Olympic Edition 2010

### International Olympic Academy: 10th Joint International Session for Presidents or Directors of National Olympic Academies and Officials of National Olympic Committees

#### Table of Contents

1. [President’s Forward – Dr. Thomas P. Rosandich](#forward)
2. [Introduction to the International Olympic Academy – Anne Kent Rush, Editor](/article/introduction-international-olympic-academy)
3. [National Olympic Academies – National Olympic Committees Parallel Paths, Intertwined Paths – Mr. Isidoros Kouvelos](/article/national-olympic-academies-national-olympic-committees-parallel-paths-intertwined-paths)
4. [The National Olympic Committee: Its Role and Position at the Dawn of the 21st Century – Mr. Giannis Papadogiannakis](/article/national-olympic-committee-its-role-and-position-dawn-21st-century)
5. [The Place and Role of Olympism in Higher Education – Prof. Dr. Antonin Rychtecky](/article/place-and-role-olympism-higher-education)
6. [The Institutional Framework for the Development of Olympic Education and the Role of the National Olympic Academy – Mr. Alexandre Mestre](/article/institutional-framework-development-olympic-education-and-role-national-olympic-academy)
7. [How to Spread and Develop Joint International Programs about Olympic Education: Cultural and Communication Problems – Mr. Henry Tandau](/article/how-spread-and-develop-joint-international-programs-about-olympic-education-cultural-and-com)
8. [The Position of the Athlete in the Social Structure of Ancient Greece – Prof. Mark Golden](/article/position-athlete-social-structure-ancient-greece)
9. [The Use of Sport Art for the Development of Olympic Education: Passing the Visual Torch – Dr. Thomas P. Rosandich](/article/use-sport-art-development-olympic-education-passing-visual-torch)
10. [Closing Address and Olympic Anthem – Mr. Isidoros Kouvelos](http://thesportjournal.org/article/closing-address)
11. [IOA Master’s Degree Program Specifications](/article/international-olympic-academy-masters-degree-program-specifications)
12. [Olympic Values Education Programme (OVEP) Progress Report: 2005-2010](/article/olympic-values-education-programme-ovep-progress-report-2005-2010)


#### President’s Forward

This special issue of the Academy’s _Sport Journal_ is dedicated to the International Olympic Academy (IOA) and its worldwide programs.

This past May, I delivered a presentation in Greece at the International Olympic Academy for the 10th Joint International Session for Presidents or Directors of National Olympic Academies and Officials of National Olympic Committees. My presentation topic was the use of Olympic posters as a reflection of the role of sport art in Olympic culture. Dignitaries from around the world gave presentations on the issues vital to education in Olympism. Special emphasis was placed on challenges in collaboration among the National Olympic Academies, the National Olympic Committees, and the IOA.

Located in historic Olympia, south of Athens on the Peloponnese Peninsula, the IOA functions as an international Academic Centre for Olympic Studies and is an exceptional new resource for students around the globe. Operated jointly by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the Greek government, the IOA offers a wide variety of research studies and educational programs aimed at spreading the vision of Olympism.

As President, founder and CEO of the United States Sports Academy, and as a member of the International Olympic Committee’s Commission on Culture and Education, I share the IOA’s vision of Olympism. During my visit, I met with Isidros Kouvelos, President of the IOA; with Professor Konstantino Georgiadis, IOA Honorary Dean; and with Professor Dionyssis Gangas, IOA Director. We discussed the IOA, its projects, and the impressive, new master’s degree program: Olympic Studies, Olympic Education, and Organization and Management of Olympic Events.

Students at the IOA use _The Sport Journal_ as reference material for their work more than any other journal. With more than 500,000 unique visitors per year, _The Sport Journal_ is the most read journal in the world.

Since these pieces, the bases of live presentations by experts from a variety of academic disciplines, are hereby introduced to a wide, general audience, _The Sport Journal_ has relaxed its standard rule requiring entries to adhere to American Psychological Association style. This _Olympic Edition_ offers the presentations given by Olympic scholars at the May 2010 session in Greece.

Dr. Thomas P. Rosandich
President and CEO
United States Sports Academy

Olympic Values Education Programme (OVEP) Progress Report: 2005-2010

### Introduction

In the process of organizing the Beijing Games, the Organizing Committee launched an Olympic education programme which touched such a number of young people that the record threatens to out-live generations of today’s youth. With schools across the nation participating, 400,000,000 young people partook of this programme to complete a daunting task that began just six years earlier, one year after Beijing was awarded the Games. While these numbers are staggering and the Olympic education programme was solely a national production, be it with great similarities to the IOC’s Olympic Values Education Programme (OVEP), it remains a fact that it has inspired a number of National Olympic Committees to dream of such a reach. Pro-rated, the percentages are achievable. Rwanda, with a population of just over 120,000,000 would, under this assumption, need to reach a youth population of around 3.5 million. The Indian Olympic Association is hoping its own start-up programme will touch around 20,000,000 young people through the inaugural Indian National Club Games and the ever popular Indian National Games.

This truncated progress report is meant to give some direction to the first-ever meeting of OVEP animators in Durban preceding the 7th World Conference on Sport, Education and Culture. The meeting is intended to generate discussion on the overall review and progress of the OVEP project. In view of the President of the IOC signing off to a four year extension of the programme, the participants to the meeting will be asked to contribute their thoughts and experiences in regard to the way forward. OVEP is not a Youth Olympic Games Culture and Education Programme (CEP). It is supposed to be a pre and post YOG supporting system for all youth, whether or not participants in the youth games.

The coming on board of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is an exciting dimension to OVEP. The organization’s idea of promoting the programme in its 9,000 Associated Schools Network (ASPnet) around the world to buttress values-based education bodes well for Olympism. UNESCO representatives are expected to share their experiences with participants during the meeting. Some developing countries are yet to establish ASPnet schools in their own countries.

In this report, three continents – Africa, Asia and Oceania – feature prominently as having been the successful test beds for the programme. Hopes are high that The Americans will have the programme up and running in 2011. Under the authority of the Pan-American Sports Organization (PASO) and the leadership of the Spanish Olympic Committee, OVEP is being launched in a large-scale way and will immediately be available as a standalone subject on the Spanish NOC’s virtual university. The project will also encompass Portuguese-speaking countries such as Brazil, Portugal and a number of developing countries in Africa.

The European charge is expected to be led by the International Pierre de Coubertin Committee (IPCC) which has done an impressive job of bringing together school children to a youth forum once every two years to dedicate their time to Olympic education. With the urging and material support of the IOC, IPCC has been widening its reach to include young people from other continents. Lately, young people from Asia, Africa and the Americas have participated in the biennial gatherings. OVEP will be an integral element in the established forum programme; however, OVEP as an undertaking in Europe will be driven by IPCC.

