman, Sandler, & Williams, 2003).

So, with that being said, it is not surprising that such incidents have
had a negative impact on school districts and athletic programs. In both
of these situations the school districts received a great deal of national
exposure for failing to prevent hazing incidents under their jurisdiction.
In addition to this, entire school reputations were smeared by the actions
of a relatively few. In no situation does hazing bring about positive
publicity whether it is in high school or college.

College hazing. Unfortunately, hazing does not only occur in
high school. According to a study by Alfred University conducted in 1999,
nearly eighty-percent of college athletes have been hazed on one level
or another (Cuvelier, 2005). A number that high means that this issue
is very much alive in college athletics and it deserves further attention.
One of the biggest college cases that sparked further legislative advancements
in the area of sport hazing was a case involving the University of Vermont’s
Men’s Ice Hockey Team.

During this case, freshman hockey player, Corey LaTulippe was forced
to engage in an extreme form of hazing. When the night concluded and the
players left, LaTulippe made his own decision about his future as a member
of the Men’s Ice Hockey Team. In the days following the incident
LaTulippe left school and filed a lawsuit alleging assault and battery,
invasion of privacy and violation of his civil rights, his lawsuit sought
damages in the amount of $275, 000 dollars (O’Hara, 2000).

Unlike the high school cases mentioned earlier where victims failed to
benefit from the incidents, this case extended more benefits to its victim
and to the institution. Although LaTulippe has been left to face emotional
and psychological scars he was able to leave the negative environment
and his case had a positive impact on how the University of Vermont handles
hazing incidents. As a result of his lawsuit the school now requires athletes
to sign hazing contracts; team captains must receive leadership training
and the hockey team has since turned their negative initiation practices
into a weekend trip of mountain climbing (Rosellini, 2000). However, making
changes at one institution is only one step in the process of making legal
strides in combating this issue.

Legal Ramifications

Hazing: A criminal case or civil case? While it may be true
that hazing is illegal in forty-three states, seven have no legislation
against it (Scott, 2004). As a result, in these seven states it is often
difficult to prove that you have grounds for either a civil or criminal
case. However, generally in the forty-three states that recognize hazing
as a crime, an individual can file both a criminal and civil case.

According to James Hart and Robert Ritson of the National Association
for Sport and Physical Education (2002),

…hazing can lead to not only state civil suits for negligence
but also to federal suits alleging deprivation of rights and criminal
charges…in hazing cases resulting in criminal trials and civil
suits that have been either decided at the trial court level or settled
out of court, few have been appealed…

With this being said, it is clear that those who are victim to a hazing
incident are able to hold other parties liable. However, depending on
the case will decide who and to what degree parties are accountable.

Who is accountable? Although both civil and criminal charges
can be filed, identifying who is to be held accountable can often times
be a difficult task to accomplish from state to state. For example, in
Georgia, public officers (including teachers) are entitled to immunity.
Thus, in regards to any cause of action declared against them in their
private capacity, when sued for discretionary acts taken within the scope
of their employment and without actual intent to harm they are granted
immunity and cannot be held accountable ( Hart & Ritson, 2002). In
this type of situation it is very difficult for a plaintiff to prove a
criminal case with legal grounds.

However, in the same situation if a victim is able to prove that the
duty of supervision was ministerial in function, which is not granted
immunity in Georgia, then grounds for a criminal suit may prove to be
much more successful (2002).

Unfortunately, laws vary dramatically from state to state when dealing
with hazing, and because of this, it is not only difficult to prove a
case but it is just as difficult to prove who is accountable a given situation.
As well, because hazing cases often settle out of court there have been
few cases that have been able to set a precedent in recognizing who is
accountable for cases that may eventually unfold.

What happens to individuals who haze others? Although many hazing
cases are difficult to prove there have been some that have been successful
at the judicial level. However, what happens to the perpetrators who initiate
the hazing incident depends greatly on the rules and laws of where the
incident took place. Research on successful cases shows the following
actions have been taken against defendants: removal from ones position,
juvenile detention, fines, monetary payment of punitive damages, termination
of athletic seasons, suspension from programs, and a variety of others.
All in all, when hazing cases are legally proven in court for the plaintiff
they carry heavy consequences for the perpetrators.

