Peddling the Truth or Coasting Downhill? Lance Armstrong and the Use of Image Repair Strategies

Author: Greg G. Armfield, Ph. D.*
New Mexico State University
John McGuire, Ph. D,
Oklahoma State University

* Please direct all correspondence to the first author Greg G. Armfield (Ph.D. University of Missouri) Associate Professor, New Mexico State University, Department of Communication Studies, MSC 3W, P.O. Box 30001, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001, (575) 646-4729, e-mail:

This study examined image repair strategies of cyclist Lance Armstrong when he admitted in January 2013 to using performance enhancing drugs while winning seven consecutive Tour de France events, the sport’s most prestigious event. The findings show Armstrong favored mortification as a primary strategy while utilizing secondary image repair strategies including forms of reducing offensiveness (e.g., attacking one’s accusers, bolstering), denial (simple, shifting blame), and evading responsibility (defeasibility). Despite Armstrong’s efforts at image repair, researchers concluded it had failed as polling done after the interview found the public had turned against one of the most popular American athletes of the 2000s. The findings suggest that Armstrong’s prolonged evasion of the truth had undercut his ability to engage in successful image repair.
Continue reading

A Cross-Cultural Approach to Sport Psychology: Is Exercise Addiction A Determinant of Life Quality?

Authors: Mevlüt YILDIZ1, Erkan BİNGÖL1, Hasan ŞAHAN2, Nazmi BAYKÖSE2, Ender ŞENEL1
(1) Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Turkey.
(2) Akdeniz University, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Turkey.

Corresponding Author:
Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Faculty of Sports Sciences
Kotekli/Mugla, 48000
(1) Ender SENEL is a research assistant in Physical Education and Sport Teacher Education Department at the Mugla Sitki Kocman University studying teaching and learning approaches in physical education and sport.

The aim of this study is to examine the life quality and exercise addiction behaviors of individuals working out in the gym and living in different countries. There were 319 volunteers going to the gym regularly that participated in this study. The mean age of participants was found to be 31.23±7.79. Of the participants, 48.9% were females and 51.1% of them were males. There were 40.1% of the participant reported married and 59.9% of them reported single. All the participants were Turkish but they live in different countries. The participants reported that they live in Turkey, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, and Norway. The Exercise Dependence Scale, developed by Hausenblas and Downs (2002) (12), adapted to Turkish by Yeltepe (2005) (46), was used to find out exercise dependence behaviors in participants. A 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), developed by Rand Corporation, adapted to Turkish by Koçyiğit et al (1999) (17), was used to determine life quality of the participants. Significant difference was found between genders in terms of physical function. Significant difference was found between participants according to countries where they were from in terms of physical functioning, role physical, role emotional, bodily pain, general health, withdrawal effects, continuance, tolerance, lack of control, reduction in other activities, time, and intention effects. Positive correlations were found between mental health and withdrawal effects, continuance, tolerance, lack of control, reduction in other activities, time, and intention effects. Negative correlations were found between withdrawal effects, continuance, lack of control, reduction in other activities, time, and intention effects. Negative correlation was found between social functioning and continuance. Negative correlations were found between general health and continuance, tolerance, and reduction in other activities. It was found that exercise addiction predicted physical functioning, mental health, physical pain, and general health. Consequently, it can be said that life quality and exercise addiction behaviors vary depending on the country that the participants are living in, gender, and marital status. The regression analysis revealed that exercise addiction predicted physical functioning, mental health, physical pain, and general health dimensions. It can be concluded that exercise addiction is a determinant of some dimensions of life quality.

Continue reading

The Need for Law Enforcement Wellness Interventions: A Critical Review

Authors: Jason Williams, Vincent Ramsey

Corresponding Author:
Jason J. Williams MSBM
1 Academy Drive
Daphne, Alabama 36526
251-626-3303 x7151

Contributing Author:
Vincent K. Ramsey, Ph.D.
1 Academy Drive
Daphne, Alabama 36526
251-626-3303 x7154

Jason Williams is a Doctoral Teaching Assistant at the United States Sports Academy. His research interests include strength and conditioning for special populations, linear speed, and power development.

