The Usage of the Sports Image in Advertising Sector in Selected Turkish Television Channels

ABSTRACT

This research was made to assess the relationship between advertisements
on marketing sports products on Turkish television channels and sports
images on the basis of products, and to get information on the tendencies
of onlookers of sports products through strengthening onlookers’
sports images and remembering them later by analyzing advertisements.
This research was made to determine how often sports images are used in
the advertisement sector and the impact of sports in advertisements.

The universe of the research was the first four most watched television
channels according to the reports of AGB (Research Improvement and Information)
in June, 2001. These channels were Show TV, Channel D, Star TV, TRT 1
(Turkish Radio and Television). In this research, the books and researches
on sports management and advertising, the total durations of advertisements
on related channels and the ratios of sports images used in advertisements
were studied. All the advertisements broadcast between 09.00-21.00 hours
for one week on each of these four most watched channels were studied,
and the results were shown in graphics and tables.

Observation method was used to determine the results of the research.
‘SPSS’ statistics programmer was used for the statistical
analysis of this research. Frequency and percentage techniques were used
to determine the results.

In conclusion, this research showed that the advertisements including
sports image were broadcast more than the others, and advertisement producers
showed a great deal of interest in sports images. Sports concept is used
as on important tool in advertisement, marketing and image in advertisements
broadcast on Turkish television channels studied in this research.

INTRODUCTION

Sport is one of the most important social concepts. Many companies use
sports as tool to its popularity. The companies producing sports equipment
and private sports clubs are the examples using sports. They turn the
Professional sportsmen into stars and give the image that equipment used
by such sportsmen supports their success. As a result, the equipment produced
by them sells very easily. Today, many companies like banks, construction
companies not related to sports use sports as images (Zeki,1998). For
instance, a private bank can use marathon runners as an image to emphasize
that this bank is forward.

In our century, sports is in a process that interfered a lot in marketing
and its industrialization. Advertisements make sports more popular. All
the organizations hoping for profit use concepts like arts and sports
to introduce themselves (Ünsal,1994). This is the basic factor in sport
image. Sports image can be used in various types in society. The basic
objective of advertisements is to become part of success, and to be remembered
with this image (Zeki,1998). A winner in the Olympic Games in remembered
by the name of the sponsor company tries to become part of sportsmen’s
success. The objective is to remembered and to be well known.

The reason for the popularity of football and basketball is the popular
sport images. Companies can be popular using star sportsmen and sport
image. Sports equipment producers work with famous sportsmen. Sport images
often used in textile, food, transportation and popular sportsmen are
remembered with such companies(Kocabaş, 2001).

Advertisement etiquettes used in sports and product introduction are
(Bir,1988);

  • Advertisement is a guide for consumers. It gives information on new
    products.
  • Advertisement decreases distribution costs and helps retail sellers.
  • Advertisement encourage competition, and increases the amount and
    quality of production.
  • Increases in production and sale amounts helps prices go down.
  • Advertisement makes communication tools independent.

In this study, the visage type, frequency, and effect of sports image
in product presentations in advertisements on Turkish Television is analyzed.

MATERIAL AND METHOD

The universe of this research is the Turkish Television channels. These
channels are Show TV, Channel D, Star TV, TRT 1, the most watched 4 channels
according to the reports of AGB (Research, improvement and information:
AGB Group,2001). All the advertisements on these channels were watched
and studied for one week between 09:00-21:00 hrs. And the results are
shown in table as 1. Pre-program watching 2. During program watching.

Pre-program advertisement are 7-10 minutes and this variation is due
to Prime Time programs. During programs advertisements last 3-4 minutes.
The intervals of programs can change 2 or 3 times. The duration of advertisement
within the programs is 6-9 minutes. According to AGB reports the total
advertisement duration is 28 hrs. a week and 4 hrs a day in Show TV, Channel
D, Star TV, TRT 1. the first for channels in june 2001 and their percentages
are as shown:

Show TV 21%
Channel D 20%
Star TV 19%
TRT 1 17%
Others 23%

While collecting data, necessary information were found in documents.
Each of the four most watched channels were studied for one week and the
results were sown in graphics.

The reason to watch every channel separately is that advertisements start
and finish at the same hours.

The ratio and distribution of advertisements containing sports image
were shown in percentages. SPPS statistics program was used for the statistical
analysis of this research.

FINDING AND COMMENTS

The results and comments on the relationship between advertisement and
sports image in the most watched channels in June according to AGB reports
are shown below.

Table-1: Daily and weekly amount of all the advertisements broadcast in
all the channels.

Duration Total broadcast Time (hrs) Total broadcast Time (hrs) Advertisement Time (hrs) Total advertisement percentage
Daily 48 100 4 12
Weekly 336 100 28 12

These tables show total weekly and daily broadcasts of television channels
and the amount of advertisement in these broadcasts. The total amount
of hours is very high. However, this amount shows that companies made
big investments in advertisements.

Graphic-1: The frequency of subjects in all the
advertisements broadcast in all channels

The reason for the high ratio of food, textile and bank advertisements
is that they are the basic necessities sports image is used in all the
advertisements for them to be remembered.

Table -2 : Daily and weekly advertisement ratio of sports image used in advertisement in all the channels.

Duration Total broadcast minutes Total advertisement percentage Advertisement broadcast minutes Sports İmage percentage used
Daily 175 100 65 37
Weekly 1225 100 455 37

According to these graphics and tables, the ratio of advertisements containing
sports image is very high among the other advertisements. In this table,
the high amount of advertisements containing sports image in other advertisements
are shown. The high frequency of the usage of sports image shows that
advertisement companies prefer it to affect people.

DISCUSSION AND RESULTS

According to our research, the advertisements containing sports image
are very high. Sport concepts affects a lot of people and sports ımage
can be used everywhere. The high number of products are variety in advertisement
sector lead to usage of sports image . advertisement companies combine
every event and concept with sport.

Advertisement producers prefer sports image according to this research.
Sport image is the highest among the other images. Advertisements makers
use sports image because it is a concept affecting people. Sports image
has become a tool to affect people. Advertisements makers use Professional
sportsmen to affect young people so that they can sell their products
easily.

Sport image can be used frequently in advertisements because sport affect
people in various directions. Sports can be the symbol of many subjects
(Ünsal, 1994).

People may like sports more through sport image. Production companies
use sports image to sell their products, however, they let people like
sport more. Companies should employ people who enough information on sports.

Sports influences many people. It is observed that advertisements containing
sports image has been increasing. Company owners prefer using sports image
more (Zeki,1998).

In this research, popular sports branches and popular sportsmen are
preferred in advertisements containing sport image. For instance, football
image is used many advertisements. Because football is a very popular
branch of sport. Either a famous footballer is used or popular brand is
used with football image in advertisements. If other branches become popular,
advertisement subjects can be more various.

The images of less popular sports branches can be used so people can
be interested in various sport branches.

REFERENCES

  1. AGB Group, (2001),(TAM- Television Audience Measurement) Haziran,
    2001 kayıtları.
  2. Bir, A.; (1988), Reklamın Gücü, Bilgi Basım, İstanbul,
  3. Kocabaş, F; Elden, M., (2001), Reklamlar, Kavramlar, Kararlar,
    Kurumlar, İletişim Yayınları, İstanbul,
  4. Ünsal; Y. ; (1984), Bilimsel Reklam ve Pazarlamadaki Yeri,
    TİVİ; Basımevi, İstanbul,
  5. Zeki, A.; (1998), Reklam ve İmajları, Bilişim
    Yayınları, Ankara,

What Type of Character Do Athletes Possess?

Abstract

The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to develop a paper and pencil
instrument that measures two types of character: moral versus social;
(2) to determine if college athletes, particularly team sport athletes
support social character over moral character as a result of the way character
may be defined and fostered by many coaches, parents, and general society.
To test our hypothesis that athletes support the practice of social character
over moral character we developed a paper and pencil instrument called
the RSBH Value Judgment Inventory. Participants in the study were N=595
college students from a variety of colleges/universities (National Collegiate
Athletic Association Division I, II, III and National Association for
Intercollegiate Athletics). More specifically, there were n=293 team sport
athletes, n= 76 individual sport athletes and n=225 non athletes (and
1 subject that did not indicate their status). College athletes were compared
to college non athletes in order to understand the effects of sport participation
on moral and social character.

Saliently, results showed that on average, team sport athletes’ social
character index scores were higher than their moral character index scores.
Also of salience, non-athletes scored significantly higher than team sport
athletes on the moral character index whereas team sport athletes scored
significantly higher than non-athletes on the social character index.
Reasons for why there were differences between team sport athletes and
non-athletes on the RSBH Value Judgment Inventory are discussed as well
as other findings.

Introduction

Since the early part of the 20th century, participation in American sport
has been widely and strongly viewed as a vehicle for developing character
(Armstrong, 1984; Ogilvie & Tutko, 1971; Sage, 1988, 1998; Shields
& Bredemeier, 1995). In response to this claim, researchers from a
variety of disciplines have empirically tested the popular notion that
sport builds character (see for example, Beller & Stoll, 1992, 1995;
Hodge, 1989; Kleiber & Roberts, 1981; Ogilvie & Tutko, 1971; Penny
& Priest, 1990; Rudd, Stoll & Beller, 1997; Shields & Bredemeier,
1995). Contrary to what many may believe, results from these studies have
suggested that sport does not build character.

From the numerous studies, character development research that has used
an instrument called the Hahm-Beller Values Choice Inventory (HBVCI) may
be the most profound because of the sizeable, accumulative database and
replication (Belier & Stoll, 1992, 1995; Hahm, Beller, & Stoll,
1989; Penny & Priest, 1990; Rudd, Stoll, & Beller, 1997). With
a database of over 60,000 athletes and non-athletes and over 250 university
studies, the HBVCI has consistently found that the majority of athletes
will not support the moral ideal in competition, i.e., moral character.
However, despite the well-published and disseminated research, we have
continued to hear from coaches, parents, and the media that sport builds
character or that athletes frequently display character (Browit, 1999;
Docheff, 1997; Herman, 2000; Zimmerman, 2001). As a result, we began to
wonder if there is another way to define character, which might explain
why athletes do not support the notion of moral character.