Problems for the Victim

What issues result for the victim? Soon after a case is closed
and the defendant receives his or her sentence, the parties are able to
go their separate ways. However, the case often times remains unofficially
open for the victim because the emotional and psychological issues that
result last long after any judgment has been finalized. According to Mothers
Against School Hazing (2005), hazing has the capacity to affect individuals
for the long term in the following areas: self-esteem, self-confidence,
feelings of self-worth, group unity, respect, friendship, trust, pride,
family interaction, trust with authority, and coping skills. All of these
are daily skills individuals need to survive. However, when a few of these
skills are compromised and are unable to flourish and grow as the person
matures, they are left to live in a state of confusion and turmoil which
leaves them reliving daily the horrors of the hazing incident (2005).
For that reason it is imperative that a victim of a hazing incident seek
the help and support necessary to make it through the difficult time.

Where to turn for help. When an individual suffers through a
hazing incident and is left to deal with the many emotional and psychological
issues that may result, it is important that the victim seek help. Therefore,
it is important that an individual seek the appropriate help from those
who can counsel them through the confusion and emotional scarring that
is left. Much like a victim of sexual assault, domestic violence, and
other hate crimes individuals of a hazing incident will feel the very
same emotions. However, it is important that even though painful the victim
seek help immediately. To begin, the first person a victim should seek
is an adult whom he or she can trust that will believe his or her story.
If that is not an option the victim should contact police enforcement
to file a legal complaint against the assailants. Once a complaint has
been filed the victim should attempt to seek emotional and psychological
support from a trained professional who specializes in crimes of this
nature. The victim needs to feel empowered to report the crime. They need
to seek help from individuals who are supportive and help them understand
that they, in fact, are victims and not responsible for what happened
to them (SUNY Cortland Residential Services Staff Training, Personal Communication,
Fall 2003).

Barriers to Hazing

Common barriers. As shown throughout this paper, hazing is a
very difficult issue to overcome. Whether you are dealing with the legal
issues, the definitions of each type of hazing, or the problems that exist
after a hazing incident occurs, you must realize that hazing is a difficult
issue. For these exact reasons, it is easily recognizable that a variety
of barriers exist. However, in order to understand how to overcome such
barriers we must first examine the top six barriers that exist in hazing.

According to Briar College (2005), the six most recognizable barriers
in hazing are: denial of the problem; dismissal that hazing is harmless;
silence among the victims; fear among the victims; insufficient support
for the victim; and lastly, cultural norms that perceive hazing as normal.
All of these barriers present a complex social problem. Therefore, because
of the resulting social problem, it is important that those who are empowered
to reduce or eliminate hazing do so.

Fixing the barriers. If one wishes to overcome the barriers
that exist within any situation, then a proactive approach must be put
into effect. According to a variety of researchers and non-profit organizations
who are looking to defeat the issue of hazing there are a variety of tactics
that can be put in place. According to the Brown University Child &
Adolescent Behavior Letter (2003), there are at least six steps that can
be taken in overcoming the barriers that hazing presents. These six steps
are:

“Educate yourself about state anti-hazing laws; know school anti-hazing
policies; collaborate with school officials and athletic departments in
developing anti-hazing policies; talk with your children or student about
the dangers of hazing; talk with other parents who may have had children
go through similar or the same athletic programs as your child or student
may go through; and lastly, be visible in the activities that your children
or students engage in.”

If the above steps are taken in correcting the problem of hazing, this
issue will soon be controllable, and fewer and fewer of the secret rituals
will be possible. It is important that we support our state and federal
governments in the formation of laws that prohibit acts of hazing within
the institution of sport.

Laws to break the barriers. Currently forty-three states have
laws that prohibit acts of hazing. Although anti-hazing laws have been
on the books since 1978, no state has been able to develop laws with as
much strength as those seen in Alabama. Within Alabama Law, there are
three separate main definitions to identify the three major types of hazing
that exist; the law accounts for bystanders who actively watch hazing
unfold; it identifies the offense whether misdemeanor or felony; it accounts
for individuals who do not report such acts; and it attempts to cover
all activities that happen both on and off premises of academic institutions
(StopHazing.Org, 2005).

Although hazing laws exist in forty-three states there is still much
to do in overcoming the barriers that exist. Schools must be willing to
work together in developing their own anti-hazing policies. As well, on
all levels local, state and federal laws must be enforced and zero-tolerance
must exist for those who deem hazing as an appropriate initiation. In
time the barriers will be broken, and this problem will be on the decline.

