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Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors in Sport: The Roles of Personality Traits and Moral Identity

Authors: Mevlüt YILDIZ (1), Ender ŞENEL (1), İbrahim YILDIRAN (2)
(1) Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Turkey.
(3) Gazi University, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Turkey.

Corresponding Author:
Ender SENEL
Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences
Kotekli/Mugla, 48000
endersenel@gmail.com
00902522111951

(1) Dr. Ender SENEL is a research assistant in Physical Education and Sport Teacher Education Department at the Mugla Sitki Kocman University, studying teaching and learning approaches in physical education and sport.

Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors in Sport: The Roles of Personality Traits and Moral Identity

ABSTRACT
This study aimed to examine the roles of personality traits and moral identity in displaying prosocial and antisocial behaviors by athletes actively participating in contact team and individual sports. In this study, two different models were hypothesized. In the first model, it was proposed that the positive effect of extraversion on prosocial and antisocial behaviors enhance with the moderator role of internalization of moral identity; in the second model, it was proposed that the adverse effect of psychoticism on prosocial and antisocial behaviors decrease with the mediator role of internalization of moral identity. There were 296 athletes recruited from various branches. Data were collected by using Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors in Sport Scale, developed by Kavussanu and Broadley (29), adapted to Turkish by Sezen-Balçıkanlı (45), Moral Identity Scale, developed by Aquino and Reed (3), adapted Turkish by Yılmaz and Yılmaz (57), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, developed by Francis et al. (19), adapted to Turkish by Karancı, Dirik and Yorulmaz (26). Models were analyzed in Analysis of Moment Structure (AMOS) program by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Internalization of moral identity was correlated with prosocial teammate positively, antisocial teammate, and opponent negatively. A positive correlation was found between extraversion and prosocial teammate and opponent, a negative correlation was found between extraversion and antisocial teammate. It can also be stated that extravert athletes exhibit more prosocial behaviors, however with the role of internalization of moral identity, the positive effect of extraversion on prosocial behaviors increases, the adverse effect of it on antisocial behaviors decreases. It is possible to conclude that extravert athletes will display more prosocial and less antisocial behaviors with the acquisition of internalization of moral identity. The support that athletes are taught to adopt internalization can lead to enhance prosocial behaviors and decrease antisocial behaviors.
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2018-07-31T14:48:48+00:00August 21st, 2018|Commentary, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviors in Sport: The Roles of Personality Traits and Moral Identity

Competitive Balance in NCAA “Power Conferences:” The Case of Men’s and Women’s Basketball

Authors: Martin M. Perline, Jeffrey S. Noble, G. Clayton Stoldt; Wichita State University

Corresponding Author:
Jeff Noble, Ed.D
Department of Sport Management
Wichita State University
1845 Fairmount
Wichita, KS 67260-0127
jeffrey.noble@wichita.edu
(316)978-5442

Competitive Balance in the NCAA “Power Conferences:” The Case of Men’s and Women’s Basketball

ABSTRACT
The uncertainty of outcome hypothesis as well as past research has suggested that unless there is competitive balance among teams fans lose interest and revenue declines. It follows that the greater the sources of revenue the more likely one would find competitive balance. Using the standard deviation, as well as the range of winning percentages, the authors of this study compared over a seven year period the competitive balance of the NCAA “Power 5” conferences’ men’s basketball teams, a high revenue sport, to the competitive balance of the NCAA “Power 5” conferences’ women’s basketball teams, a lower revenue sport. The results of this study indicated considerably more competitive balance among the men’s teams than among the women’s teams, thus supporting the uncertainty of outcome hypothesis, as well as past research on the topic. The fact that women’s basketball is a lower source of athletic revenue when compared to men’s basketball suggests competitive balance in that sport has historically been a lower priority than in the highest level sports. This becomes an important issue as efforts are continually being made to enhance intercollegiate women’s sports.
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2018-07-12T16:13:54+00:00August 16th, 2018|Sports Management|Comments Off on Competitive Balance in NCAA “Power Conferences:” The Case of Men’s and Women’s Basketball

Coaching Golf – How skilled are we in ‘skill’?

Authors: Dr. David Grecic and Mr. Brendan Ryan, MS / MA

Corresponding Author:
Brendan Ryan
1304 Denman Ct
Wesley Chapel, FL
brendan@bmrgolfmanagement.com
407-233-6946

David Grecic is a princial lecture and head of sport at the University of Central Lancashire. David joined the School of Sport, Tourism and the Outdoors in August 2008 having previously worked in a variety of sport and education settings for 15 years. He is an active coach in a variety of sports including rugby union, swimming and golf. It is here that his specialist interest lies and that drives his academic research.