From the character development literature, newspapers, media, and personal
communications with coaches, parents, and the general populace we discovered
that many individuals appear to define character from a social perspective
rather than a moral perspective. Thus, many define character in terms
of social values such as teamwork, loyalty, self-sacrifice, work ethic,
and perseverance which may be considered as “social character” as
opposed to “moral character” which has been denoted by moral values
such as honesty, fairness, and responsibility (see for example, Arnold,
1999; Shields & Bredemeier, 1995). The purpose of this study then
was two-fold: (1) to develop a paper and pencil instrument that measures
two types of character in the sport context: moral versus social; (2)
to determine if college athletes, particularly team sport athletes support
social character over moral character as a result of the way character
may be defined and fostered by many coaches, parents, and general society.
To test our hypothesis that athletes support the practice of social character
over moral character we developed a paper and pencil instrument called
the Rudd-Stoll-Beller-Hahm Value Judgment Inventory. This article will
present the findings from our instrument and general study.

Method

Participants

A sample of N=595 college students from a variety of colleges/universities
(National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, III and National
Association for Intercollegiate Athletics) participated in the study.
More specifically, there were n=223 non-athletes, n=290 team sport athletes,
and n=76 individual sport athletes that responded to all of the questions
on the social character index (first 10 questions of RSBH Value Judgment
Inventory). There were also n=296 males and n=293 females that responded
to all of the questions on the social character index. The number of subjects
that responded to all of the questions on the moral character index (last
10 questions of RSBH Value Judgment Inventory) were n=221 non-athletes,
n=289 team sport athletes, and n=76 individual sport athletes. Lastly,
there were n=294 females and n=292 males that responded to all of the
questions on the moral character index.

Definition of the Non Athlete

For the purpose of this study, non-athletes were defined as any student
who was not currently participating in college athletics at the time of
the administration of the RSBH Value Judgment Inventory. In most cases
this means that a non-athlete was someone who had never been involved
in athletics or someone who had been involved in athletics but not at
the college level. There was also the possibility that there could have
been non-athletes in the sample who were collegiate competitors at one
time.

Although there may be non athletes in the sample that in the past competed
at one level or another, because they no longer compete at a high level,
we hypothesized that their competitive values that relate to character
in the sport context would not be the same as the sample of athletes that
currently compete. Thus, we would have some indication of how sport participation
affects athletes who compete versus those that do not in terms of moral
and social character.

Procedure

College non-athletes were administered the RSBH Value Judgment Inventory
while in their respective academic classes. College team sport athletes
and college individual sport athletes were administered the RSBH Value
Judgment Inventory also in academic classes or at practice or in an athletic
training room. With every administration of the RSBH Value Judgment Inventory,
both college athletes and college non-athletes were told that their participation
in the study was anonymous and that there participation was voluntary.

Design

A retrospective causal-comparative design in which college athletes were
compared to college non-athletes was used to understand the effects of
sport participation on moral and social character (see Gay & Airasian,
2002 for causal-comparative designs).

Instrumentation

In 1998, the Rudd-Stoll-Beller-Hahm (RSBH) Value Judgment Inventory was
developed to measure moral and social character (Rudd, 1998). To do so,
the RSBH Value Judgment Inventory is comprised of two indices: a social
character index and a moral character index. The social character index
consists of ten sport context scenarios that mostly take place outside
the lines of competition. Concomitantly, these scenarios are infused with
the social values of teamwork, loyalty, and self-sacrifice. Subjects are
asked to respond to each scenario via a 5-point Likert scale (Strongly
Agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, and Strongly Disagree).

The moral character index is comprised of ten gamesmanship scenarios
that were selected from the Hahm-Beller Values Choice Inventory (HBVCI).
These 10 questions were selected based on their high internal reliability
ranging from .81 to .88 over six different studies (see for example, Beller
& Stoll, 1992, 1995; Beller, Stoll, Bunnell, & Cole, 1996; Hahm,
Beller, & Stoll, 1989). In sum, subjects receive two scores: a social
character index score and a moral character index score.

The more frequently subjects agree with the social character scenarios,
the higher one scores on the social character index. The higher the score,
the more it is suggested that individuals are believed to support social
values and more generally social character in the sport milieu. Concurrently,
for the moral character index, the more frequently subjects “disagree”
with the various gamesmanship practices, the higher one’s score and the
more one is believed to support moral character in sport.

Four pilot studies were conducted to establish the reliability and validity
of the RSBH Value Judgment Inventory. Specifically, for the fourth pilot
study, the sample contained n=149 non-athletes, n=169 team sport athletes
and n=36 individual sport athletes. There were also n=182 males and n=172
females. An internal reliability analysis indicated a Cronbach alpha of
.72 for the social character index and a Cronbach alpha of .86 for the
moral character index. The internal reliability for the current sample
used in this study showed a Cronbach Alpha of .87 for the moral character
index and a Cronbach Alpha of .73 for the social character index.

As part of establishing the validity of the RSBH Value Judgment Inventory,
an exploratory factor analysis was conducted during the fourth pilot study
to seek evidence of construct validity. Results from the factor analysis
are somewhat difficult to interpret, however, the first factor does suggest
that there is a distinct contrast between social character (questions
1-10) and moral character (questions 11-20). Thus, there is evidence to
suggest that our instrument is measuring two distinct constructs; moral
character versus social character (see Tables 1 and 2).

Table 1: Total Variance Explained

Total Variance Explained
Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Rotation
Factor Total % Variance Cumulative % Total % Variance Cumulative % Total
1 6.28 31.40 31.40 5.76 28.84 28.84 4.08
2 1.57 7.86 39.27 1.04 5.22 34.05 2.70
3 1.30 6.52 45.79 0.69 3.46 37.52 3.25
4 1.09 5.43 51.22 0.46 2.32 39.83 2.57
5 1.06 5.32 56.53 0.36 1.82 41.65 1.38
6 0.96 4.78 61.33
7 0.81 4.05 65.37
8 0.79 3.93 69.30
9 0.77 3.86 73.16
10 0.66 3.28 76.44
11 0.62 3.09 79.52
12 0.60 3.01 82.53
13 0.58 2.89 85.41
14 0.52 2.59 88.00
15 0.47 2.37 90.37
16 0.43 2.15 92.52
17 0.43 2.13 94.65
18 0.40 2.00 96.64
19 0.36 1.81 98.45
20 0.31 1.55 100.00

 

Table 2: Factor Matrix

Factors
1
2
3
4
5
Quest. 1 -0.23 0.15 0.19 -5.04E-02 0.26
Quest. 2 -0.55 0.31 0.19 -5.71 2.01E-03
Quest. 3 -0.53 0.39 -8.95E-02 -7.61E-02 -0.12
Quest. 4 -0.15 2.55E-02 0.17 0.15 -6.51E-02
Quest. 5 -0.49 0.35 0.22 0.10 0.20
Quest. 6 -0.46 0.24 0.17 6.74E-02 -0.28
Quest. 7 -0.38 0.28 -2.00 9.03E-02 7.40E-02
Quest. 8 -0.64 0.22 -0.16 0.15 -4.85E-02
Quest. 9 -0.24 8.21E-02 -0.13 0.14 0.24
Quest. 10 -0.34 1.56E-02 0.22 0.13 -0.09
Quest. 11 0.61 -7.83E-02 .6.14E-02 9.52E-02 0.14
Quest. 12 0.65 0.31 -9.39E-02 -0.25 2.19E-02
Quest. 13 0.61 9.18 0.31 9.12E-02 -1.19E-02
Quest. 14 0.61 0.15 0.27 -0.14 -0.18
Quest. 15 0.60 1.79E-02 0.31 0.15 8.08E-02
Quest. 16 0.62 0.41 -9.56E-02 -0.21 9.48E-02
Quest. 17 0.72 0.20 6.90E-02 2.10E-02 -0.10
Quest. 18 0.55 0.23 -0.38 0.28 -7.11
Quest. 19 0.67 0.26 -8.50E-02 0.14 3.07E-02
Quest. 20 0.61 1.19E-02 1.89E-02 0.30 8.04

 

Analysis

A 3×2 (teams sport athletes, individual sport athletes, and college non
athletes) x (males and females) univariate factorial analysis of variance
was used to compare differences between college team sport athletes, college
individual sport athletes, and college non athletes and to also compare
males and females on the moral and social character index. A Tukey Post
hoc test was used to detect specific group differences after a significant
F test was found.

For clarification, although comparing differences between gender on the
RSBH Value Judgment Inventory was not the focus of this study, gender
was introduced into the analysis as a result of previous studies with
the HBVCI that have shown that overall females score significantly higher
than males (Belier & Stoll, 1992, 1995., Penny & Priest, 1990;
Rudd, Stoll, & Beller, 1997). As well, a previous study by Rudd (1998)
showed that overall, males scored significantly higher than females on
the social character index part of the RSBH Value Judgment Inventory.
Thus, we were concerned with interaction effects.

Results

Results from the univariate factorial analysis of variance revealed that
there was a significant difference between team sport athletes, individual
sport athletes, and non athletes on the moral character index F (2, 580)
= 31.04, p<. 05. There was also a significant difference between team
sport athletes, individual sport athletes, and non athletes on the social
character index F (2, 583) = 22.86, p<. 05.

A significant difference between males and females on the moral character
index F (1, 580) = 87.23, p<. 05 was also found. There was also a significant
difference between males and females on the social character index F (1,
583) = 68.33, p<. 05 There was no gender interaction for either of
the two univariate analyses.