Summary and Conclusions

General Summary

Effects of hazing in sports. In conclusion, it is more than
clear that through discussion and analysis of this article that hazing
is detrimental to the institution of sport and its ability to build such
positive character qualities as strength, discipline, and work ethic.
Thus, if one commits to understanding the effects that hazing has on individuals,
teams, institutions, and sport on the whole, then we will eventually be
able to transform those who think that such initiation rituals are acceptable.

Alyson Peluso is pursuing her Master of Sport Science in Sports Management
at the United States Sports Academy. She teaches physical education at
LaGrange Middle School in LaGrangeville, N.Y. in one of the largest school
districts in the state.

References

Brewer, R., Neal, W. & McGhee, J. (1998). Hazing: The truth about
rites gone wrong.
Retrieved November 11, 2005, from Briar College,
Office of Student Activities and Programming: http://www.ccl.sbc.edu/osap/scoursheets/hazing.PDF

Bushweller, K. (2000). Brutal rituals, dangerous rights: High school
hazing grows violent and humiliating. American School Board Journal,
8
, 1-10.

Cornell University. (2005). Hazing. Retrieved November 19, 2005,
from Cornell University, Office of Dean of Students Web site: http://hazing.cornell.edu

Cuvelier, M. I. (2005). The rites and wrongs of sports hazing. Recreation
Services
, Retrieved November 19, 2005, from http://umanitoba.fitdv.com/new/articles/article.html?artid=81

Dowshen, S. (2003, June). Hazing. KidsHealth for Parents, 6,
1-6.

Fierberg, D. E. (2000). High School, Where Hazing is Amazing.
Education Digest, 66 (no.4), 48-51.

Fritz, G. K. (Ed.). (2003). High-school Hazing: What a parent can do.
Brown University Child & Adolescent Behavior Letter,19(12),
9-10.

Hart, J. E. & Ritson, R. J. (2002). Liability and safety in physical
education and sport. Reston, VA: NASPE Publications.

Heyman, J. D., Sandler, B. & Williams, K. (2003, May 26). Rite is
wrong. People, 59.

Hoover, Nadia. (1999). Initiation rites and athletics: A national
survey of NCAA sports
teams (Final Rep. No. ED 463713).
Alfred, New York: Alfred University.

Kelly, K. (2003, May 26). Parents in a haze?. U.S. News & World
Report,
5, n.p.

MASH, Mothers Against School Hazing. (2005, November). Hazing.
Retrieved November 19, 2005, from http://www.mashinc.org/resources-whatis.html

Neufeldt, V. & Sparks, A. N. (Eds.). (1995). Webster’s new
world dictionary (3 rd ed.). New York: Prentice Hall.

O’Hara, J. (2000, March 6). The Hell of Hazing. Maclean’s,
113, 50-52.

Rosellini, L. (2000, September 11). The sordid side of college sports.
U.S. News & World Report, 129(10), 102-103.

Scott, M. D. (2004, March 7). Childhood Hazings’ Legal, but it
Hurts. Detroit Free Press,n.p.

Smith, R. (2003, December 22). A rite gone terribly wrong. Sports
Illustrated
, 99(24), 68-75

State Univeristy of New York At Cortland College, (2003). Residential
Life Hazing Training for Resident Assistants. Personal Training.

Stop Hazing Organization. (2005). Alternatives to Hazing. Retrieved
November 19, 2005, from http://stophazing.org/alternatives.html

Weir, T. (2003, December 8). Hazing issues rears ugly head across USA.
USA Today, n.p.

Are Physical Education and Sports Teachers in Turkey Trained Appropriately? : A Study of Basic Education Institutions