### Project Environment

#### Olympic Values Education

Taking into account the IOC’s social responsibility and with the focus on sport as a vehicle to deliver the message, OVEP was developed as a tool to further the IOC’s global youth strategy. The use of Olympic sport traditions and their inherent values is used as the backdrop for the IOC’s values-based teaching and learning opportunities. OVEP integrates sport and physical activity within a cultural and educational framework, and is in line with the United Nations General Assembly declaration of the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD – 2005-2014).

Safeguarding the needs of future generations, OVEP is a key component to the activities of the IOC and the Olympic Movement at large. In view of the fact, that in today’s world, the practice of sport has changed and with the objective to get the “Now Generation” back onto the field of play, this donor-supported project was launched in 2005 with the key objective as stated by the IOC President and approved by the Executive Board, “to develop an Olympic educational programme targeted primarily at young people and youth”.

The unique potential originating from the practice of sport has been repeatedly recognized. Progressive solutions to use the power of sport, its ability to initiate intercultural dialogue, its global reach, its effect on the sporting community and beyond represent an area to enhance equality, obtain personal freedom and a means for development.

However, as has been expressed by the IOC President, the delivery of a values-based education will depend on the joint efforts of all concerned; the sporting movement being a small part but a driving force within the larger playing field. In its contributions to the global platform of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), sport has a key role to play. Specifically, MDG objective Goal 2 (Achieve universal primary education) can be addressed in the framework of OVEP as the essential value of sport lends itself to quality education. That is to say that integration of sports activities can make school more appealing and increase learning motivation in youth.

The link between the IOC’s educational strategy in support of the DESD can be translated to:

– Making education more relevant and meaningful
– Building partnerships in support of sustainable development
– Developing skills both inside and outside the classroom
– Making teaching as well as learning a fun process

#### The Olympic Values Education Toolkit Resource

According to the Olympic Charter, “Olympism is a philosophy of life, exalting and combining in a balanced whole the qualities of body, will and mind. Blending sport with culture and education, Olympism seeks to create a way of life based on the joy of effort, the educational value of good examples and respect for universal fundamental ethical principles.”

Sport and the broader base of physical education provide a boundless arena from which to learn life skills such as tolerance, solidarity, fair play, non-discrimination, inclusivity, friendship, respect, excellence, dedication, loyalty and courage. Fundamental or universal virtues such as the value of effort and how to face life’s challenges such as victory or defeat are part and parcel of participation through and in sport.

The catalytic power of sport in uniting people for a common goal as well as the positive example it can provide to youth is the foundation from which the IOC embarked on the OVEP project. The resource, “Teaching Values, an Olympic Education Toolkit”, conceptualizes education and promotes the development of a values-based, life-long learning paradigm. The focus is on development of life skills and learning, that spreads beyond the sporting field or the four walls of the classroom encapsulated into the fabric of daily lives.

The OVEP project was built on the three pillars of: a teaching manual (a reference tool), an interactive database (network platform) and a label to encourage take-up (promoter of new initiatives). This report does not encompass the latter two components of the project, but strictly adheres to communicating information on the teaching manual and the implementation thereof.

#### The Five Educational Olympic Values

In November 2005, an IOC Education Expert Workshop reached a consensus on the objectives of OVEP, its constraints, deliverables and possible implementation strategies. During this ‘think tank’ event, it was agreed that the five educational values of the toolkit would be the pedagogical cornerstone and basis of the teaching resource:

Joy of effort – Young people develop and practice physical, behavioral and intellectual skills by challenging themselves and each other in physical activities, movement, games and sport.

Fair play – is a sports concept, but it is applied worldwide today in many different ways. Learning fair play behavior in sport can lead to the development and reinforcement of fair play behavior in the community and in life.

Respect for others – When young people who live in a multicultural world learn to accept and respect diversity and practice personal peaceful behavior, they promote peace and international understanding.

Pursuit of excellence – A focus on excellence can help young people to make positive, healthy choices, and strive to become the best that they can be in whatever they do.

Balance between body, will and mind – Learning takes place in the whole body, not just in the mind. Physical literacy and learning through movement contributes to the development of both moral and intellectual learning. This concept became the foundation of Pierre de Coubertin’s interest in a revival of the Olympic Games.

#### Summary of the OVEP Project Timeline

Year Action
2005 Decision by the IOC to develop a global youth strategy and address social responsibility through an educational values programme. IOC Education Expert Workshop reached a consensus on the objectives of OVEP, its constraints, deliverables and possible implementation strategies (Nov-Dec 2005). Sponsor-generated donation running over a 4 year period was presented to the IOC by ISM (2005).
2006 IOC President and EB approve OVEP project (Jan 2006). Teaching Values: An Olympic Education Toolkit was penned. The toolkit was presented at the 5th World Forum for Sport, Education and Culture (October 2006), was subsequently reviewed by the Culture and Education Working Group for Olympic Education and approved by the IOC Culture and Education Commission.
2007 Field testing started with the World Scout Jamboree Event in Chelmsford, UK (July-August 2007). Some 28,000 young people between the ages of 14 and 17 and 12,000 adults were present at this event.
Since 2008 Running of pilot phase, having successfully concluded 10 Train the Trainer Workshops with a geographical reach in 3 continents (Africa, Oceania and Asia).

### Projective Objectives

Having recognized the social and educational significance of sport, Olympic education reinforces the cultural DNA of individuals in a globalized world and further promotes the well-being of all using, among others, the tool of sport. With this fundamental principle in mind, it was agreed that the OVEP project would be initially established in developing countries in order to promote the application of Olympic values through sport.

To this effect, the following objectives were defined:

– **Objective 1:** Education – To design and implement an Olympic Education programme for children and young people in developing and developed countries in order to promote the application of Olympic values through sport.
– **Objective 2:** Multi-application – Heterogeneous applicability (e.g. multi-lingual, multi-cultural, actualization within different geo-political environments).
– **Objective 3:** Internal Collaboration – Compatible with IOC development programme policy in collaboration with other IOC departments (e.g. Olympic Solidarity, Olympic Museum, Sports Department).
– **Objective 4:** Global implementation – Evaluate the possibilities of extending OVEP into a global and general public promotional campaign following the pilot phase.

### Project Implementation

The pilot phase was built under the aegis of the “Train the Trainer” (TtT) model. The working concept underpinning the methodology was the “ripple or multiplier effect” in which the effective transfer of learning extends outward. That is to say that one person is trained in a group setting after which s/he takes that knowledge, skills and materials and confidently trains other groups. This formula was successfully implemented through 10 TtT workshops in 3 continents (Africa, Oceania and Asia) with a reach of approximately 45 countries. The latter does not take into account the integration of OVEP within Organizing Committees education programmes, national educational start-up initiatives, the OlympAfrica network and International Federations, to name a few.