More specifically, a Tukey’s post hoc indicated that non-athletes scored
significantly higher (M=27.51, SD=7.13) than team sport athletes (M=20.75,
SD=6.41) on the moral character index. Further, individual sport athletes
scored significantly higher (M=26.02,

SD=6.87) than team sport athletes (M=20.75, SD=6.41) on the moral character
index. And non-athletes (M=27.51, SD=7.13) scored only slightly higher
than individual sport athletes (M=26.02, SD=6.87) on the moral character
index. Finally, overall there was a significant difference between males
and females in which females scored significantly higher (M=27.56, SD=6.81)
than males (M=20.42, SD=6.36) on the moral character index.

Dissimilarly, a Tukey’s post hoc test indicated that team sport athletes
scored significantly higher (M=28.47, SD=5.92) than non-athletes (M=23.30,
SD=5.35) on the social character index. Team sport athletes (M=28.47,
SD=5.92) also scored significantly higher than individual sport athletes
(M=25.46, SD=5.59) on the social character index.

And individual sport athletes (M=25.46, SD=5.59) scored significantly
higher than non-athletes (M=23.30, SD=5.35). Also on the social character
index, males scored significantly higher (M=28.87, SD=6.18) than females
(M=23.35, SD=4.72).

Discussion

The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument that could measure
two types of character: moral versus social and to then determine if college
athletes, team sport athletes in particular, support social character
over moral character. Concurrently, this study was aimed towards ascertaining
the effect of sport participation on moral and social character and therefore
we compared college athletes (team sport athletes and individual sport
athletes) to college non-athletes.

Team sport athletes scored significantly higher than non-athletes and
individual sport athletes on the social character index. And individual
sport athletes scored significantly higher than non-athletes on the social
character index. In contrast, team sport athletes scored significantly
lower than non-athletes and individual sport athletes on the moral character
index. Lastly, non-athletes scored only slightly higher than individual
sport athletes on the moral character index. All group differences on
moral and social character are consistent with previous studies using
the HBVCI to measure moral character (for example, Beller & Stoll,
1995, Beller, Stoll & Rudd, 1997; Rudd, Stoll & Beller, 1997)
or a previous study using the RSBH Value Judgment Inventory to measure
moral and social character (Rudd, Stoll & Beller, 1999).

As for explanations of the group differences, page limitations do not
allow for a full explication of all the various differences. Instead,
we will briefly address differences between team sport athletes and non-athletes
given those were the comparisons of most interest.

The reason why team sport athletes scored significantly higher than non
athletes on the social character index may be as a result of the emphasis
that coaches, parents, and general society place on values such as teamwork,
loyalty, self-sacrifice, perseverance, and work ethic in team sports.
Why such values are emphasized may be related to our American ideology
that emphasizes capitalism and corporation. Those such as (Berlage, 1982;
Coakley, 1998; O’Hanlon, 1980; Sage, 1988, 1998) have maintained that
sport is used as a vehicle to instill the types of values among sport
participants that will allow them to go out into society and contribute
to corporate America.

As for why team sport athletes scored significantly lower than non athletes
on the moral character index, the reason may relate to the socialization
process in the sport milieu in which many team sport athletes learn that
winning takes precedence over the moral ideal (see for example, Dreyfuss,
2001; Eitzen, 1999; Hawes, 1998; “A Purpose,” 1999). Therefore,
many athletes have not been taught to appreciate moral idealism or the
notion of moral character in competition.

In conclusion, there is evidence from our study to suggest that sport
may build social character, e.g., teamwork, loyalty, and self-sacrifice
as a possible result of the emphasis that is placed on social character.
In opposition, there is little evidence to suggest sport builds moral
character when defining character from a moral idealistic standpoint.

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Footnotes

1. A study by Stoll, Beller, Cole, and Burwell (1995) revealed that there
was not a significant difference between Division I and Division III athletes
on the HBVCI.

Results suggest that athletes have similar competitive values regardless
of the competitive level of the university. Therefore, researchers felt
it was acceptable to use a sample of athletes from various university
levels and to then compare an aggregation of the athletes to the sample
of non-athletes.

Evaluation of Motivation in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease Who Participate in Different Rehabilitation Programs

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate “motivation in patients
with coronary heart disease, who participated in different rehabilitation
programs and those who did not participate.” Fifty-one (n=51) male patients
suffering from coronary heart disease participated in the present study.
Fifteen participated in a rehabilitation program in a gym; eighteen participated
in a swimming program and eighteen consisted of the control group. The
mean age of the participants was 60.83 (SD=±3.3). Participants completed
the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS). According to the results, patients who
participated in the gym program had statistically higher levels in IM
to knowledge, to stimulation, to accomplishment and EM to interjected
regulation. On the contrary, the control group had statistically higher
levels in EM to external regulation and motivation.

INTRODUCTION

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death
in middle-aged and older-adults in Europe and United States (BC Ministry
of Health and Ministry Responsible for Seniors, 1996; Giannuzzi et al.,
2003; Sarafino, 1990).

Cardiac Rehabilitation programs were first developed in the 1960s when
the benefits of ambulation during prolonged hospitalization for coronary
events had been documented. Exercise was the primary component of these
programs (Giannuzzi et al., 2003). Over the past 4 decades, numerous scientific
reports have examined the relationships between physical activity, physical
fitness and cardiovascular health (Cerubini, Lowenthal, Williams &
Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 1997; Fletcher, Balady &
Amsterdam, 2001; Oldridge, et al., 1993; Pate et al., 1995). Randomized
clinical trials of exercise training showed improvement in coronary risk
factors such as blood pressure, body composition, fitness, lipid and lipoprotein
profiles (Dunn et al., 1997; European Hear Failure Training Group, 1998;
EUROASPIRE II Study Group, 2001; Myers, 2003; Rockhill, Willet & Manson,
2001). Swimming and exercise in a gym are included in the so-called coronary
sport groups; as endurance sports with training effects suitable for rehabilitation
(Lins et al., 2003).

Although exercise is considered to be the easiest type of rehabilitation
for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), their maintenance into
exercise programs is difficult most of the times (Harlan et al., 1995).
Reported rates of uptake of cardiac rehabilitation range from 15% to 59%
(Gattiker, Goins & Dennis, 1992; Pell, Pell & Morrison, 1996).
Approximately 20-25% of patients dropout of exercise programs within the
first three months and about 40-50% within 6 to 12 months (Song et al.,
2000; Oldridge, 1998; Oldridge, 1982).

Psychosocial variables that were found to influence the entrance and
completion of a CR program include motivation, mood states, and social
support (Myers, 2003). Motivation consistently has been shown to be a
strong indicator of initiation and maintenance of participation in a CR
program. It was found that the people that seem to have lower levels of
motivation perceive more barriers or problems associated with their exercise
programs. (Dishman & Ickes, 1981; Evenson & Fleury, 2000). The
literature on physical rehabilitation frequently refers to patient motivation
in explaining differences in outcome among patient groups with similar
pathologies (King, Taylor & Haskel, 1993; Maclean, & Pound, 2000).
Several studies have lent empirical support to the hypothesis that patient
motivation is a determinant of rehabilitation outcome (Clark & Smith,
1997; King & Barrowclough, 1989; Oldridge & Stoedefalke, 1984;
Wolf, 1969).

In general, motivation expresses the needs and the wishes that regulate
the direction, the intensity and the continuation of a specific behavior
(Deci & Ryan, 1985). Deci and Ryan (1985) explained intrinsic and
extrinsic motivators and their influence on self-determination in their
theory of self-determination. Self-determination is a quality of human
functioning that involves the experience of a choice. An important distinction
concerning motivation in exercise and sports is the one between intrinsic
and extrinsic motivated behavior for participation (Ryan et al., 1984).
Intrinsic motivation (IM) refers to an individual who participates in
an activity simply for the satisfaction of doing so (Fortier, et al.,
1995). Intrinsic motivation has been postulated to have three separate
categories: IM to know, to accomplish things and to stimulation (Vallerand
& Losier, 1999; Vallerand, et al., 1989; Vallerand &Bissonnette,
1992).

Extrinsic Motivation (EM), on the other hand, is related to external
factors, such as rewards and punishment (Vallerand & Perrault, 1999;
Ryan & Deci, 2000). The three types of extrinsic motivation, from
the least self-determined to the most self-determined, are external regulation,
interjected regulation and identification (Ryan et al., 1990).

The third type of motivation, amotivation, is characterized by
the thought that actions have no control over outcomes (Deci & Ryan,
1985). In other words, amotivated individuals believe that forces out
of their control determine behaviors.

The specific purpose of this study was to examine the differences in
motivation between patients, who participated in different cardiac rehabilitation
programs and patients who did not participated.

METHOD

Sample

A sample of 51 male patients suffering from coronary heart disease was
selected and divided into 3 groups. Fifteen (n=15) participated in a rehabilitation
program in a gym, eighteen (n=18) participated in a swimming program and
eighteen (n=18) patients consisted of the control group. The participants
couldn’t choose the type of activity and all of them followed a
phase III cardiac rehabilitation program. The mean age of patients was
(mean±S.D. 60.83 ± 3.3).

Procedures

The sampling procedure required that the prospective subjects met the
following criteria: (1) having undergone cardiac-related procedures such
as coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) or percutaneous transluminal
coronary angioplasty (PTCA); (2) able to participate in the cardiac rehabilitation
programs for more than 15 weeks (for the exercise groups) with an attendance
rate of more than 70%. Exclusion criteria were clinically unstable heart
failure, unstable arrhythmias and other exercise limiting concurrent condition
as skeletal or muscular disorders. All exercise patients followed the
routine 3 times per week for 45-90 minutes per session at an intensity
of 60-85% of the maximum heart rate (MHR).

The duration of the rehabilitation programs was 20 weeks. During the
20-week period, the type and intensity of exercise and heart rate and
blood pressure before, during and after exercise were recorded for all
subjects in the exercise groups. Exercise patients did not participate
in any other physical training.