Abstract

Teaching physical education and sports activities are among the indispensable
occupations of our time. Sports, apart from being an occupation of entertainment
and free time, have also a function that develop health and contributes
joy and happiness to the participants’ daily lives. Physical education
and sports activities have become signs of contemporariness. In Turkey,
the average beginning age for children’s participation in many or
team or individual sport activities is between ages 8 and 12. This is
also the average age level that most children start to participate in
school Physical Education and Sport courses. Physical Education is not
an elective course. It therefore is a core course and Turkey has a national
physical education teaching program. Despite the fact physical education
teachers are educated in various public and private physical education
programs, the core of the curriculums are very similar. All of the Physical
Education Teacher Education programs for the eight-year mandatory elementary
schools are monitored and constituted through the ministry of education.
While entire P.E. curriculums for education teachers are administrated
centrally and monitored by the ministry of education, there are few special
programs that training and preparing quality physical education and sports
teachers to teach high level physical education and sports courses at
8-year compulsory basic education institutions. The effectiveness of the
current programs that applied at most of compulsory basic education institutions
of eight years is a significant concern of this study. The purpose of
this research is to determine to what extent the physical education teacher
training programs that are currently used by those universities are effectively
and successfully training preparing physical education teachers to teach
at compulsory eight-year elementary schools.

Introduction

Education can be described as a planned and programmed process which
is applied in order to attain the desired changes in a person’s
behavior. Two basic and indispensable elements of education are the student
and the teacher. Unlike the traditional perspectives, in addition to lecturing,
the role of a teacher should be geared mostly towards guiding and advising.
This is also true for teaching physical education and sports. Physical
education teachers should guide students according to their interest and
skills. In order to attain the desired mental, social, psychological and
psychomotor developments, teachers should be creative and develop important
student specific tasks to improve individual creativity of various age
groups. The significant importance should be given to the programs that
deal with children who are at the beginning level(s). This situation brings
into the agenda a modernization of the programs to improve both the ability
of teachers to teach effective physical education courses and the program
tools that are going to be used in this process. It is a common belief
that currently most physical education teachers are ill prepared to successfully
teach physical education courses at the eight year compulsory schools.

Historically successful physical education programs have one thing in
common: they all use history as a learning process. For instance, those
who prepared and developed the modern physical education programs in the
United States America have benefited from teaching philosophies of Europe
(Lumpkin, 1990). The first modern efforts in order to train contemporary
physical education teachers began in the 18 th Century in Europe and in
the USA (Friedman, 1983). In the Ottoman Empire, these courses entered
the Curriculum in 1846 under the name of Gymnastics which was brought
about by the Tanzimat decree declared in 1839 during the reign of Sultan
Abdulmecit (Kasap, 1992). Selim Sirri Tarcan attended the Heyet-I Ilmiye
which assembled in 1923 and succeeded in integrating one-year-long the
‘physical education teachers’ school” into the government
program (Terbiye-i Bedeniye DarUlmuallimini).

The efforts for training sports instructors continued by the assistance
of three instructors (one woman, two men; Inge Nerman, Ranger Jonson and
Sven Alezanderson) who were called from Sweden between 1926-1929 and with
the 3,5-9 months – lasting courses of physical education teachers
during the years 1929-1930. In the scholar years of 1932-1933 a –
three- year- long physical education department was started at the Gazi
Education Institution in Turkey in order to train teachers for secondary
and high school levels. This was the only institution until 1966-1967.
Since then several other institutions have been developed and have been
offering physical education teachers education programs such as Istanbul
Institute of Physical Education, and various other universities in Bursa,
Izmir and Diyarbakir. In 1992 most of these schools were transformed into
physical education and sports higher schools. In Turkey, youth and sports
academies contributed to the process for training physical education teachers
as well as education institutes. Youth and sports academies were founded
under the youth and Sports ministry and were put into service in three
cities. The basic objective of the youth and sports academies is “to
train coaches, youth leaders, managers, experts as provided for in the
Body Training law numbered 3530.” Although the primary goal of youth
and Sports Academies was not to train physical education teachers as demands
raised for more physical education teachers the Sports Academies started
to certify their graduates to also be physical educators without pedagogic
training. At the end the Youth and Sports Academies lasted for only 10
years and they were closed forever.

Methodology

In Turkey, there are 48 universities that offer teaching physical education
programs and a total of 411 instructors are teaching physical education
courses. 171 instructors from Gazi University, Hacettepe University, Middle
East Technical University (METU), Ege University, Akdeniz University,
Celall Bayar University, Marmara University and Ankara University were
surveyed. A survey questionnaire consisting of 57 questions was developed.
The reliability coefficient of the survey is r = .96. By taking this course
of method, the research was formulated and determined by those who participated
in the research, taking into consideration the order of importance of
the branches determined by the Higher Education Board (HEB). These values
were interpreted according to the arithmetic averages of the participating
instructors’ (subjects) views. In conclusion, some significant statistical
differences were observed among various programs in terms of application
of teachers education programs both at the administrative and academic
levels. The research was carried out in July, August and September 2000.