### Review of Implementation from a Continental Perspective

A few outstanding facts to date:

– The OVEP project has trained over 300 delegates from approx. 45 countries so far.
– Relevant to Olympic Games special Olympic education programmes and OVEP reach was extended to 40,000 schools (Beijing 2008) and 2,100 British Columbia schools with 200,000 resource hits on the VANOC website platform (Vancouver 2010). The London Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (LOCOG) is also in full swing with their official launch of the London 2012 education programme, “Get Set”.

Following the inaugural launch of the programme in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania in 2008, the following highlights per continent can be reported.

#### Africa

– More than 155 countries have been targeted and subsequently activated.
– Over 100 trainers have been prepared to roll out the programme on a national level.
– Two regional workshops organized by the Department of International Cooperation and Development (DICD) in collaboration with OlympAfrica and hosted by the NOCs of Mali and Gambia have taken place. As a result, some NOCs have established a culture and Education Commission to further the activities on a national level.
– OlympAfrica Foundation is a valuable and key partner in disseminating and rolling-out OVEP. More than 250 activities are carried out in OlympicAfrica centres and OVEP is part of their offerings.
– The National Olympic Committee of Kenya has taken a lead interest in Olympic Values dissemination for the region and on a national level.
– The opening of the Olympic Youth Development Center in Zambia is a great boost to the programme. A cross cutting project in conjunction with United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) offers the perfect venue for the running of a Global Sports for Youth International Camp wherein OVEP modules have been integrated into the five day established programme. Six country delegations from Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zambia (host) with a total of 80 participating youths are scheduled to attend the camp in November 2010.
– Cross border implementation is a reality. This has been encouraged between the neighboring countries of Zambia and Zimbabwe between Tanzania and Kenya.
– Inroads at the policy decision making level (Ministries of Education) and the building of a sound national foundation have been made for example in Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and Uganda. Burundi will follow the same patter.
– Sensitization workshops (i.e. key to establishing a solid and sustainable foundation for programme roll-out) have been organized and incorporated in the framework for implementation in countries such as Zimbabwe, Kenya, Burundi and Egypt.

#### Asia

– The 5th World Forum on Sport, Education and Culture (Beijing, 2006) identified a network of 70 contacts in China to play a role in the outreach programme for OVEP. As illustrated during the 2008 Beijing Games, host countries of Olympic Games can and have played important roles as a channel of distribution for Olympic education.
– In view of the inaugural 2010 Youth Olympic Games a TtT Workshop was initiated by the Singapore National Olympic Council in collaboration with the Singapore Olympic Academy (SOA). Thirteen countries were targeted and have been activated through the session. Since last December 2009, 116 trainers have been trained and are rolling out the programme on a national regional level.
– Large scale dissemination in highly populated countries such as India can be very effective from a case study and learning point-of-view. For example, the Delhi Public Schools (DPS) with a student intake of 10,000 students has been utilized for the “hands-on” practicum availed to the workshop participants during the IOC and Indian Olympic Association (IOA) TtT workshop which took place in March 2010. A key outcome has been smaller-scale initiatives on a rural grass roots level which have been conducted in regional provinces such as Raipur Chhattisgarh with the assistance of the provincial government. Also an integral approach led by an academic team from the Delhi university system with 8 adjoining states in the pipeline.
– A transversal project approach has been the result within the framework of activities by the Jordan Olympic Committee. The Higher Council for Youth Summer Camps along with the Amman Greater Municipality have concluded a series of peer-engaged clinics in June/July 2009. Moreover, the Education Division of the National Olympic Committee has been instrumental in securing the interest of the two principal universities of Jordan, the University of Jordan and the Hashemite University, with a view in mind to integrate Olympic values education into the institutions’ physical education curriculum.
– Malaysia has expressed an interest in taking on board the dissemination of OVEP. The results of a graduate student project conducted for the International Academy of Sports Science and Technology in Lausanne (AISTS) illustrated that in collaboration with the NOC and NOA, implementation of OVEP would be a welcome addition within the national educational system.
– The Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) has motioned their interest to take on a lead continental role for the OVEP project in the region in 2011-2012.

#### Oceania

– Fourteen countries were targeted and subsequently activated through the OVEP Continental Seminar (Fiji, July 2009). Thirty-two trainers were trained and prepared to roll out the programme on a national level.
– A legacy of the IOC promoted Continental seminar in 2009 was also the pending MOU between the IOC and the National Universities of South Pacific and the Fiji Institute of Technology to include OVEP within their curriculum.
– Key NOCs in this region such as Australia and New Zealand have a long tradition and inclusive approach as it relates to OV education within their classroom based activities and in the physical education curriculum. Both National Olympic Committees of Australia and New Zealand widely disperse resources and materials through web-based and interactive social media platforms, programmes that are designed to encourage youth to lead active, healthy and values based lifestyles. The New Zealand “Living the Olympic Values” is a popular series of digital and interactive teaching resource with a particular focus on general subjects such as English, Social Sciences and Physical Education. These resources are available for a global audience and for free download.
– Small island projects such as that initiated by the National Olympic Committee of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) resulted in a stellar example of a promising practice with the Young Educator Promoting Olympic Values (YEPOV) workshop following the Continental Seminar in Fiji. Key to the success of this project was the support of Olympic Solidarity (OS) Programmes in collaboration with the Department, and transfer of knowledge from a larger experienced NOC. Extended roll-out in other nearby islands has been achieved.
– The National Olympic Committee of Vanuatu has made progress in its efforts to ensure the inclusion of sport and physical education in the national school curriculum. The NOC has also been proactive in linking into opportunities such as the development of rowing in the region and from a coaching perspective investigating how OVEP would fit into an overall education project.

### Reflective findings

In general, OVEP has made great strides since its inception. There needs to be a continued focus on the explicit teaching of values, together with a continuation of embedding Olympic values principles combined with sports in the classroom, as well as in all out-reach areas and activities. This will result in the development and implementation of creative and innovative programmes that will add to the overall resources in the context of education for sustainable development.

#### Summary

Some general findings which have emerged are as follows:

##### Relevance and strategic fit:

– OVEP goes beyond geo-political and artificial boundaries and is a sustainable platform which can help to address gender inequality, social exclusion, economic challenges, risky behaviors, physical handicaps, among others.
– Notable respect for cultural diversity and educational systems is an integral driver of the programme. To allow regional efficacy OVEP should be prepared to adapt and allow for decision making in the specific region.
– This transfer of knowledge and sharing experiences and good practices among animators of the programme should be the cornerstone for the future of the programme.

##### Validity of programme design and methodology:

– The toolkit does provide a sound basis for implementation and roll-out. However, as identified in the manual, caution needs to be taken in respect to tailoring the activities and TtT workshops to the local and social contexts.