Dr. Vincent Ramsey is Chair of Sports Exercise Science at the United States Sports Academy. Prior to his employment to the Academy, Dr. Ramsey spent 10 years as a lecturer at the University of North Georgia for the Department of Health and Physical Education and Recreation.

Police work is a paradox between two contrasting realities. One reality encompasses a sedentary environment comprised of long periods of sitting and inactivity. However, the other encompasses life and death situations often necessitating maximum intensity physical exertion. This unique environment along with other factors contribute to alarming health consequences including, but not limited to obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, alcohol and drug abuse, as well as mental health issues. Intervention programs involving physical fitness, nutrition counseling, general wellness, stress management, and drug and alcohol education have shown promise with combatting the health maladies common to law enforcement. This review explores some of those successes and offers recommendations for high level decision makers capable of instituting transformational change. Although a more holistic approach to wellness is optimal, the primary focus is of this review is given to strength and conditioning intervention. Police are the lifeblood of law and order, vital to the health of communities. Creating holistic and practical wellness programs that meet the needs of law enforcement agents is a social responsibility and critical for this essential member of society.
Continue reading

The Value of Athletic Training Employment in Secondary School Athletics

Authors: Rachele E. Vogelpohl, PhD, ATC

Corresponding Author:
Rachele E. Vogelpohl
109 HC Nunn Drive
Highland Heights, KY 41099

Rachele Vogelpohl is an assistant professor and Athletic Training Program director at Northern Kentucky University, and is a certified athletic trainer. She graduated from Northern Kentucky University with a bachelor’s degree and from the University of Hawaii, Manoa with both a master’s and doctoral degree.

The Value of Athletic Training Employment in Secondary School Athletics

Millions of secondary school students participate in interscholastic athletics each year, and unfortunately, injuries occur. Athletic trainers are health care providers specifically trained in injury prevention, diagnosis, and rehabilitation. Employment of an athletic trainer in the secondary school setting ensures that the student athletes are participating in a safe environment, that they are being cared for free of charge, and that emergency situations are handled in the proper way.
Continue reading

The Perceptions of Male and Female Athletic Administrators Towards Gender\Equity in Faith-Based Institutions

Authors: Martha Marra, Ed. D.
Corresponding Author:

Dr. Marty Marra is an Assistant Professor of Health and Physical Education at Longwood University in Farmville, VA. Dr. Marra has been involved in education for 30 years and continues to research and study in the areas of pedagogy, professionalism, current trends and gender equity issues in health, physical education and athletics.

Co Authors: Fred J. Cromartie, Ed. D.
DAPHNE, AL 36526

Dr. Fred J. Cromartie, is the Director of Doctoral Studies at the United States Sports Academy.

This study discusses the findings from research which was conducted in 2015. The researcher compared the perceptions of male and female athletic directors towards gender equity in their athletic programs using faith-based institutions of higher learning. The purpose of the study was to identify factors which predicted compliance with Title IX from athletic administrators at the collegiate level between two groups of faith-based institutions; those who belonged to the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU) and those who did not belong to the organization (NCCCU) but were faith-based institutions. The sample comprised of 230 colleges and universities; 115 were members of the CCCU organization and 115 were not members (NCCCU). The response rate was 52.6% with 121 surveys being returned from 230 that were sent. The study included the participation of 70 men and 51 women athletic administrators. Overall findings suggested that the women athletic administrators were less satisfied with Title IX provisions and policies than were the men athletic administrators. Media coverage, practice times, and locker room facilities were also considered inequitable from the perspectives of the female athletic administrators. The men athletic administrators were satisfied overall with the provisions for both male and female athletic programs. The disproportionate number of males to females in the study raised questions about gender equity within athletic administration. Studying gender equity within collegiate athletics provides information of how gender inequity can be perpetuated in a culture where athletics are revered, at times, above academia.
Continue reading