The data we got in order to fulfill the purposes of the research were
provided by the surveys created by the researchers. The survey form was
prepared by means of the programs of the 48 physical education and sports
teaching departments of universities. Within this context, firstly the
programs which are aimed at training physical education and sports teachers
were scanned and the related courses were determined for the physical
education and sports teachers who will be on duty at primary and secondary
schools. The determined courses were grouped and submitted to a group
of instructors for their opinions and as a last stage, they were revised.
Thus a survey of 57 courses was created which would be submitted to the
instructors for their views. The reliability coefficient of the survey
is a + 96. The proposal concerning 57 courses, which formed the basis
of the research, were subdivided and evaluated according to the branches
determined by HEB. These branches are:

1 – Coach and Movement Sciences

2 – Sports Management Sciences

3 – Sports Health Sciences

4 – Psycho Social Fields in Sports

5 – Sports Training

6 – General Culture

7 – Applied Sports Field

8 – Information on the Teaching profession.

The subjects were determined under 8 dimensions. The proposals for courses
forming the bases of the research were developed taking into consideration
the order of importance of these courses the fields of which have been
determined by HEB.

Statistical processes were realized according to the arithmetic averages
of the participating instructions views about the related courses. The
courses determined in the program Draft proposal were put into order according
to their importance. The arithmetic averages of each group of courses
involving their own fields were taken as basis. The courses, which were
found above the arithmetic averages of the 57 courses submitted, were
proposed as elective courses. Lastly, a program was created which was
based on these findings.

Findings and Discussion

The purpose of the research is to determine the appropriateness of the
programs at the schools that are aimed at training physical education
and sports teachers who will work at 8 – year – long compulsory
basic education institutions. Within this context the programs applied
in Turkey were investigated and an evaluation was made for each of the
common courses.

The need for training staff in the academic and professional fields of
the sports sciences that were brought about by the constant change and
development in sports has become evident. This change and development
continued with the transformation of some of these schools into higher
schools and with the acceptance of eight fields by HEB within the framework
of related domains (Acikada, 1991). Moreover, the distribution of the
eight fields within the curriculum was determined as followed:

 

1 – Applied Sports Field; this field entails the
definition of the applied sports branches and teaching techniques.

2 – Field of Information on the Teaching profession; this section
includes the courses which are compulsory for teaching profession according
to ministry of national Education and HEB. In our country as in other
parts of the world, it is not possible to be a teacher without having
the necessary information on the teaching profession.

3 – General Cultures; this is the information necessary for a
qualified teacher. These include some courses that are not compulsory
for teaching but which are about current issues.

4 – The Field of Movement and Exercise Sciences; it is to evaluate
sports within the fact of movement and to shape it according to exercise
dimension.

5 – Field of Sport Health Sciences; involves the health dimensions
of sports and the relation between sports and health.

6 – The Field of Sports management and Sciences; involves the
dimension of sports related to management sciences.

7 – Sports Education; emphasized the manner of teaching sports
and involves the introduction of sports field.

8 – Psycho-Social Fields in Sports; involves the psychological
and sociological dimension of sports.

The determined groups of courses were divided into the above-mentioned
fields and evaluated within this framework.

Related to this, the proposed courses are presented in the table of
Annex 1 according to their order of importance for training physical education
and sports teachers who will be on duty at the basic education institutions.

As understood from the table, the group arithmetic average of the courses
included in the applied group has been found as X = 3.02. In this respect,
the basic and team sports such as gymnastics, athletics, rhythmic gymnastics,
volleyball and handball have been found on the highest level, whereas
the sports branches such as bodybuilding, marksmanship, and weight lifting
have been found at the lowest values. When we investigate the education
programs of Wales and England, we could see that team sports such as football,
volleyball, basketball, handball, gymnastics and rhythmic gymnastics were
at the highest level in term of the values attributed to them (Anonymous,
1995).

The research of Acikada (1991), which was carried out of 22 physical
education teachers with the purpose of development of physical education
and sports curriculum, produced similar results. The arithmetic average
for the courses which were under the information on teaching profession
has been found as X = 4.16. Although the arithmetic averages of the views
of the instructors for courses such Education Psychology, Education Sociology,
Program Development, Introduction to Education Sciences and Education
management has remained under the group average, these courses are compulsory
for the teaching profession.