### Lessons Learned

– Availability of financial resources does not guarantee uptake of the programme. What does?
– Need to diversity channels of dissemination of OVEP. Programme must be available in a controlled environment on electronic platforms.
– Derivatives of the programme should be encouraged, for social, political and cultural reasons.
– Many NOCs are taking a passive interest in the programme, leaving the initiative to “others”. There is need for NOCs to take ownership of the programme at national level but still be able to work with other entities. The Olympic brand can only be protected in a given country by the NOC who have the absolute authority to control the Olympic symbols’ use by third parties.
– Mentoring the programme by which experienced trainers coach ‘rookies’ for feedback, problem-solving and strategic modeling needs to be established.
– The need to expand on key entry points (e.g. endorsement of ministries of sport and education, involvement of International Federations, relevant UN agencies).
– The partnership with UNESCO is crucial to the introduction of OVEP in the school curriculum. NOCs need to develop relationships with UNESCO National Commissions in their own countries. This relationship does not currently exist.
– OVEP does not have to be a stand-alone subject. Elements of OVEP can and should be integrated into other educational programmes in truncated forms. The IOA sessions are a perfect platform for delivering unbundled OVEP.
– The language barrier appears to be a strong deterrent in widening the reach of OVEP. Currently, it exists only in English and French. However, the World Taekwondo Federation and a few enterprising NOCs have translated the toolkit into locally-popular languages. This should be encouraged. While NOCs in developing countries might not have the resources for such undertakings, Olympic Solidarity and the Department of International Cooperation and Development have always been sympathetic to requests for resources to advance Olympic education in general and can be counted upon to help.

### Going Forward

In the period of 2005-2010, the OVEP project was launched, tested for its global applicability and fine-tuned where necessary. The report clearly shows that the activities undertaken thus far have brought the project objectives within reach. The pilot phase has successfully rolled out over three regions, while the number and variety of follow-up activities in these regions show that the seed has fallen on fertile ground.

By definition a pilot phase of a project looks at a defined concept on a limited scale. Upon completion, the concept is being evaluated, and budget parameters are being studied. The concept of “teaching life skills through interactive play” (i.e. OVEP) and using sport as a tool is a success story. Simultaneously, in order to reliably measure the progress and impact of the OVEP project, a standardized and repeatable monitoring and reporting system should be in place. This measuring system should be applicable from a central reference point such as the IOC, but also by local authorities.

To this effect, a concept feedback mechanism has been integrated during the IOC-UNESCO Associated Schools (ASPnet) Joint Initiative, “Teaching Olympic Values”. A draft proposal for discussion on further collaboration was brought to the table during a meeting of IOC and UNESCO in September 2010. UNESCO ASPnet tallies more than 9,000 schools in 180 countries.

At the moment, a future strategic outlook or orientation to extend the reach through new partnerships and alliances is being pursued.

In addition, the collaboration with international partner organizations has shown to be of key supplementary value to the programme. Now that the immediate future of the project has been secured from a budgetary perspective with an extension of the donor-generated support, the programme will be continued in existing areas, while new activity regions can and will be added.

Like all large projects in a pilot phase, the period 2005-2010 has highlighted some areas in which the successful programme can perform even better. The fact that all activities require a regional fine-tuning to increase the efficacy (from a socio-economic and political perspective) will bring an added value to the next project phase.

**Department of International Cooperation and Development**
4 December 2010
Durban, South Africa

### Acknowledgements

The compilation of this report would not have been possible without the knowledge base, support and contribution of our global network of OVEP trainers and educators in the broadest sense of the definition.

On behalf of the IOC, the Department of International Cooperation and Development applauds and thank you for your tireless efforts and continuing passion for Olympism.

### Annex A: OVEP Geographical Reach

The bold countries in the table below reflect TtT workshops. The remaining countries in the table were either present as participants or otherwise exposed to OVEP. The table is limited to OVEP related activities and does not take into account wider Olympic education initiatives carried out by the NOCs, Ifs or Recognized Organizations, to name a few.

Africa Asia Ocenia The Americas Europe
B. Faso
Ivory Coast
Egypt
Gambia
G. Bissau
Guinee
Libya
Mali
Niger Nigeria
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Tanzania
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Brunei
Cambodia
China
Chinese Tapei
India
Indonesia
Japan
Jordan
Mongolia
Myanmar
Oman
Phillippines
Singapore
South Korea
Thailand
American Samoa
Australia
Cook Islands
Fiji
FS Micronesia
Guam
Kiribati
Marshall Islands
Nauru
New Zealand
P. New Guinea
Palau
Samoa
Tonga
Canada (Vancouver 2010)
Carribbean (ASPnet Schools)
Great Britain (London 2012)

### Annex B: OVEP Country Implementation

#### Australia

##### Background

Olympic education and the Olympics have always stolen the hearts of the Australian population. The NOC education programmes and aims are implemented by using the Olympic sport traditions and values as the context for teaching life values and life skills. The promotion of the Olympic spirit and values to the wider community is performed through established education programs: (i) Live Clean Play Clean – delivered by young Olympians; (ii) Pierre de Coubertin Awards – open to all senior secondary school students across Australia and (iii) the A.S.P.I.R.E. school network.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. Using the Olympic sport traditions and values as the context for teaching life values and skills.
2. Educating young athletes on the moral, ethical and physical reasons for not taking performance-enhancing drugs.
3. Through the Coubertin Awards, select students who demonstrate attributes of fair play and respect for others.
4. Involve the community and stakeholders (NOC, Ministry of Education, Universities, Youth Council, IOC and IFs).
5. A.S.P.I.R.E. School Network (ASN) founded on the Australian Olympic Team’s set of values, namely: attitude, sportsmanship, pride, individual responsibility, respect and express yourself, which is the Australian Olympic Committee’s national education program for primary educators designed to instill in young Australians an appreciation for the values, spirit and philosophy of the Olympic Movement. This comprehensive programme organizes Olympic related activities such as on-line video conferencing providing the opportunity for primary school children to talk with Olympians, Olympic Day Celebration, BK Zone – website for primary students containing fun, interactive educational activities themed around the Olympic Games and Olympic Village Art. Primary students are invited to decorate the Australian section of the Olympic Village (AOC) received over 2,000 pieces of artwork from 100 schools for the Beijing Games).

##### Project implementation:

1. Coubertin Awards: open to all senior students, 779 awarded in 2008.
2. Village Art – Students are invited to deliver a literature or artistic piece of work for the Olympic Games.
3. More than 24,500 ASPIRE teachers registered since 2006.
4. A.S.P.I.R.E. activities: Learn from a Champ, Chat to a Champ, Olympic Day and Village Art, BK Zone and Medallion.
5. Fit OVEP in with Higher Council for Youth activities.
6. Cross-curriculum lectures for primary teachers with focus on the upcoming Olympic Games.
7. On-line Olympic Resources emphasizing Olympic values, literacy and numeracy skills, information and communication technology, active lifestyles and community links.