Each training-session in the gym rehabilitation program consisted of
walking, cycling or running on an ergometer. It consisted of 10 minutes
warm–up, 10 minutes stretching and flexibility exercises, of 25
minutes endurance training with heart rate (HR) maintained on 60% – 85%
of the maximum heart rate (MHR) and 10 minutes cool–down.

The swimming exercise program included 10 minutes warm-up, 10 minutes
stretching and flexibility exercises in the pool, 12 minutes walking in
the pool with kickboards and barbell and 12 minutes running or walking
in the pool with alternative intensity in a distance of about 200-250m,
with heart rate (HR) maintained on 60% – 85% of the maximum heart rate
(MHR) and 10 minutes cool-down.

Permission to conduct the investigation was received from the local athletic
association and the individual coaches. Each participant took 10-15 minutes
to complete the questionnaire and responses to the instrument were kept
anonymous. The participants were advised to ask for help if confused about
either the instructions or the clarity of any particular item. No problems
were encountered in completing either of the inventories or understanding
the nature of the questions.

Questionnaire

Patients completed the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) developed by Pelletier,
Fortier, Vallerand and Tuson (1995). The SMS consists of seven sub-scales
that measure the three types of motivation: intrinsic, extrinsic, and
amotivation. There are four items per sub-scale, thus there are a total
of 28 items being assessed. Each item represents a possible reason why
patients with coronary heart disease participated in an exercise rehabilitation
program. Subjects must rate the extent to which each item corresponds
to one of their participation motives on a seven-point Likert scale, ranging
from “not at all” (1) to “exactly” (7). The English
questionnaire is valid, consistent, and reliable. Pelletier et al. (1995)
found that the English translation of the questionnaire had a satisfactory
level of internal consistency. Additionally, correlations between the
subscales and confirmatory factor analysis have confirmed the determination
continuum and the construct validity of the scale (Pelletier, et al. 1995).

Statistical Analysis

The data was analyzed in two steps. First, internal consistency of subscales
was assessed using Cronbach alphas (Cronbach, 1951). Secondly, a one –way
MANOVA was used to determine if significant differences existed among
patients exercise groups and control group across the seven SMS subscales.
When the results of the one –way MANOVA were statistically significant,
Post hoc Scheffe analysis were conducted to determine which specific patient-group
means were significantly different from one another. The level of significance
was 0.5.

RESULTS

The internal consistency of the Sport Motivation subscales was determined
by calculating Cronbach’s Coefficient Alpha. The seven subscales
of SMS demonstrated acceptable internal reliability (IM to know =. 70,
IM to stimulation =. 80, IM to accomplishment =. 75, EM to external regulation
=. 69, EM to interjected regulation =. 66, EM to identified regulation
=. 75 and amotivation =. 70). These findings are supported by previous
study (Papageorgiou, 2001).

A one – way MANOVA indicated significant differences between the three
patients groups across the seven SMS subscale, Wilk’s Lambda=. 113,
(F7,14=9.892, P<0.05, eta squared=0.664).

Univariate ANOVA results indicated a significant difference only for
the six dependent variables. Statistically significant differences were
found for IM to know (F2,41=13.485, P<0.05, eta squared=0.397),
IM to stimulation (F2,41=43.581, P<0.05, eta squared=0.680),
IM to accomplishment (F2,41=6.581, P<0.05, eta squared=0,243),
EM to external regulation (F2,41=6.548, P<0.05, eta squared=0.242),
EM to interjected regulation (F2,41=22.913, P<0.05, eta
squared=0.528) and amotivation (F2,41=5.707, P<0.05, eta
squared=0.218). Scheffe post hock analysis indicated that patients who
participated in the gym rehabilitation program had statistically higher
levels in IM to know, to stimulation. to accomplishment and EM to interjected
regulation. Additionally, the control group had statistically higher levels
in EM to external regulation and Amotivation. Table 1 provides the means
and standard deviations for these dependent variables.

Table 1 Means and Standard Deviations of Motivation Variables by Group

Variables Gym Group Swimming Group Control Group
M±SD M±SD M±SD
IM to know 4.56±0.798 3.73±0.504 3.44±0.455
IM to stimulation 4.64±0.432 4.18±0.175 3.39±0.433
IM to accomplishment 4.41±0.701 3.75±0.365 3.98±0.358
EM to external regulation 4.10±0.991 3.76±0.240 4.5±0.342
EM to introjected regulation 3.79±0.729 3.46±0.311 2.69±0.286
Amotivation 1.47±0.588 1.63±0.208 2.0±0.450

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

This study explored the influence of two specific types, frequency and
duration of exercise cardiac rehabilitation programs in-patient motivations.

Findings from this study indicated that patients who participated in
the gym rehabilitation program had statistically higher levels in IM to
know, to stimulation, to accomplishment and EM to interjected regulation,
than patients who participated in the swimming rehabilitation program
and patients who did not participate in any program (control group). One
of the possible reasons for the differences between the two exercise patient
groups may be due to the fact that swimming is not very much allowed for
cardiac patients, despite the valuable advantages as an overall physical
conditioning and leisure avocation (Kawahatsu et al., 1986). According
Ebbeck, Gibbons and Loken-Dahle (1995) the differences in reasons for
participating depend on the type of physical activity in which the individual
is involved.

Specifically, patients who participated in a gym program to fulfill intimacy
or acceptance needs were motivated intrinsically to participate in order
to gain knowledge, to experience stimulation and accomplishment (Stults,
2001). According to previous studies, personal satisfaction, knowledge
and pleasure (IM) constitute the main reasons of adult’s participation
in exercise programs (Ebeck et al., 1995; Eix, 2001; Brodkin & Weiss,
1990). These findings are consistent with the findings of previous studies
that suggest effects of the type of rehabilitation in-patients motivation
(Papageorgiou, 2001).

However, the gym exercise group differs significantly from the swimming
and control group in EM to introjected regulation. Introjection is related
to the internal pressures that the patient may put on himself. The guilt
that they feel when they fail to complete a health task or a training
session, will motivate them so as to make it up (Vlachopoulos, Karageorghis
& Terry, 2000). According to Brodkin & Weiss (1990) health reasons
were rated highest by older adults for participating in exercise programs.
Additionally control group had statistically higher levels in EM to external
regulation and Amotivation.

Given the study findings, further research is suggested. A research design
for assessing long-term adherence is recommended. Previous studies indicated
that the dropout rate for an exercise program remains high until 12 months,
with an average attrition rate of 50% (Comoss, 1988; Oldridge, 1979; Song
et al., 2001). It is imperative to assess adherence changes over a long-term
period, focusing on the motivation related variables influencing participation
in rehabilitation programs.

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Consumer Experience Tourism and Brand Bonding: A Look at Sport-Related Marketers

ABSTRACT

This manuscript reviews the growing use of manufacturing plant tours,
company museums, and company visitor centers by sport-related marketers
(equipment manufacturers, venues, etc) to cultivate relationships with
existing and potential consumers. Consumer Experience Tourism provides
the user (i.e., the consumer) with an experience regarding a product,
its operation, production process, history, and historical significance.
Such brand bonding may contribute to higher levels of involvement with
a product/brand and brand loyalty. Ultimately, the bond between consumers
and brands may be strengthened by the availability of such consumer experiences.
Such tourism opportunities provided by sport-related firms are profiled.

INTRODUCTION

The National Sporting Goods Association tracks the annual sales of sports
equipment, footwear, clothing, and recreational transportation (such as
bicycles, pleasure boats, RVs, and snowmobiles). For 2003, it is estimated
these four product categories combined for almost $80 billion in sales
(sports equipment, $22.2 billion; footwear, $14.4 billion; clothing, $10.1
billion; and recreational transportation, $40 billion (please see nsga.org).

The Relationship Marketing orientation has prompted brand managers to
seek new and innovative ways of creating long-lasting, mutually-beneficial
relationships (or bonds) with a most important asset; namely, their customers.
Increasingly, brand managers are recognizing the opportunity to showcase
a product’s creation and/or evolution as an important catalyst for
forging stronger bonds with consumers. So, interested consumers/tourists
can witness the production of such items as Calloway Golf Clubs, Fleetwood
RVs, Louisville Slugger Baseball Bats, Trek Bicycles, and Harley-Davidson
Motorcycles.

The purpose of this manuscript is to evaluate the growing use of manufacturing
plant tours, company museums, and company visitor centers by sport-related
markets to cultivate stronger relationships with consumers and to (hopefully)
stimulate greater brand loyalty. First, the concept of Consumer Experience
Tourism is defined. Second, the underlying interest in this type of tourism
activity is reviewed. Third, the target consumers for such tourism venues
are examined. Next, existing Consumer Experience Tourism efforts of sport-related
marketers are profiled. Finally, the desired outcomes of these efforts
are discussed.

CONSUMER EXPERIENCE TOURISM

Manufacturing plant tours, company museums, and company visitor centers
represent a segment of tourism known by different names: manufacturing
tourism, industrial attractions, industrial tourism, and industrial heritage
tourism. The shared desire of such facilities is to establish a bond between
a consumer and brand as the consumer learns about the brand, its operation,
production process, history, and historical significance. The term “Consumer
Experience Tourism” represents a unifying theme for this segment
of the tourism industry. This term captures the consumer’s ability
to discover more about the brands they consume while manufacturers can
forge closer relationships with those consumers during the 30-120 minutes
of time spent as the facility’s guests (Mitchell and Mitchell 2000,
2001, 2002; Mitchell and Orwig 2002). (The abbreviation CET will be used
throughout the manuscript to represent Consumer Experience Tourism.)