The arithmetic average of the courses under the group of general culture
has been found as X = 3.41. in this respect, Foreign Language and already
compulsory Revolution History of the Turkish Republic and Computer courses
have been attributed and it has been noted that the Courses of Physics,
Chemistry, mathematics and Statistics were not important according to
the instructors for the physical education and sports teachers who will
be on duty at primary secondary schools. The research of Acikada (1991
gives similar results (Acikada, 1991).

The group arithmetic average of the courses under the movement and Exercise
Sciences has been found as X = 3.83. in this respect, the courses of motor
Development and Exercise Information were at the highest level, while
the course of Biomechanics has remained under the group arithmetic average
(X = 3.52).

The group arithmetic average of the courses under the Sports health Sciences
has been found as X = 3.95. In this respect the courses of First Aid and
sports physiology were at the highest level, whereas the Anatomy course
has been found under the group arithmetic average (X = 3.67).

Two courses were determined under the Sports Management Sciences. The
group arithmetic average of the courses under this group has been found
over the group average (X = 4.11). We think this is significant.

The group arithmetic average of the courses under the Sports Training
Field has been found as X = 4.18. In this respect, the courses of Skill
Acquiring and Special Teaching methods have been found at the highest
level, while the course of Comparative Sports Education was at the lowest
level.

There were two courses under the Psycho-Social Field in Sports and their
group arithmetic averages has been found as X =3.73. The course of Sports
Psychology was over the group arithmetic average (X = 4.11), while the
course of Sports history has been found at the lowest level in terms of
importance attributed to it, not only in its own group, but also in comparison
with all of the proposed courses (X = 3.34). These results show similarities
with those of the study carried out by Ursprung and his colleagues. Ursprung
and his colleagues have grouped courses offered at the physical education
and sports departments as Personal and Teams Sports pedagogy, Movement
and Health Sciences, Social Sciences and Scientific method (Ursprung and
his colleagues, 1995). Moreover, the groups of courses that should be
offered are parallel to the courses determined by Harrison,
Blakemore (1992) and Nicholas (1990), (Harrison and Blakemore, 1992),
(Nicholas, 1990).

Results and Suggestions

According to the results of the research, the participating instructors proposed to include gymnastics (aerobics and rhythmic gymnastics), athletics, swimming and team sports such as basketball, volleyball, handball, football, and racket sports such as badminton in the curriculum of the eight-year-long compulsory basic education institutions, especially during the periods covering 1-5 (ages 6-11). On the other hand, courses such as First Aid and Sports Physiology under the Sports Health Sciences, Motor Development and Exercise Information under the movement and Exercise Sciences, Recreation under the Sports Management Sciences, Skills Acquiring and Special Teaching method under the Sports Training Fields, Sports Psychology under the psycho-Social Fields in Sports were also proposed by the instructors. Within this context, the compulsory and elective courses that were determined in the draft program with the purpose of training physical education and sports teachers are as follows:

1. Semester T P CH
Gymnastics
1
4
3
Athletics I
1
2
2
Foreign Language I
2
0
2
Rev. History I
2
0
2
Intr. To Teaching Prof.
3
0
2
2. Semester
Foreign Language II
2
0
2
Rev. History II
2
0
2
Turkish II
2
0
2
Basketball I
1
4
3
Handball I
1
4
3
Athletics II
1
2
2
Rhytm T. and R. Gym
1
4
3
First Aid
1
2
2
3. Semester
Foreign Language III
2
0
2
Gymnastics II
1
4
3
Athletics III
1
2
2
Volleyball I
1
4
3
Gen. Teaching Meth.
3
0
2
Motor Development
2
0
2
Football I
1
4
3
Program Dev. (Elective)
3
0
2
Edu. Sociology (Elective)
3
0
2
4. Semester
Foreign Lang. IV
2
0
2
Table Tennis
1
2
2
Aerobic Gym.
1
2
2
Swimming I
1
2
2
Scouting
1
2
2
Learning Skills
3
0
3
Basketball II
1
4
3
Edu. Psychology (Elective)
3
0
3
Edu. Management (Elective)
3
0
3
5. Semester
Foreign Language V
2
0
2
Exercise Information
3
0
3
Sports Psychology
2
0
2
Handball II
1
4
3
Football II
1
4
3
Psych. Counseling
3
0
3
Sports Management (Elective)
2
0
2
Sports history (Elective)
2
0
2
6. Semester
Foreign Language VI
2
0
2
Volleyball II
1
4
3
Swimming II
1
2
2
Test. Evaluation
3
0
3
Badminton
1
2
2
Anatomy (Elective)
3
0
3
Biomechanics (Elective)
3
0
3
Anthropometry (Elective)
3
0
3
7. Semester
Foreign Language VII
2
0
2
Recreation
2
0
2
Teaching Application
2
4
4
Natural Sports
1
2
2
Research Techniques (Elective)
2
0
2
Campa. Sports Teaching (Elective)
2
0
2
8. Semester
Foreign Language VIII
2
0
2
Sports Physiology
3
2
4
Optional Specialization
2
4
4
Teaching Application
2
4
4
Sports Sociology (Elective)
3
0
3
Sports Health (Elective)
3
0
3
Total Credit Hours: 145