##### Project follow-up:

As part of the AOC OVEP implementation plan, the toolkit will be distributed to schools participating in the Pierre de Coubertin Awards, State and Federal Departments of Education (8,000 schools and 14,850 teachers registered) and State Olympic Councils (7 SOCs in total).

One of the key challenges pinpointed by the AOC for OVEP implementation is that there is no established uniform national curriculum in the country.

#### Federated States of Micronesia

##### Background

Keeping in mind the agreed commitment of the Regional Seminar in Fiji to prioritize youth empowerment and participation, the Young Educator Promoting Olympic Values (YEPOV) initiative was brought forward by the NOC. The objectives of the project are to: promote OV to Micronesia schools through the Junior Sport Program, increase the number of Micronesia youth interested in participating in sport, to train Micronesia youth and have them share the Olympic Movement with their peers, improve the quality of life of the youth of Micronesia.

Nineteen schools were targeted for this initiative and the project was launched in January 2010. Funding was obtained through the Olympic Solidarity World Programmes. This project is an example of good practices and joint collaboration of a larger experienced NOC lending a hand to one of her smaller counterparts.

##### OVEP workshop objectives:

1. Mentoring of young people, Education and Healthy Lifestyles.
2. Sharing experiences of the Youth Olympic Games.
3. The Role of the Olympic Movement.
4. A positive reinforcement of the Olympic Values and the value of sport.

##### Project implementation:

1. A selection of best students and teachers took place.
2. Endorsement by the participating schools.
3. OVEP objectives shared and incorporated with physical exercise.
4. Financial support received from Olympic Solidarity; material resource support received from the IOC Department of International Cooperation and Development.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Excellent teamwork in the organization of the workshop.
2. Students of Youth Camps and YOG gave presentations.
3. High level of satisfaction in participant evaluation.
4. Exposed schools are already implementing OVs in their programme.
5. Involved NOCs will assist students to follow-up on school activities.

##### Project recommendations:

1. Project will be continued at 2010 High School Track & Field Championships
2. Concept of Youth promoting OVs should be extended through other seminars.
3. The Women & Sport Committees in Oceania could organize such workshops.
4. ONOC to be involved in proposal for OV workshops with senior students.

#### India

##### Background

The introduction of the OVEP programme augured well with the Presidential launch in Pune (October 2008). In the early part of 2010, an IOC National “Train the Trainers” workshop comprised of 35 State Olympic Associations (28 states and 7 union territories) took place. The Delhi Public Schools (DPS) with a student intake of 10,000 was utilized for the “hands-on” practicum availed to the participants during the course of the workshop.

The NOC is committed to the OVEP programme and developing sport diversity at the grassroots level. It was agreed that OVEP would be part of the activities of the Indian National Club Games that will target 800,000 clubs in the country. Roll-out post workshop on a grassroots level is being implemented via the respective State Olympic Associations (SOAs).

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. Update participants on OVEP and the Education Toolkit.
2. To offer the OVEP learning and teaching theories.
3. Discuss implementation of OVEP in schools, universities and sport organizations.
4. Create a platform of leaders in schools and communities.
5. Select coaches to instruct OVEP leaders.
6. Involve rural children by providing an opportunity for participation.

##### Project implementation:

1. Creation of a master list of students’ expectations for feedback purposes.
2. Curriculum theory and toolkit analysis.
3. Learning as an active and interactive process (English and Hindi).
4. Learning in group discussions, creative activities, simulations, writing skills.
5. OVEP implementation and concept given to teaching coaches.
6. Motivate coaches to spread the concept to a ‘second’ layer of teachers.
7. Motivate these teachers to involve youth in the learning concept.
8. Nine target areas have been selected for the project.
9. One year of preparation, three years of OVEP implementation.
10. Core OVEP group; Project Directors & Coordinator, (Master) Trainers, Teachers & School Administrators, Performing Artists, Film Makers, University Students & Sportspersons, NGO Volunteers.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Olympic Values: Theory, content and methodology comprehended by students.
2. Toolkit: structure and content comprehended by students.
3. Participation 28 students (teachers 4, professors 5, Parent Advisory Committee 1, NOC officials 4, Sport organizations 14).
4. Implementation of OVEP in educational, sport and youth groups settings.
5. Feedback on resources.
6. Extend OVEP to other countries.

##### Project recommendations:

1. To adapt lecture-oriented, textbook teachers to a programme of physical activity.
2. Practicality of the toolkit in a multi-faceted setting.
3. Establish networking with other global similar projects.
4. University involvement required now to increase the impact.

##### Project assessment:

1. Endless support of staff, IOC and NOC very valuable.
2. Engagement of participants in activities and exercises positive.
3. Flexibility in regard to programme required.
4. Transparency in ideas between participants very helpful.

#### New Zealand

##### Background

For a number of years, the New Zealand Olympic Committee (NZOC) in collaboration with the New Zealand Olympic Academy (NZOA) have been very active in producing educational resources targeted at primary/secondary school levels and inclusion of Olympic education as a classroom-based activity in physical education training curriculum. The Ministry of Education and other key agencies on a country level are involved in this educational context.

The NOC has recently put in place dedicated staff in the form of a full-time Olympic Educator (participant to OVEP Fiji Workshop). The NZOC and NZOA have started to incorporate OVEP into digital education resources for primary schools and at university level. Academic courses on Olympism are now available. IT resources are accessible for free, together with the OVEP manual; this educational process is being channeled through Lift Education, an educational publishing company. This approach is in line with the NZOC Strategic Plan 2010-2013.

##### OVEP project objectives 1 (OVEP incorporation in schools and universities):

1. To promote awareness, engagement and modeling of the educational values of Olympism in the NZL educational system.
2. Develop the Olympism education knowledge base in physical education, sport education and sport coaching.
3. Offer OVEP to the Oceania region as opportunities for teachers.
4. Set up a research culture on Olympism (integrating OVEP) at university level.

##### Project implementation:

1. Olympism and OVEP have been included into the university curriculum of physical education students (University of Canterbury).
2. The above-mentioned University has also integrated OVEP into the education programme for sport coaching.
3. Specific courses on Olympism, Education and Sport and PhD courses in Olympic Studies are in the picture.

##### Project outcomes:

1. The Regional Seminar held in Fiji has exposed many participants to OVEP.
2. Resources and lack of curriculum time form barriers for dissemination.
3. Recommendations were sent to relevant Ministries of Education.
4. Other regional universities have been contacted. At least 3 professional development sessions for physical education teachers took place with an exposure of 200 delegates.
5. University staff have participated in a number of conferences.
6. Platforms created with other academic institutions, funding still a bottleneck.
7. Centre for Olympic studies developed at university level in NZL.

##### Project Recommendations:

1. The initiatives developed in NZL need to spread further in Oceania.
2. ONOC solidarity funding yet not available.
3. For funding beyond NZL university budgets required.
4. Strong, well-resourced leadership for Oceania is required.