Involvement With a Brand

Brand managers seek to address consumer needs at three levels: functional
(providing solutions to consumer problems); symbolic (providing satisfaction
of psychological desires); and experiential (providing sensory pleasure,
variety, and cognitive stimulation) (Park, Jaworski, and MacInnis, 1986).
CET can strengthen the bond between consumers and brands by providing
a visual presentation of the brand, its operation, production process,
history, and historical significance. Such a bond may be viewed as an
increased level of personal involvement with the brand and (assumedly)
translates into greater brand loyalty. For example, a parent seeking to
cultivate a child’s interest in baseball can take that child to
the Louisville Slugger tour (Louisville, KY).

Cognitive involvement reflects a consumer’s interest in thinking
(or learning more) about a product (Park and Young, 1986). CET may increase
the consumer’s level of cognitive involvement by stimulating thinking
about the brand and its production processes. So, an active golfer may
appreciate witnessing the manufacturing processes used by Karsten Manufacturing
(i.e., Ping) (Phoenix, AZ) or Calloway (Carlsbad, CA). Further, the positive
word-of-mouth communication stimulated by satisfied visitors may be deemed
more credible than other paid forms of promotion.

INTEREST IN CONSUMER EXPERIENCE TOURISM

Many people think of manufacturing plant tours, company museums, and
company visitor centers as low-cost entertainment (and educational) options
for parents with children because such tours are typically free or require
only a nominal fee (Lukas, 1998). While this is a key target market and
a benefit the consumer may seek, the root cause of this fascination runs
much deeper.

Harris (1989) and Prentice (1993) point out that factories and mines
have historically employed a large percentage of the American workforce.
The shift to a service economy takes individuals out of the factories.
This removes people spatially and culturally from the manufacturing sector
providing less contact and little first-hand knowledge of industrial work.
The plant tour creates a novel and nostalgic view of industrial work,
which in turn feeds tourist interest in manufacturing processes. Harris
and Prentice further note that many younger workers’ lack of factory
work experience progresses naturally toward an increasing curiosity about
the topic.

Older employees may relish the experience of “returning to their
roots”. Rudd and Davis (1998) identify the industrial revolution
as a defining event in American history with company plant tours providing
users a look at our collective past. Richards (1996) notes the industrial
revolution created an era where the transition from modern to obsolete
occurs more rapidly. As such, products of older technology are considered
cultural and historical artifacts creating feelings of nostalgia among
society. Company museums or visitor centers capitalize on these emotions
by providing a sentimental, bonding experience between buyer and brand.

The “Retro Example”

The current interest in retro sports clothing is a manifestation of
this interest, even fascination, with the past. All four major North American
sports leagues are aggressively pursuing this growing market (Finney 2003).
Throwback jerseys and other merchandise have become a $1 billion global
industry. The National Basketball Association (or, NBA) sold over $400
million worth of its Hardwood Classics in 2002. The National Hockey League
(or, NHL) is approaching $250 million in vintage merchandise sales. It
is interesting to note that many of these jerseys, ball caps, and other
items represent teams that no longer exist (i.e., Winnipeg Jets or Quebec
Nordiques) or former stars (i.e., Bobby Clarke) (Westhead 2003). The Negro
Leagued Baseball Museum (Kansas City, MO) considers such merchandising
initiatives an opportunity to educate younger fans about an important
part of American and sport history (Spellman 2003).

Sports venues designed as “retro” or “throw-back”
facilities are another interesting manifestation of this interest in the
game’s history. While Wrigley Field, Fenway Park, and Yankee Stadium
continue to be held in high regard for their historic value, newer ballparks
have been designed to capture the old ambiance of a day at the park while
enhancing customer comfort. Such parks as PNC Park (Pittsburgh Pirates),
Jacobs Field (Cleveland Indians), Camden Yards (Baltimore Orioles), Comerica
Park (Detroit Tigers), or Conseco Fieldhouse (Indiana Pacers) have embraced
the past while enhancing fan (and player) comfort.

TARGET CONSUMERS FOR CONSUMER EXPERIENCE TOURISM

A manufacturer can use its physical facilities to establish (or strengthen)
the bond with a variety of parties. The target consumers for CET
can be divided into three categories: current and potential consumers,
business partners, and community stakeholders.

Bonding With Consumers

Manufacturing plant tours, company museums, and company visitor centers
have become a low-cost entertainment option for families, community groups,
business travelers, and others. They provide a day trip option for local
residents. Schools also benefit through field trips for area students
and teachers. Business travelers become aware of best practices from firms
in both related and unrelated industries (Axelrod and Brumberg 1997).
Prentice (1993) notes that areas with large numbers of business travelers
are particularly fertile for the development of such a tourism venue as
travelers can invest a small amount of time and have a valuable experience
with a brand. So, a salesperson can spend approximately 1 hour at the
BMW Zentrum in Greer, SC as they travel the Greenville-Spartanburg area
or as they shuttle from Charlotte to Atlanta.

Bonding With Business Partners

Though business associates are also frequently users of a brand, their
interests are typically more professional than personal. Lucas (1998)
suggests, “museums create the specter of the Wizard of Oz, but factory
tours provide a glimpse of the man behind the curtain.” Business
relationships enhanced by CET include corporate managers, future employees,
new sales agents, industrial suppliers, shareholders, and others. Plant
tours provide corporate managers with an enhanced understanding of how
manufacturing capabilities contribute to a company’s strength in the marketplace.

The plant tour may also be an effective means of identifying and recruiting
future employees by creating interest in the company’s manufacturing
processes (Day, 1990). Upton (1997) suggests that everyone who interacts
with a manufacturing plant (i.e., buyers, suppliers, managers, employees,
and so on) benefits from a comprehensive look at the manufacturing process.

Bonding With Community Stakeholders

Plant tours may be an effective means of communicating with regulatory
agencies and/or public interest groups. For instance, Nike commissioned
a panel to review its operations in China, Indonesia, and Vietnam to counter
perceptions of unfair labor practices and working conditions. The review
process included on-site plant tours and visits with local employees.
The company received a favorable review with respect to this volatile
public relations issue (Neuborne, 1997). Conducting tours of new facilities
during grand openings is commonly practiced, with target consumers including
shareholders, politicians, dignitaries and reporters. While target audiences
may have individual motivations for taking such a tour and may seek different
outcomes from it, it is certain that people are interested in the work
of others.

CONSUMER EXPERIENCE TOURISM EFFORTS BY SPORT MARKETERS

Currently, a number of sport marketers provide manufacturing plant tours,
company museums, and company visitor centers to support their products.
These firms compete in such diverse product categories as baseball/softball
equipment, golf clubs, fishing equipment, boats, and others (see Table
One
).

Table One
Consumer Experience Tourism Offerings of Sport Equipment Manufacturers

Company Name Location Product Category
Karsten Manufacturing (Ping) Phoenix, AZ Golf Equipment
Calloway Golf Carlsbad, CA Golf Equipment
Correct Craft (Ski Nautiques water-ski boats) Orlando, FL Boats
Coachman RVs Middlebury, IN RVs
Jayco RVs Middlebury, IN RVs
Hillerich and Bradsby
(Louisville Slugger, PowerBilt)
Louisville, KY Baseball Equipment
Golf Equipment
Arctco (Arctic Cat) Thief River Falls, MN Snowmobiles
Christian Brothers Warroad, MN Hockey Sticks
Polaris Roseau, MN Snowmobiles
Airstream Jackson Center, OH RVs
Goodyear Akron, OH Tires
Wooden Touch Putters (Oregon Connection) Coos Bay, OR Golf Equipment
Luhr-Jensen Lures Hood River, OR Fishing Equipment
Harley-Davidson York, PA Motorcycles
Vanguard Racing Sailboats Bristol, RI Boats
Worth Tullahoma, TN Baseball and Softball Equipment
Nocona Athletic Nocona, TX Baseball and Football Equipment
K2 Vashon, WA Skiing Equipment
Trek Waterloo, WI Bicycles

Source: Axelrod, K. and B. Brumberg (1997), Watch
It Made in the U.S.A
., Sante Fe, NM: John Muir Publications.

A list of automotive-related tours is separated and presented in Table
Two
.

Table Two
Consumer Experience Tourism Offerings of Automobile Manufacturers

Company Name Location Product Category
Mercedes Benz Vance, AL Automobiles
Mitsubishi Automobile Normal, IL Automobiles
Corvette Bowling Green, KY Automobiles
Ford Louisville, KYEdison, NJ Automobiles
Toyota Georgetown, KY Automobiles
General Motors Flint, MIJanesville, WI Automobiles
Goodyear Akron, OH Tires
Honda Marysville, OH AutomobilesMotorcycles
BMW Greer, SC Automobiles
Nissan Smyrna, TN Automobiles
Saturn Spring Hill, TN Automobiles

Source: Axelrod, K. and B. Brumberg (1997), Watch
It Made in the U.S.A
., Sante
Fe, NM: John Muir Publications.

It should be noted that NASCAR drivers/owners have been particularly
active in embracing CET for their use. NASCAR fans can visit the working
garage of their favorite drivers and witness the preparation of the very
cars they will watch later at the track. The most popular destinations
for NASCAR fans include Joe Gibbs Racing, Hendrick Motor Sports, Dale
Earnhardt Incorporated, Petty Enterprises, and others. The majority of
such facilities are located in close proximity to Charlotte, NC. Additionally,
most larger racetracks provide tours of their facilities including garage
areas, pits, and grandstands. An example list (not exhaustive) of these
tracks is presented in Table Three.

Table Three
Example Motor Sport Tracks Offering Public Tours

Name of Track Location
Atlanta Motor Speedway Atlanta, GA
Las Vegas Motorspeedway Las Vegas, NV
Lowe’s Motor Speedway Concord, NC
Daytona International Speedway Daytona, FL
Texas Motor Speedway Fort Worth, TX
Indianapolis Motor Speedway Speedway, IN
Talladega Superspeedway Talladega, AL
Kentucky Speedway Sparta, KY
Kansas Speedway Kansas City, KS

Source: Original constructed from information gained
from nascar.com.