T = Theoretical Courses

P = Practical Courses

CH = Number of Credit Hour Values

Table 1: The distribution of the courses that are proposed to be included in the main program, which trains physical education and sports for eight-year-long basic education institutions (according to the field and order of importance).

Fields Courses N Median SD Order of
Subjects Median Standard Importance
Deviation
Applied Sports Field Gymnastics 171 4.6056 0.64 1
Athletics 171 4.5352 0.88 2
Rhythm Training 171 4.2113 0.97 3
Volleyball 171 3.9014 0.93 4
Handball 170 3.9 0.98 5
Basketball 171 3.8592 0.96 6
Swimming 171 3.662 1.29 7
Scouting 171 3.662 1.08 7
Football 171 3.5775 1.13 8
Table Tennis 170 3.4 1.1 9
Natural Sports 170 3.1857 1.15 10
Aerobics 171 3.1127 1.29 11
Badminton 170 3.0571 1.14 12
Tennis 169 2.9275 1.12 13
Wrestling 171 2.7324 1.3 14
Cycling 170 2.7286 1.18 15
Skating 171 2.5352 1.21 16
Fencing 170 2.1714 1.06 17
Archery 171 2.1408 1.06 18
Rowing 171 2.0704 1.11 19
Underwater Sports 169 2.0435 1.04 20
Far Eastern Sports 170 1.9714 1.09 21
Weightlifting 170 1.9571 1.12 22
Marksmanship 171 1.9155 1.04 23
Bodybuilding 170 1.8286 1.15 24
Info. On Teaching Teaching Application 170 4.6286 0.76 1
Gen. Teaching Methods 171 4.4225 0.8 2
Psychological Counseling 169 4.2609 0.92 3
Testing Evaluation 171 4.2113 0.92 4
Educational Psychology 171 4.1408 0.97 5
Educational Sociology 171 4.1127 1.02 6
Program Development 171 4.0428 1.06 7
Intro. To Educ. Science 171 3.9296 1.11 8
Education Management 171 3.7465 1.04 9
General Culture Foreign Language 171 4.0141 1.13 1
History of Turkey 171 3.6479 1.32 2
Computer 170 3.5286 1.15 3
Research Techniques 171 3.4085 1.3 4
Statistics 170 3.0143 1.2 5
Basic Services 170 2.8714 1.14 6
Movement/Exercise Motor Development 170 4.4714 0.96 1
Exercise Info. 170 4.0857 1.13 2
Antropometry 170 3.5286 1.16 3
Biomechanics 170 3.2676 1.23 4
Sports Health First Aid 169 4.2609 0.83 1
Sports Physiology 170 3.9571 1.26 2
Sportive Health 117 3.8286 1.08 3
Anatomy 171 3.7606 1.2 4
Sports Management Recreation 170 4.1143 1.08 1
Sports management 170 3.4714 1.14 2
Sports Education Learning Skills 169 4.4348 0.78 1
Special Teaching Methods 169 4.3913 0.93 2
Intro to PE and Sports 170 4.0714 1.13 3
Comparative Sports Education 170 3.5857 1.2 4
Psycho- social field Sports Psychology 170 4.1143 1.15 1
Sports History 169 3.3478 1.23 2