##### Project follow-up:

1. Refresher courses for trainers must be organized.
2. Duplication must be avoided by a standardized monitoring and evaluation system.
3. Resources must be secured by initiating corporate partnerships.
4. Majority of trainers follow up with conducting workshops.
5. Trainers must improve their coordination and expand networking.

##### OVEP project objectives 2 (Living the Olympic Values):

1. Target group: primary school students, age 8 – 12 years.
2. Offer interactive digital education resources to primary schools.
3. Tone and technology must be engaging to youth, with a link to English, Social Sciences, Health and Physical Education.
4. Development of a promotional web development plan, focus on awareness of and demand for OV based educational resources.

##### Project implementation:

1. IT Texts are available for free with accompanying teaching notes.
2. Information on Olympism, the NZL curriculum and Resources.
3. Available texts: Olympic Values, Olympic Games, Giving it Everything, Determined to Succeed.
4. Funding was secured through NZOC, NZOA and Olympic Solidarity.
5. Corporate sponsorship currently being sought.
6. A new Board of NZOA is being formed.

#### Singapore

##### Background

In view of the inaugural 2010 Youth Olympic Games the Singapore National Olympic Council (SNOC) in collaboration with the National Olympic Academy (SOA) launched a training workshop directed to the theme of equipping and training educators for the Olympic Values Education Programme.

Under the banner of the 2009 SOA 16th Annual International Session for Young Participants, the Academy built a core group of Olympic Education champions in the Asian continent and Singapore. The Continental Association was on board and collaborated with the NOC in this initiative.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. To promote OVEP to NOCs and NOAs in the region.
2. To equip Olympic educators with knowledge and skills to deliver OVEP in their respective countries.
3. To develop a core group of Olympic Education Leaders, in view of the 2010 YOG in Singapore.

##### Project implementation:

1. Prior to Opening Ceremony a dialogue with 12 SIN Olympians was organized.
2. Olympic history and toolkit analysis.
3. Discussion in working groups on values such as peace, excellence, respect, teamwork, environment, etc.
4. Design of flags and the concept behind flag and ceremony symbolism.
5. Cultural presentations, local as well as international.
6. Simulations of the OG Opening Ceremony
7. An interactive Meet the Olympians’ session.
8. Sharing of national experiences on Olympic Education.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Very positive interaction between participants during workshop days.
2. Successful workshop as judged by the responding participants.
3. A total number of 116 participants with diverse representations.
4. Implementation of OVEP for children and youth appreciated by participants.

#### Tanzania

##### Background

Negotiations with the Ministry of Education to integrate OVEP on a national scale within the context of the school curriculum is hoped to be realized in the upcoming 2009/2010 academic year. The capital (Dar-es-Salaam) has a population of 4 million with a national population of 40+ million. Two workshops per year comprising 30 participants per session would have a high project impact taking into consideration the ripple effect. In order to empower youth, an OVEP Youth Ambassadors programme and the organization of a youth Olympic Festival is being developed by the OVEP Regional Coordinator.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. Train 30 physical education leaders from Tanzania.
2. Train 30 physical education leaders from Zanzibar.
3. Create an Olympic Education and Leadership Youth Camp.

##### Project implementation:

1. OVEP presentations were given in schools and school revisits are underway.
2. Workshop on Olympic Values Education held for 30 Women Sports leaders.
3. OVEP presentation held during East African Women Sports Journalists Forum.
4. OVEP presentation given during IOA in Olympia (117 Directors of NOAs).
5. Two day session on volunteerism for 30 young students at TOC headquarters.
6. Training of 150 students on providing Volunteer services during the Queen’s Baton Relay.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Trained students will act as coordinators during Youth Camps.
2. Report author took part in IOA Masters Course.

##### Project follow-up:

1. A proposal was submitted and approved for OVEP training 30 Physical Education Teachers (Sep 2010).
2. A proposal was submitted and approved for the training of 30 Physical Education Teachers in Zanzibar (Nov 2010).
3. A proposal has been submitted to Olympic Solidarity for funding for an International Olympic Education and Leadership Youth Camp (Nov 2010).

#### Zambia

The programme has support from the Ministry of Education, UNICEP (London 2012 International Inspirational project), NOC of Zambia, Sport for Youth and Sport in Action. Plans to expand the program involve integration into sport federations’ junior nationals. Discussions to this effect with the Zambia Schools Sport Association have been successful and it is projected that in the proposed roll-out phase more than 1,000 teachers in 72 district sport associations and that all national (inter-provincial and inter-schools nationals) will benefit from Olympic Values education.

The first Olympic Youth Development Centre (OYDC) under the IOC’s Sport for Hope Programme was officially opened in May 2010. The multi-purpose sports complex is a great addition to the local population and will also enrich multi-cultural dialogue through the running of international youth camps such as the IOC-UNODC Global Sports Fund Youth Camp.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. Develop an implementation structure for OVEP programs.
2. Integrate OVEP into Olympic and other national sport structures
3. Training of OVEP activity leaders.
4. Monitoring, evaluation and dissemination of good practices.

##### Project implementation 1 (Sensitization/engagement of stakeholders in OVEP):

To disseminate OVEP to 10 districts, 10,000 Youth & 100,000 Adults in 2010 by integration of OVEP into NOA, schools, sports clubs, NGOs.

##### Project outcomes 1:

Reach:

1. The NOA, 22 schools, 3 NGOs and 94 community youth teams have integrated OVEP into their educational programmes.
2. Implementation: 39 schools have made an OVEP implementation plan for 2010.

##### Project implementation 2 (training for sports teachers/coaches, peer leaders/coaches):

1. To equip 120 Teachers, 70 Coaches and 200 Peer Leaders with knowledge on integration of OVEP by training participants in 3 different levels of trainer skills.
2. To influence parents and teachers at targeted schools on their role in changing thought processes towards Olympic Values by holding quarterly forums in all selected schools on OVEP, the benefits for children, the role of parents and teachers, and the eventual conflict between OV versus cultural values.

##### Project outcomes 2:

1. 350 OVEP leaders have been trained to integrate life skills into games and sport and are conducting OVEP sessions now.
2. 400 Parents and Teachers were involved and provide a supportive environment; the children exposed testify positive changes in family environment.

##### Project implementation 3 (provide an OV platform through fun, learning and interaction):

1. To hold weekly OV sessions at schools and sport training sessions by OVEP leaders.
2. Organize group discussions/quizzes, also including children not-in-sport.
3. Organize OV skills ‘Challenge’ events for 400 children in 6 disciplines (football, basketball, traditional games, volleyball, netball, education quiz).

##### Project outcomes 3.

1. Children are enjoying the sport and experience a supportive environment, make friends, became healthier and active.
2. Children cope better with everyday life challenges, interact better with other communities.
3. Teachers are better motivated and have more interaction.
4. School managers encourage OVEP and the use of sport with a positive attitude.