As new stadiums have been built for professional teams, their owners
have identified the value of opening their facilities to the general public
for tours. Fans can now tour such venues as Lincoln Financial Field (Philadelphia
Eagles, NFL), Invesco Field at Mile High (Denver Broncos, NFL), PNC Park
(Pittsburgh Pirates, MLB), Camden Yards (Baltimore Orioles, MLB), and
the American Airlines Center (Dallas Mavericks, NBA and Dallas Stars,
NHL). And, some older ballparks continue to welcome guests to take nostalgic
tours of their facilities, including Wrigley Field (Chicago Cubs, MLB),
Fenway Park (Boston Red Sox, MLB), Yankee Stadium (New York Yankees, MLB),
New Orleans Superdome (New Orleans Saints, NFL), and others.

Table Four
Additional Sport Halls of Fame

Name Location
Bowling Hall of Fame and Museum St. Louis, MO
United States Golf Association Museum and Library Far Hills, NJ
International Tennis Hall of Fame and Museum Newport, RI
U.S. Bicycling Hall of Fame Somerville, NJ
Lacrosse Hall of Fame Baltimore, MD
World Figure Skating Museum and Hall of Fame Colorado Springs, CO
America’s Cup Hall of Fame Bristol, RI
Negro Leagues Baseball Museum Kansas City, MO
United States Slo-Pitch Softball Hall of Fame Petersburg, VA
Weightlifting Hall of Fame York, PA

Source: Arany, L. and A. Hobson (1998), Little
Museums: Over 1,000 Small (And Not-So-Small) American Showplaces
,
Henry Holt, New York.

DESIRED OUTCOMES FROM CONSUMER EXPERIENCE TOURISM

Involvement theory suggests that consumers who have witnessed a product’s
production may become more brand loyal as a result of their identification
with the product, their familiarity with the production process, their
first-hand interaction with employees, first-hand witness to their quality
assurance processes, and other internal needs. As such, business outcomes
such as growth in buyer loyalty, sales, profitability, and market share
are some of the outcomes sought by companies that provide manufacturing
plant tours, company museums, and company visitor centers. It would be
myopic, however, to suggest CET is solely driven by the desire to increase
sales, profitability, or market share. Other outcomes sought focus on
company image, education, and open communication.

Company Image

Plant tours provide firms the opportunity to build a relationship with
local residents. This can be particularly important if the product or
production processes are perceived to pose environmental concerns (i.e.,
a car plant that produces air emissions). When public funds are used to
build sports arenas, owners may seek to enhance their image by showcasing
what the public has received for their investment.

Education

Plant tours provide a multi-sense experience for consumers, employees,
shareholders, suppliers, and other stakeholders. Consumers can bond with
brands. Company employees can visualize the larger manufacturing process
and appreciate the contribution their particular function or sub-routine
makes to the finished good. As noted earlier, the licensing of retro sports
images by the Negro League Museum (Baseball) allows younger consumers
(often African-Americans) to learn more about the historical significance
of the league and its players.

Salespeople, as well as external sales agents, can study the manufacturing
processes to be better prepared to answer (and anticipate) buyer questions.
For example, a sporting goods sales representative can better appreciate
the manufacturing processes used by Worth to produce its line of baseball
and softball equipment. This representative then carries this knowledge
into the marketplace. A firm’s shareholders (for example, Calloway
Golf, Ford, Goodyear, Harley-Davidson) can witness the processes used
by the firms in which they have an equity position. Finally, some academic
and professional associations include plant tours on their meeting agendas
for continuing education.

Open Communication

An open manufacturing process conveys to others an open communication
style of an organization (i.e., we’ve got nothing to hide). Positive word-of-mouth
communication is stimulated among satisfied on-lookers. Campers having
witnessed the manufacturing of their Jayco or Coachman RVs may be more
likely to share their confidence in their units with fellow campers. News
media may provide “free press” given the novelty of the open
approach to manufacturing (such as the wooden head golf putters produced
by Oregon Connection. While some argue the opportunity for “true”
benchmarking may be overstated, one key outcome of industrial tourism
programs for managers is the openness of communication and the ability
to learn from others (Hinton, 1996).

SUMMARY STATEMENTS

Consumer experience tourism provides the consumer with a bonding experience
regarding a brand, its operation, production process, history, and historical
significance. A consumer witnessing the production of their favorite brand
of golf equipment, snowmobiles, fishing equipment, or softball bats may
become a more brand loyal user as their level of involvement with the
brand intensifies. Such an experience may increase the buyer’s cognitive
involvement with the brand while addressing the buyer’s need for
experiential learning. Further, the aura of the manufacturing process
or historical evolution of the brand may become an integral part of brand’s
image (e.g., as mechanics create race cars in NASCAR garages). Finally,
this same tourist may become a credible spokesperson for the firm as s/he
shares with others the excitement of watching their hockey sticks, baseball
bat or skis actually being produced. Toward this end, CET can become an
integral part of a firm’s integrated marketing communications program.

As the U.S. economy continues its progression from a manufacturing-driven
economy to one driven by services and information, the interest in “how
things work” or “how’d they make that” intensifies. The
separation from the manufacturing process feeds the growing interest in
CET. Further, citizens studying current processes used to produce familiar
brands can celebrate the industrial heritage of their nation. Ultimately,
the bond between consumers and brands may be strengthened by the availability
of manufacturing plant tours, company museums, and company visitor centers.
The relative importance of these outreach efforts, in addition to their
availability, will likely increase as the competition for sports equipment
and entertainment further intensifies.

REFERENCES

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    (And Not-So-Small) American Showplaces
    , Henry Holt, New York.
  2. Axelrod, K. and B. Brumberg (1997), Watch it Made in the U.S.A.:
    A Visitor’s Guide to the Companies That Make Your Favorite Products
    (2nd Edition)
    ,
    John Muir Publications, Sante Fe,
    NM.
  3. Day, C. R. (1990), “Strut Your Stuff,” Industry Week,
    Vol 239 No 19, p. 5.
  4. Finney, D. P. (2003), “Back to the Future,” St. Louis
    Post-Dispatch
    , July 21, p. E1.
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    Industry,” Geographical Magazine, Vol 61, pp. 38-42.
  6. Hinton, J. (1996), “Rivals Club Together,” Accountancy,
    Vol 117 No 1, pp. 36-37.
  7. Lukas, P. (1998), “Working Vacation,” Money, Vol
    27 No 9, pp. 170-171.
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    A Powerful Tool for Food and Beverage Producers,” Journal of
    Food Products Marketing,
    Vol 6 No 3, pp. 1-16.
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    (And How You Do It),” Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing,
    Vol 7 No 4, pp. 61-77.
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    in the Nonprofit & Public Sectors,” Journal of Nonprofit
    & Public Sector Marketing
    , Vol 9 No 3, pp. 21-34.
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    Brand Bonding,” Journal of Product and Brand Management,
    Vol 11 No. 1, pp. 30-41.
  12. nascar.com (National Association of Stock Car Racing)
  13. nsga.org (National Sporting Goods Association).
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    Tour,” USA Today, June 25, Section B, p. 5.
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    Commercials: The Impact of Involvement and Background Music on Brand
    Attitude Formation, Journal of Marketing Research, Vol 24 No
    1, pp. 11-24.
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    Brand Concept – Image Management,” Journal of Marketing,
    Vol 50 October, p. 136.
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    Routledge Kegan Paul, New York.
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    Cultural Tourism,” Annals of Tourism Research, Vol 23, pp.
    261-283.
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    at the Bingham Canyon Copper Mine,” Journal of Travel Research,
    Vol 36 No 3, pp. 85-89.
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    Available,” Chicago Daily Herald, July 14, p. 10.
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    Harvard Business Review, Vol 75 No 3, pp. 97-106.
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    Star
    , June 29, p. C01.

The Study of Physiological Factors and Performance in Welterweight Taekwondo Athletes

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to investigate the variation in heart
rate, oxygen consumption and blood lactic acid for taekwondo athletes during
training and competition. Ten taekwondo athletes from a Division I university
volunteered for the research. The average age of the subjects was 19.5±0.5
.4 yr, the height was 174.6±2.8 cm, the weight was 63.6±1.4 kg, the black
belt rank was 2.5±0.5, and the average training period was 6.4±1.0 years.
The competition was of university class. During the experiment, each subject
rode the bicycle ergometer until complete exhaustion at a speed of 60 RPM
and power of 120W that increased by 30W every two minutes. The investigation
focused mainly on the variations during the rest period and the three recovery
periods after exercise (5th, 30th and 60th minute). Wireless heart recorder
(POLAR), Vmax29 gas analyzer, YSI2300 lactic acid analyzer and DAIICHI analyzer
were used to analyze heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood lactic acid and
urobilinogen. According to the statistical analysis on one-way ANOVA with
Repeated Measures and a Scheffe Post Hoc test, the results showed that:
1.There was no difference at the cardiac respiratory functioning between
training and competition period. The players can’t recovery quickly
for sixty minutes.2. There was a significant difference at the BLA on the
competition period higher than training period (7.0±1.3 vs. 6.3±1.2 mmol/l,
p<.05). 3.There was no difference at the URO between training and competition
period in the post-exercise 60 minute and rest.4. There was a difference
on the output power at training period higher than competition period (232.7±14.5
vs. 226.5±14.7 watt, p< .05). To recover the rest state more time and
improve intensive training in the blood lactic acid system and power output.
It’s a benefit and helpful for the players and coaches to investigate
the reference during the contest and sport science training.

I. Introduction

Fast development of world-class high strength training and science has
had a significant impact on scientific training. Examples include weight
control, not only covering the grading of various levels of athlete’s
body weight but also balancing physical ability and health. Sport training
is important even for excellent athletes. Only when their cardio respiratory
function, energy expenditure and blood lactate system are well-controlled
can they show their potential and maintain high performance. This is very
important to both coaches and athletes (Hiroyuki et al., 1999). Peaking,
or the ability of an athlete to perform at peak performance during the
main competition or games of the year, is also related to strength training.

