This research was made to assess the relationship between advertisements
on marketing sports products on Turkish television channels and sports
images on the basis of products, and to get information on the tendencies
of onlookers of sports products through strengthening onlookers’
sports images and remembering them later by analyzing advertisements.
This research was made to determine how often sports images are used in
the advertisement sector and the impact of sports in advertisements.
The universe of the research was the first four most watched television
channels according to the reports of AGB (Research Improvement and Information)
in June, 2001. These channels were Show TV, Channel D, Star TV, TRT 1
(Turkish Radio and Television). In this research, the books and researches
on sports management and advertising, the total durations of advertisements
on related channels and the ratios of sports images used in advertisements
were studied. All the advertisements broadcast between 09.00-21.00 hours
for one week on each of these four most watched channels were studied,
and the results were shown in graphics and tables.
Observation method was used to determine the results of the research.
‘SPSS’ statistics programmer was used for the statistical
analysis of this research. Frequency and percentage techniques were used
to determine the results.
In conclusion, this research showed that the advertisements including
sports image were broadcast more than the others, and advertisement producers
showed a great deal of interest in sports images. Sports concept is used
as on important tool in advertisement, marketing and image in advertisements
broadcast on Turkish television channels studied in this research.
Sport is one of the most important social concepts. Many companies use
sports as tool to its popularity. The companies producing sports equipment
and private sports clubs are the examples using sports. They turn the
Professional sportsmen into stars and give the image that equipment used
by such sportsmen supports their success. As a result, the equipment produced
by them sells very easily. Today, many companies like banks, construction
companies not related to sports use sports as images (Zeki,1998). For
instance, a private bank can use marathon runners as an image to emphasize
that this bank is forward.
In our century, sports is in a process that interfered a lot in marketing
and its industrialization. Advertisements make sports more popular. All
the organizations hoping for profit use concepts like arts and sports
to introduce themselves (Ünsal,1994). This is the basic factor in sport
image. Sports image can be used in various types in society. The basic
objective of advertisements is to become part of success, and to be remembered
with this image (Zeki,1998). A winner in the Olympic Games in remembered
by the name of the sponsor company tries to become part of sportsmen’s
success. The objective is to remembered and to be well known.
The reason for the popularity of football and basketball is the popular
sport images. Companies can be popular using star sportsmen and sport
image. Sports equipment producers work with famous sportsmen. Sport images
often used in textile, food, transportation and popular sportsmen are
remembered with such companies(Kocabaş, 2001).
Advertisement etiquettes used in sports and product introduction are
- Advertisement is a guide for consumers. It gives information on new
- Advertisement decreases distribution costs and helps retail sellers.
- Advertisement encourage competition, and increases the amount and
quality of production.
- Increases in production and sale amounts helps prices go down.
- Advertisement makes communication tools independent.
In this study, the visage type, frequency, and effect of sports image
in product presentations in advertisements on Turkish Television is analyzed.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
The universe of this research is the Turkish Television channels. These
channels are Show TV, Channel D, Star TV, TRT 1, the most watched 4 channels
according to the reports of AGB (Research, improvement and information:
AGB Group,2001). All the advertisements on these channels were watched
and studied for one week between 09:00-21:00 hrs. And the results are
shown in table as 1. Pre-program watching 2. During program watching.
Pre-program advertisement are 7-10 minutes and this variation is due
to Prime Time programs. During programs advertisements last 3-4 minutes.
The intervals of programs can change 2 or 3 times. The duration of advertisement
within the programs is 6-9 minutes. According to AGB reports the total
advertisement duration is 28 hrs. a week and 4 hrs a day in Show TV, Channel
D, Star TV, TRT 1. the first for channels in june 2001 and their percentages
are as shown:
Show TV 21%
Channel D 20%
Star TV 19%
TRT 1 17%
While collecting data, necessary information were found in documents.
Each of the four most watched channels were studied for one week and the
results were sown in graphics.
The reason to watch every channel separately is that advertisements start
and finish at the same hours.
The ratio and distribution of advertisements containing sports image
were shown in percentages. SPPS statistics program was used for the statistical
analysis of this research.
FINDING AND COMMENTS
The results and comments on the relationship between advertisement and
sports image in the most watched channels in June according to AGB reports
are shown below.
Table-1: Daily and weekly amount of all the advertisements broadcast in
all the channels.
|Total broadcast Time (hrs)
|Total broadcast Time (hrs)
|Advertisement Time (hrs)
|Total advertisement percentage
These tables show total weekly and daily broadcasts of television channels
and the amount of advertisement in these broadcasts. The total amount
of hours is very high. However, this amount shows that companies made
big investments in advertisements.
Graphic-1: The frequency of subjects in all the
advertisements broadcast in all channels
The reason for the high ratio of food, textile and bank advertisements
is that they are the basic necessities sports image is used in all the
advertisements for them to be remembered.
Table -2 : Daily and weekly advertisement ratio of sports image used in advertisement in all the channels.
|Total broadcast minutes
|Total advertisement percentage
|Advertisement broadcast minutes
|Sports İmage percentage used
According to these graphics and tables, the ratio of advertisements containing
sports image is very high among the other advertisements. In this table,
the high amount of advertisements containing sports image in other advertisements
are shown. The high frequency of the usage of sports image shows that
advertisement companies prefer it to affect people.
DISCUSSION AND RESULTS
According to our research, the advertisements containing sports image
are very high. Sport concepts affects a lot of people and sports ımage
can be used everywhere. The high number of products are variety in advertisement
sector lead to usage of sports image . advertisement companies combine
every event and concept with sport.
Advertisement producers prefer sports image according to this research.
Sport image is the highest among the other images. Advertisements makers
use sports image because it is a concept affecting people. Sports image
has become a tool to affect people. Advertisements makers use Professional
sportsmen to affect young people so that they can sell their products
Sport image can be used frequently in advertisements because sport affect
people in various directions. Sports can be the symbol of many subjects
People may like sports more through sport image. Production companies
use sports image to sell their products, however, they let people like
sport more. Companies should employ people who enough information on sports.
Sports influences many people. It is observed that advertisements containing
sports image has been increasing. Company owners prefer using sports image
In this research, popular sports branches and popular sportsmen are
preferred in advertisements containing sport image. For instance, football
image is used many advertisements. Because football is a very popular
branch of sport. Either a famous footballer is used or popular brand is
used with football image in advertisements. If other branches become popular,
advertisement subjects can be more various.
The images of less popular sports branches can be used so people can
be interested in various sport branches.
- AGB Group, (2001),(TAM- Television Audience Measurement) Haziran,
- Bir, A.; (1988), Reklamın Gücü, Bilgi Basım, İstanbul,
- Kocabaş, F; Elden, M., (2001), Reklamlar, Kavramlar, Kararlar,
Kurumlar, İletişim Yayınları, İstanbul,
- Ünsal; Y. ; (1984), Bilimsel Reklam ve Pazarlamadaki Yeri,
TİVİ; Basımevi, İstanbul,
- Zeki, A.; (1998), Reklam ve İmajları, Bilişim