Brendan Ryan is a former college coach who know works closely developing junior golfers in their pursuit of college. He is also a well-established academic, with a pair of master’s degrees and the author of several books, published papers and popular articles.

Coaching Golf – How skilled are we in ‘skill’?

Abstract
There is much debate on how best to develop skilled performers in sport and which practices are most effective in achieving this aim. This paper’s interest is in the coaching of high-level golfers and how coaches utilise their knowledge base to select the methods they employ to develop skilled performance. With such a varied and sometimes dichotomous range of theories, concepts, ideas and practices, the coaching industry needs support to navigate through this vast field of work. Here, the major theories of skill learning and development are presented and explored in relation to the game of golf. Due to the importance of skill acquisition, retention and transfer decisions, coaching action needs to be carefully grounded in the environment and context in which it occurs. To support this, two models are presented for consideration that can guide coaches’ skill acquisition reflections and future skill development decisions. Golf specific examples are provided to bring these models to life but the utility of both frameworks has value to sports coaching in its many varied contexts. (176 words)
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2018-07-12T16:49:58+00:00August 14th, 2018|Sports Coaching, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Coaching Golf – How skilled are we in ‘skill’?

Relationship Between Physical Training, Ratings of Perceived Exertion, and Mental Toughness in Female NCAA Division I Volleyball Players

Authors: Mathieu Castello, Jacob P Reed, Robin Lund, Mick Mack
Kinesiology, Allied Health, and Human Services
University of Northern Iowa
Cedar Falls, IA 50614

Corresponding Author:
Jacob Reed
University of Northern Iowa
203 Wellness and Recreation Center
Cedar Falls, IA 50614
Phone: 319-273-2071
Email: jacob.reed@uni.edu

Relationship Between Physical Training, Ratings of Perceived Exertion, and Mental Toughness in Female NCAA Division I Volleyball Players


ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between participating in a conditioning program, ratings of perceived exertion, heart rate (HR), and mental toughness. Thirteen Division I Volleyball players were recruited while 10 participated in an 8-week off-season conditioning program aimed at improving physical fitness. Before and after the training period, the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test and Mental, Emotional, and Bodily Toughness Inventory (MeBTough) were completed. While performing the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, heart rate was collected. During the 8-week program, session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) was obtained following each training session. Significant improvement in physiological capacity was observed following the 8-week training protocol; pre (844m ± 196.37) to post (980m ± 200.67), t(9) = -5.50, p = 0.00. Mental toughness scores (as assessed by the MeBTough) did not change significantly during that same time period; pre (145.2 ± 12.3) to post (144 ± 16.72), p > 0.05. Additionally, no significant correlation between the capacity to perform on the physical test, the mental toughness score, sRPE, or maximum HR was found.

Based on these observations, coaches should be cautious in their judgement of an athlete’s mental toughness based on fitness, sRPE, and HR. Finally, it appears that an 8-week conditioning program was not enough to elicit any changes in mental toughness. Mental toughness is a complex phenomenon. As such, coaches should be cautious when assessing an athlete’s mental toughness based solely on the results of a physical test or values provided from the session RPE. Furthermore, the researchers observation that mental toughness did not change over an 8-week training protocol demonstrates that hard physical training does not necessarily improve mental toughness. This result is not definitive but does warrant further investigation.
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2018-06-29T10:34:30+00:00August 9th, 2018|Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Relationship Between Physical Training, Ratings of Perceived Exertion, and Mental Toughness in Female NCAA Division I Volleyball Players

Difficult Promotion

Authors: Barry Shollenberger

Corresponding Author:
Barry Shollenberger, Ed.D.
5204 Merion Court
Valrico, FL 33596
bshollenberger@verizon.net
(813) 653-9207

Dr. Barry Shollenberger holds the position of Associate Professor of Sports Management in the American Public University System. He is a former head Baseball Coach at The University of Alabama (15 years) and, in 1997, completed a two-week coaching symposium titled, “Sport Coaching Methodology” in Bangkok, Thailand as a consultant for the United States Sports Academy.

Difficult Promotion

ABSTRACT
On August 17, 1920, Ray Chapman, shortstop for the Cleveland Indians, was hit behind the left ear by a pitched baseball and died as a result. He remains the only Major League baseball player ever killed on the field of play. To replace Chapman, the Indians promoted Joe Sewell from their minor league system. Thus began a Hall-of-Fame career that spanned twelve seasons with the Indians and New York Yankees. Mr. Sewell later scouted for the Indians and spent the last six years of his baseball career as Baseball Coach at The University of Alabama.
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2018-07-09T08:53:22+00:00August 7th, 2018|Commentary, Sports Coaching|Comments Off on Difficult Promotion