According to the theory of Periodization of Strength, gains in muscular
strength (M*S) during the M*S phase should be transformed into either
muscular endurance (M-E) or P during the conversion phase so athletes
acquire the best possible sport-specific strength and are equipped with
the physiological capabilities necessary for good performance during the
competitive phase. To maintain good performance throughout the competitive
phase, this physiological base must be maintained (Bompa, 1999). The determination
of physiological variables such as the anaerobic threshold (AT) and maximal
oxygen uptake (VO2max) through incremental exercise testing, and relevance
of these variables to endurance performance, is a major requirement for
coaches and athletes (Bentley, Mcnaughton, Thompson, & Batterhan,
2001). Heller, et al. (1998) pointed out that Taekwondo could not only
improve human cardio respiratory endurance but also enhance practitioners’
martial arts spirit, and form good exercise and self-defense exercise.
It also is classified as a high-strength anaerobic capacity exercise.
Shin (1993) reported that excellent international Taekwondo athletes must
have high speed and power for them to win the international games. The
energy system of anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity mainly comes from
ATP and Glycolsis system. Taekwondo practice had a positive impact on
the improvement of human cardio respiratory and physical ability (Pieter
et al., 1990). Heller et al (1998) found that the maximum oxygen consumption
volume was 57.0 ml/kg/min in Spanish international Taekwondo athletes
and 53.8 ml/kg/min in Czech international athletes. The maximum oxygen
uptake in Taekwondo black-belt athletes is 44.0 ml/kg/min (Drobni et al.,
1995). Bompa (1999) investigated boxing and martial arts, and found that
a quick and powerful start of an offensive skill prevents an opponent
from using an effective action. The elastic, reactive component of muscle
is of vital important for delivering quick action and powerful starts.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the change of heart rate, oxygen
consumption, blood lactate, and urine urobilinogen in resting phase, and
in post exercise recovering phase at 5 min, 30 min and 60 min after a total
10-week period including training and competition phases.

II. Study Methods and Procedures

Selection of the Subjects

Ten male TaekwonDo athletes were recruited as volunteer subjects in this
study. The mean age, body height, weight, rank, and training experience
of these subjects were 19.3±0.5 years, 174.6±2.8 cm, 63.6±1.4 kg, 2.5±0.5,
and 6.4±1.0 years, respectively.

Time and Venue

The study was completed in the Sports Physiology Lab of Chinese Culture
University, Taiwan. The research of training phase was done from May 11
to 12, 2002. The research of peak phase was done from May 25 to 26, 2002.

Study Methods and Procedures

According to the training content completely controlled by the coach,
the training duration is 10 weeks, once every morning for 1.5 hours and
every afternoon for 2 hours. The research method was to arrange the subjects
to pedal on a bicycle to exhaustion at cycling rate 60 RPM and initial workload
120 W with 30 W increase every 2 minutes. The post-exercise physical changes
(heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood lactate, and urine urobilinogen value)
were measured in baseline phase, training phase and competition phase, collecting
3 samples in each phase.

(1) Informed consent forms were obtained after the study procedures and
potential effects were explained to the subjects, and were understood by
the subjects. The status of subjects’ general health was also recorded.

(2) Subjects who were in a bad mood and not in good physical condition
were not allowed to perform the test, and were scheduled to return at
another time.

(3) 30 minutes before the experiment, the experimental
equipment started to warm up, and experimental material was prepared. The
subjects were arranged on a bicycle to start pedaling to exhaustion at cycling
rate 60 RPM and initial workload 120 W with 30 W increase every 2 minutes.
The physical changes (heart rate, oxygen uptake, blood lactate, urine urobilinogen
value)were measured at 1. Resting phase 2. First minute of post exercise
recovering phase 3. 5th minute of post exercise recovering phase 4. 30th
minute of post exercise recovering phase 5. 60th minute of post exercise
recovering phase.

(4) During the experiment, the research staff recorded the information
obtained from the instruments. When the first experiment ended, the subject
would be informed of the time of next experiment.

(5) Study Equipment and Instruments: The following items were utilized
in this research:

  1. SENSOR MEDICS Vmax29 Gas Meter
  2. YSI2300 PLUS Lactate Analyzer
  3. DAIICHI 701 Analyzer
  4. 586 PIII computer and Laser printer
  5. (POLAR) Mobile heart rate recorder
  6. Stopwatch
  7. Hygrometer

Data Management

(1) All data collected from the study were analyzed using 3 statistical
software programs: Microsoft Excel 8.0, SPSS/PC 10.0, and SPSS for Windows.

(2) Multiple variants were analyzed by ONE-WAY ANOVA and subsequent Scheffe’
way for post-hoc analysis.

(3) Significant difference was set at α=. 05.

III. Results and Discussion

1.Assessment of Cardio respiratory function

(1)The result of heart rate measurements. There were no statistically
significant differences for heart rate between training and competition
period(188.7±2.8 vs. 189..6±1.6 bpm , p>.05) (Table 3-1)(Figure3-1).
The results showed no overstraining of the heart rate between training
and competition period. Arja & Uustitalo(2001) reported overstraining
syndrome as a serious problem marked by decreased performance, increased
fatigue, persistent muscle soreness, mood disturbances, and feeling ‘burn
out ‘ or stale.

Lin & Kuo (2000) found Tae-kwon-Do competition with 3 runs (3 min
per run), and 1-min break in every game, the score decides who is the
winner. During a game, their heart rates would increase to 165 time/min.
Some may reach 192 time/min. It shows that Tae-kwon-Do is a high-intensity
exercise, which has greater impact on circulation and respiratory systems.
Related to this study, the athletes in different grades of technique and
body weight have different fitness physical conditions. Guidetti, Musulin,
& Baldari (2002) reported eight elite amateur boxers’ HRmax
at 195±7 bpm. The measurement of maximum heart rate is important because
it is often used to determine the intensity of cardiovascular training
zone. In reality, a larger size athlete would tend to have a lower HRmax
value than the predicted value (McArdle et al., 2001). Melhim (2001) et
al. found that Tae-kwon-Do exercise could improve children’s cardio respiratory
function, improve practitioners’ attack and defense skills and enhance
self-health adjusting ability. The result shows that the resting heart
rate did not have significant difference after aerobic power training;
Anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity had a significant difference, 28%
and 61.5% increase respectively; Before and after the training, there
was no significant difference in resting heart rate (80.0±6.0 vs. 77.0±9.0
time/min, p>. 05) and in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max ) (36.3±9.2
vs. 38.2±7.8 ml/kg/min, p>.05). In 80-second Tae-kwon-Do competition,
VO2max is 68/ml/kg/min. There was no difference at the heart rate in the
training period between post-exercise 60 minute and rest (73.6±3.7 vs.
67.6±3.2 bpm , p>.05). There was no difference at the heart rate in
the competition period between post-exercise 60 minute and rest (72.9±3.7
vs. 67.0±2 .0 bpm , p>.05).

Table 3-1 Heart rate comparisons between training and competition n=10
(unit: bpm)

Rest Hrmax post-5 p-30 p-60
Training 67.6±3.2 188.7±2.8 121.3±7.0 84.2±3.2 73.6±3.7
Competition 67.0±2.0 189.6±1.6 115.7±13.2 80.4±5.8 72.9±3.7

* means significant different between training and competition

The elite athlete can recover quickly to a rest state and have low a
heart rate. Heart rates of general athletes at rest, before and after
exercise, were 71, 59, 36 time/min, and their maximum heart rates were
185, 183, 174 time/min, respectively(Jack & David, 1999). The results
showed the athletes didn’t recover to the rest period for sixty
minutes in the post-exercise between training and competition period.
Maybe the players need more time to improve the recovery state. It’s
important for the coach and players to improve the recovery system on
time because the players have to keep peak performance to success. Prevention
is still the best treatment, and certain subjective and objective parameters
can be taken by athletes and coaches to prevent over training between
practice and competition periods.

Figure 3-1 Heart rate comparisons between training
and competition

(2)The result of VO2max There was no difference at the VO2max
between training and competition period (49.6±3.3 vs. 50.3±3.0 ml/kg/min,
p>.05)(Table3-2)(Figure3-2). Drobnic(1995)discussed recreational Tae-kwon-do
athletes had a mean VO2max about 44.0 ml/kg/min; however, the
VO2max values for elite athletes would be significantly higher
than the athletes of recreational level. The National Taekwando Team of
China had an average of VO2max of 57.57 ml/kg/min. The mean
VO2max value of the Korean National Team, the perennial dominant
power of this event, was about 59.56 ml/kg/min (Hong, 1997).Heller et
al(1998) reported the average VO2max of the black-belt athletes
on the Spanish national squad was 57.0 ml/kg/min, and as for the Czech
Republic Team, the value was 53.8 ml/kg/min. Based on the results of previous
research, it was suggested that male and female contestants with VO2max
of 65 ml/kg/min and 55 ml/kg/min respectively, had a better chance to
win Olympic medals. Intensive aerobic training could improve the physiological
functions of highly trained sport contestants (Cooke et al., 1997).

Macdougall, Wenger & Green(1990)found ranges of VO2max reported
for international athletes in male wrestling, soccer, basketball, and untrained.
Their result were 50-70 ml/kg/min, 50-70 ml/kg/min, 40-60 ml/kg/min, 38-52
ml/kg/min. Guidetti, Musulin, & Baldari (2002) examined the physiological
characteristics of the middleweight class boxers. Their VO2max
at the individual anaerobic threshold was about 46.0±4.2ml/kg/min and their
VO2max was 57.5±4.7 ml/kg/min. In addition, their hand-grip strengths
and wrist girths were measured and compared to other combat-sports athletes.