##### Project implementation 4 (monitoring):

Progression of OVEP project and the response by target audience.

1. Response of children 6-18 years; involved vs. not involved.
2. Parent and Teacher involvement in implementation.
3. Policymaker involvement (school managers).

##### Project outcomes:

Results by observation and questionnaire:

1. Verbal expression improved in sport and day-to-day life.
2. Teachers state that OV input is easy to incorporate through sport, thereby building confidence in children.
3. Children more respectful in family situations and better motivated when tasks are asked from them.

#### Zimbabwe

##### Background

Much work at the policy decision making level and the building of a sound national foundation in respect to OVEP has been achieved. An environment conducive to OVEP implementation has been developed through joint collaboration with the NOC and Zimbabwe Olympic Academy (ZOA) via sensitization workshops. Proposals for further implementation involving cross border activities with Zimbabwe are also being looked into. In the planning it has been proposed that a series of Train the Trainer workshops be run with a projected outcome of 80 trainers trained.

The spreading of Olympism and Olympic Education through the teaching of Olympic Values is set to increase, as implementing agents are being identified in other Provinces for ZOA activities.

##### OVEP Project objectives:

1. Teaching Olympic Values in a socially acceptable manner.
2. Identify trainers from all provinces and institutional strategic leaders.
3. Trained participants to execute knowledge in their home provinces.
4. Monitoring, evaluation and dissemination of good practices.

##### Project implementation:

1. Train the Trainer Workshop:
a. With budgetary help of Olympic Solidarity, identification of participants in a national perspective.
b. Thirty participants selected in schools, communities and national associations, with help of provincial educators, local governments, Sport & Recreation Commission.
c. Workshop participants: 20 from provinces via Ministry (♂ & ♀), 4: welfare & sport officers, 4: National Sports Associations, 2: NOC & Sport & Recreation Commission.
d. Workshop took place on July 10-12, 2009, with interactive theory and practice lectures.

2. Enforcing the ZOA capacities:
a. A new ZOA Director was hired to incorporate the OVEP program and a new Board of ZOA is being formed.
b. Implementation of OVEP methodology in the school programme has been initiated.
c. Identification of corporate partners is required to cover budgetary gaps.

##### Project follow-up (Post Workshop):

1. Most Trainers trained conduct workshops, securing a roll-out
2. Resources remain a problem for further progress.
3. Trainers must improve their coordination and networking levels.
4. A continuing education after initial training is required.
5. Evaluation underlined the need to improve trainers’ knowledge on OVEP, to customize OVEP literature and to ensure monitoring and evaluation.
6. Timely submission of work plans needs to be enforced.

#### UNESCO

Associated Schools (ASPnet)

##### Background

An IOC-UNESCO Associated Schools (ASPnet) Joint Initiative was launched within the framework of “Teaching Olympic Values”. The sub-regional training workshop for ASPnet National Coordinators, teachers, youth leaders and curriculum specialists was hosted by the Trinidad and Tobago National Commission for UNESCO. ASPnet National Coordinators and teachers from six Caribbean countries of: Barbados, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago were present.

The National Olympic Committee of Trinidad and Tobago also co-organized and participated to this pilot project event. The NOC’s Olympic education programme “Shape the Community” Sport Development Project underlining Olympic values education has been well underway since 2008 and has a reach of over 3,000 children within three surrounding communities.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. To promote Values Education at school level, with a focus on the 5 values presented in the OVEP toolkit.
2. To process the implementation of the OVEP toolkit through the ASPnet laboratory by conducting a school experiment in the Caribbean.
3. Organize ASPnet Teacher and Coordinator workshops with presentation of the toolkit and elaboration of impact assessment tools.
4. Presentation of an evaluation survey to assess the impact of values education in primary and secondary schools.

##### Workshop objectives:

1. Provide participants with the necessary knowledge on the structure and content of the OVEP toolkit.
2. Elaborate assessment tools for primary and secondary schools on the integration of Olympic values in the education programme.
3. To plan school experiments over the 2010-2011 school year.
4. Draft recommendations for adaptation of the OVEP kit in the Caribbean context.
5. Complete survey data to be conducted at the end of the experimentation phase.

##### Project implementation:

1. Participants: 30 from 6 Caribbean countries, 6 ASPnet coordinators, 19 ASPnet teachers and sport coaches, 1 curriculum planner, 1 university teacher coach, 2 UNESCO staff, 1 IOC staff, 1 NOC staff, 5 national UNESCO Commission.
2. Presentation of OVEP toolkit, with a focus on (i) Joy of effort, (ii) Respect, (iii) Fair Play, (iv) Pursuit of Excellence, (v) Balance between body, will and mind.
3. Elaboration of assessment tools for (i) practicing the activities proposed in the toolkit, (ii) suggesting new activities, (iii) monitoring by questionnaire.
4. Preparation of monitoring and planning.
5. Creating commitment for participation in 2010-2011 school experimentation.
6. Joint declaration of commitment.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Participants trained on structure and content of toolkit.
2. A final report was drafted by participants.
3. Joint declaration of commitment signed by all participants.
4. Global planning for OVEP experimentation 2010-2011 has been detailed.
5. First generation of assessment tools decided upon.
6. Suggestions made for roll-out in other Caribbean countries.
7. Data collection instruments have been fine-tuned.
8. Video material is ready.

##### Project recommendations:

1. To finalize assessment tools for pre- and post-experimentation with education planners, statisticians and elected teachers and ASPnet coordinators.
2. Carry out applied research on the current vales education in the 6 participating countries.
3. To pursue research on basic socio-economic facts in the region.
4. To post workshop outcomes on the ASPnet website.
5. To collect from participants data to establish a working and monitoring platform for the school experimentation.
6. To identify a valid study sample, in terms of participating classes and students.

### Annex B: OVEP Country Implementation

#### Australia

##### Background

Olympic education and the Olympics have always stolen the hearts of the Australian population. The NOC education programmes and aims are implemented by using the Olympic sport traditions and values as the context for teaching life values and life skills. The promotion of the Olympic spirit and values to the wider community is performed through established education programs: (i) Live Clean Play Clean – delivered by young Olympians; (ii) Pierre de Coubertin Awards – open to all senior secondary school students across Australia and (iii) the A.S.P.I.R.E. school network.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. Using the Olympic sport traditions and values as the context for teaching life values and skills.
2. Educating young athletes on the moral, ethical and physical reasons for not taking performance-enhancing drugs.
3. Through the Coubertin Awards, select students who demonstrate attributes of fair play and respect for others.
4. Involve the community and stakeholders (NOC, Ministry of Education, Universities, Youth Council, IOC and IFs).
5. A.S.P.I.R.E. School Network (ASN) founded on the Australian Olympic Team’s set of values, namely: attitude, sportsmanship, pride, individual responsibility, respect and express yourself, which is the Australian Olympic Committee’s national education program for primary educators designed to instill in young Australians an appreciation for the values, spirit and philosophy of the Olympic Movement. This comprehensive programme organizes Olympic related activities such as on-line video conferencing providing the opportunity for primary school children to talk with Olympians, Olympic Day Celebration, BK Zone – website for primary students containing fun, interactive educational activities themed around the Olympic Games and Olympic Village Art. Primary students are invited to decorate the Australian section of the Olympic Village (AOC) received over 2,000 pieces of artwork from 100 schools for the Beijing Games).