In a competitive Olympic (non-professional) boxing match, boxers must fight
for a total of 11 minutes. The fight is structured for three 3-minute rounds
with a 1-min rest interval between each round. An athlete must have a high
anaerobic threshold level and aerobic power level to meet the demand of
this sport (Guidetti et al., 2002). Zabukovec & Tiidus(1995) investigated
the physiological characteristics of kickboxers .Professional male middleweight
(73-77 kg) and welterweight (63-67 kg) kickboxers were determined to have
relatively higher aerobic capacities (VO2max, 54-69 ml/kg/min)
than previously reported for many other power or combat athletes.

Table 3-2 Oxygen consumption comparisons between training and competition
n=10 (unit: ml/kg/min)

Rest VO2max post-5 p-30 p-60
Training 3.9±0.3 49.6±3.3 20.8±1.1 5.9±0.3 4.3±0.1
Competition 3.8±0.4 50.3±3.0 20.7±0.9 5.9±0.3 4.2±0.1

*means significant different between training and competition

The results showed lower VO2max than elite players. Therefore,
to monitor the phenomena of physiological characteristics to improve the
efficiency in the sport science, there was no difference at the VO2max
in the training period between post-exercise 60 minute and rest (4.3±0.1
vs. 3.9±0.3 bpm, p>.05). There was no difference at the VO2max
in the competition period between post-exercise 60 minute and rest (4.2±0.1
vs. 3.8±0.4 ml/kg/min, p>.05). The result showed similarly between
post-exercise 60 minute and rest in the training and competition period
, but need more time to recovery in the rest period.

Figure 3-2 Oxygen consumption comparisons between
training and competition

2. The result of blood lactic acid measurement. There was difference
at the BLA on the competition period higher than training period (7.0±1.3
vs. 6.3±1.2 mmol/l, p<.05)(Table 3-3)(Figure 3-3). Heller et al (1998)
reported that in male and female international TKD competitions, peak
blood lactate after 143 seconds could reach the highest, 11.4 mmol/l.
The change in the blood lactate has a close relationship with the TKD
competition intensity and competition performance (Hultman & Sahlin,
1980). The result showed lowered blood lactic acid than others to improve
the intensive training to the player between training and competition
period. Hetzler et al (1989) pointed out that excellent martial players
should have the characteristics of very good physical ability, high speed
and great strength, blood lactate ranging from 1.51-3.23 mol/100 ml, and
blood pH value decreasing from 7.39 to 7.34 mg/dl. TKD players not only
must have anaerobic metabolism with greater explosive power, but also
have very good aerobic endurance; therefore, TKD athletes must have very
good anaerobic ability and demand for higher aerobic metabolism capacity
(Ho, 1997).

Table 3-3 Blood lactic Acid comparisons between training and competition
n=10 (unit: mmol/l)

Rest post-5 p-30 p-60
Training 0.8±0.0 6.3±1.2 3.6±1.1 1.2±0.2
Competition 0.8±0.0 7.0±1.3 * 3.3±0.7 0.9±0.1

* means significant different between training and competition

Jack & David (1999) found that the resting blood lactate are 1.0 mmo/l、1.0
mmol/l、1.0mmol/l respectively for ordinary athletes, and international
athletes before and after exercise; maximum blood lactate are 7.5、8.5、9.0
mmo/l respectively.

Ho., Chiang & Tsai(1998) found that in 1998 Asia Games, having 4 TKD
athletes participate in the winning competition in the training team, the
results showed that their maximum blood lactate was 6.74 mmol/l, and BUN
tended to increase gradually after competition. From these results, we know
although the time of TKD games is short, it may cause the damage in muscle
fiber. To excellent athletes, if the quality and quantity of training intensity,
cardio respiratory function, energy consumption, and blood lactate system
during training can be well controlled, furthermore to well control their
body weight and physical ability, the athletes can elaborate their potential
and maintain peak performance. It is very important to coaches and athletes
(Hiroyuki et al., 1999).

Figure 3-3. Blood lactic Acid comparisons between
training and competition

3. The result of URO There was no difference at the URO between training
and competition period (92.0±91.1 vs. 195.0±158.4 mg/dl ,p>.05).(Table3-4)(Figure3-4).
Urine biochemistry tests can be the evaluation index of nutrition assessment
and test exercise intensity (Robert & David, 1993). There was no difference
at the URO in the training period between post-exercise 60 minute and rest
(36.5±37.2 vs. 15.8±10.4 mg/dl, p>.05).There was no difference at the
URO in the training period between post-exercise 60 minute and rest (43.5±35.5
vs. 25.0±12.6 mg/dl , p>.05). The greater the fatigue, the greater the
negative training aftereffects such as low rate of recovery, decreased coordination,
and diminished power output (Bampa,1999). Related to this study, probably
10-week peak phase of training over-exhausts the physical function and elevates
urine protein level that will take longer to recover. Lin(1996)discussed
that the factors affecting exercise urine protein included: 1.urine protein
and physical function.2.quantity and intensity of training.3.age and environments.4.the
effect of emotion on urine protein.

Table 3-4 URO comparisons between training and competition n=10(unit:mg/dl)

Rest post-5 p-30 p-60\
Training 15.8±10.4 92.0±91.1 105.0±126.1 36.5±37.2
Competition 25.0±12.6 195.0±158.4 120.0±73.3 43.5±35.5

* means significant different between training and competition

This finding can be an objective reference factor for contestants in
the training and competition. It is possible that nine weeks of training
may increase the urine protein level. Urine protein and exercise intensity
have strong relationship. Competitive games and high intensity training
make urine protein increase. The stronger the exercise intensity, the
more the urine protein.

Figure 3-3 URO comparisons between training and competition

4.The difference of PO(power output) There was difference at the power
out at competition period greater than training period (232.7±14.5 vs.
226.5±14.7 watt ,p<.05) (Table3-4) (Figure3-4). It could be training
for 10th week to promotion the muscle of power output. Zabukovec
& Tiidus (1995) investigated professional male middleweight (73-77
kg) and welterweight (63-67 kg) kickboxers. The results showed relatively
anaerobic capacities (8.2-11.2 Watt/Kg) than previously reported for many
other power or combat athletes. The results showed lower than Kickboxers’
anaerobic capacities. Hoffman & Kang (2002) investigated a major concern
of many of these studies focused on the applicability of a cycle ergo
meter test for anaerobic power in athletes that perform primarily sprinting
activities. To find the peak power of the football, basketball, wrestlers,
male physical education students were 16.8±5.2 w/kg, 21.8±5.0, 18.5±2.7,
18.8±5.6 W/kg. Female group of the soccer and physical education students
in peak power is 15.7±4.2 and 12.9±3.0 W/kg. However, the results showed
lowered power output than others to improve the athlete’s muscle
power to promote the physical state.

Bompa (1999) investigated strength training has become widely accepted
as a determinant element in athletic performance. Thus, the main objective
of the conversion phase is to synthesize those physiological foundations
for advancements in athletic performance during the competitive phase.
The determining factors in success of the conversion phase are its duration
and the specific methods used to transform M*S gain into sport-specific
strength.The power value measured by the simple product of the applied
force and the speed developed remains inferior to the real power performed
by the subjects since the forces of friction and inertia are not taken
into account (Arsac et al.,1996).Thus other factors, such as metabolic
and structural properties of taekwon-do players’ muscles, should
be considered. Therefore, martial arts and boxers must be able to react
quickly and powerfully to an opponent’s attack. Both aerobic and
anaerobic energy is used during a bout. Reactive strength and agility
are necessary to respond to an opponent’s strategy. Limiting factors:
Power endurance P-E), reactive power, M-E (muscle endurance)medium or
long(professional boxer (Bompa,1999). Taekwon-do exercises the need for
stronger power including speed and velocity. Power is the ability of the
neuromuscular system to produce the greatest possible force in the shortest
amount of time. Power is simply the product of muscle force (F) multiplied
by the velocity (v) of movement: P=F*V for athletic purpose, any increase
in power must be the result of improvements in either strength, speed,
or a combination of the two (Bompa, 1999).

Table 3-4 Power Output comparisons between training and competition n=10 (unit: watt) ; average power: AP

Power Output
Training 226.5±14.7 *
Competition 232.7±14.5

*means significant different between training and competition

The advantage of explosive, high-velocity power training is that it “trains”
the nervous system. Increase in performance can be based on neural changes
the help the individual muscles achieve greater performance capability
(Scale,1986). This is accomplished by shorting the time of motor unit
recruitment, especially FT fibers, and increasing the tolerance of the
motor neurons to increased innervations frequencies (Hakkinen, 1986; Hakkinen
& Komi,1983). The other way, it’s important technology for the
coach and player to improve the starting power because it is an essential
and often determinant ability in sports where the initial speed of action
dictates the final outcome (boxing, karate, fencing, the start in sprinting,
or the beginning of an aggressive acceleration from standing in team sports).
The athlete’s ability to recruit the highest possible number of
FT fibers to start the motion explosively is the fundamental physiological
characteristic necessary for successful performance (Bompa,1999).

Figure 3-4 Power Output comparisons between training and competition

IV. Conclusion

  1. There was no difference of the cardiac respiratory functioning between
    training and competition period. The players can’t recovery quickly
    for sixty minutes.
  2. There was a difference at the BLA at the competition period higher
    than training period. To improve the intensive training to the player
    between training and competition period.
  3. There was no difference at the URO between the training and competition
    period in the post-exercise 60 minute and rest.

The competition period was greater than training at
the power out, but less than elite athletes in the professional period.
Athletes are constantly exposed to various types of training loads, some
of which exceed their tolerance threshold. When athletes drive themselves
beyond their physiological limits, they risk fatigue (Bompa,1999). Thus,
to monitor the physiological characteristics between training and competition
period. It’s benefit for the player and coach to manage the peak
performance and avoid the over training. To recover quickly and keep a
steady state is important for the coach and player.

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