##### Project implementation:

1. Coubertin Awards: open to all senior students, 779 awarded in 2008.
2. Village Art – Students are invited to deliver a literature or artistic piece of work for the Olympic Games.
3. More than 24,500 ASPIRE teachers registered since 2006.
4. A.S.P.I.R.E. activities: Learn from a Champ, Chat to a Champ, Olympic Day and Village Art, BK Zone and Medallion.
5. Fit OVEP in with Higher Council for Youth activities.
6. Cross-curriculum lectures for primary teachers with focus on the upcoming Olympic Games.
7. On-line Olympic Resources emphasizing Olympic values, literacy and numeracy skills, information and communication technology, active lifestyles and community links.

##### Project follow-up:

As part of the AOC OVEP implementation plan, the toolkit will be distributed to schools participating in the Pierre de Coubertin Awards, State and Federal Departments of Education (8,000 schools and 14,850 teachers registered) and State Olympic Councils (7 SOCs in total).

One of the key challenges pinpointed by the AOC for OVEP implementation is that there is no established uniform national curriculum in the country.

#### Federated States of Micronesia

##### Background

Keeping in mind the agreed commitment of the Regional Seminar in Fiji to prioritize youth empowerment and participation, the Young Educator Promoting Olympic Values (YEPOV) initiative was brought forward by the NOC. The objectives of the project are to: promote OV to Micronesia schools through the Junior Sport Program, increase the number of Micronesia youth interested in participating in sport, to train Micronesia youth and have them share the Olympic Movement with their peers, improve the quality of life of the youth of Micronesia.

Nineteen schools were targeted for this initiative and the project was launched in January 2010. Funding was obtained through the Olympic Solidarity World Programmes. This project is an example of good practices and joint collaboration of a larger experienced NOC lending a hand to one of her smaller counterparts.

##### OVEP workshop objectives:

1. Mentoring of young people, Education and Healthy Lifestyles.
2. Sharing experiences of the Youth Olympic Games.
3. The Role of the Olympic Movement.
4. A positive reinforcement of the Olympic Values and the value of sport.

##### Project implementation:

1. A selection of best students and teachers took place.
2. Endorsement by the participating schools.
3. OVEP objectives shared and incorporated with physical exercise.
4. Financial support received from Olympic Solidarity; material resource support received from the IOC Department of International Cooperation and Development.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Excellent teamwork in the organization of the workshop.
2. Students of Youth Camps and YOG gave presentations.
3. High level of satisfaction in participant evaluation.
4. Exposed schools are already implementing OVs in their programme.
5. Involved NOCs will assist students to follow-up on school activities.

##### Project recommendations:

1. Project will be continued at 2010 High School Track & Field Championships
2. Concept of Youth promoting OVs should be extended through other seminars.
3. The Women & Sport Committees in Oceania could organize such workshops.
4. ONOC to be involved in proposal for OV workshops with senior students.

#### India

##### Background

The introduction of the OVEP programme augured well with the Presidential launch in Pune (October 2008). In the early part of 2010, an IOC National “Train the Trainers” workshop comprised of 35 State Olympic Associations (28 states and 7 union territories) took place. The Delhi Public Schools (DPS) with a student intake of 10,000 was utilized for the “hands-on” practicum availed to the participants during the course of the workshop.

The NOC is committed to the OVEP programme and developing sport diversity at the grassroots level. It was agreed that OVEP would be part of the activities of the Indian National Club Games that will target 800,000 clubs in the country. Roll-out post workshop on a grassroots level is being implemented via the respective State Olympic Associations (SOAs).

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. Update participants on OVEP and the Education Toolkit.
2. To offer the OVEP learning and teaching theories.
3. Discuss implementation of OVEP in schools, universities and sport organizations.
4. Create a platform of leaders in schools and communities.
5. Select coaches to instruct OVEP leaders.
6. Involve rural children by providing an opportunity for participation.

##### Project implementation:

1. Creation of a master list of students’ expectations for feedback purposes.
2. Curriculum theory and toolkit analysis.
3. Learning as an active and interactive process (English and Hindi).
4. Learning in group discussions, creative activities, simulations, writing skills.
5. OVEP implementation and concept given to teaching coaches.
6. Motivate coaches to spread the concept to a ‘second’ layer of teachers.
7. Motivate these teachers to involve youth in the learning concept.
8. Nine target areas have been selected for the project.
9. One year of preparation, three years of OVEP implementation.
10. Core OVEP group; Project Directors & Coordinator, (Master) Trainers, Teachers & School Administrators, Performing Artists, Film Makers, University Students & Sportspersons, NGO Volunteers.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Olympic Values: Theory, content and methodology comprehended by students.
2. Toolkit: structure and content comprehended by students.
3. Participation 28 students (teachers 4, professors 5, Parent Advisory Committee 1, NOC officials 4, Sport organizations 14).
4. Implementation of OVEP in educational, sport and youth groups settings.
5. Feedback on resources.
6. Extend OVEP to other countries.

##### Project recommendations:

1. To adapt lecture-oriented, textbook teachers to a programme of physical activity.
2. Practicality of the toolkit in a multi-faceted setting.
3. Establish networking with other global similar projects.
4. University involvement required now to increase the impact.

##### Project assessment:

1. Endless support of staff, IOC and NOC very valuable.
2. Engagement of participants in activities and exercises positive.
3. Flexibility in regard to programme required.
4. Transparency in ideas between participants very helpful.

#### New Zealand

##### Background

For a number of years, the New Zealand Olympic Committee (NZOC) in collaboration with the New Zealand Olympic Academy (NZOA) have been very active in producing educational resources targeted at primary/secondary school levels and inclusion of Olympic education as a classroom-based activity in physical education training curriculum. The Ministry of Education and other key agencies on a country level are involved in this educational context.

The NOC has recently put in place dedicated staff in the form of a full-time Olympic Educator (participant to OVEP Fiji Workshop). The NZOC and NZOA have started to incorporate OVEP into digital education resources for primary schools and at university level. Academic courses on Olympism are now available. IT resources are accessible for free, together with the OVEP manual; this educational process is being channeled through Lift Education, an educational publishing company. This approach is in line with the NZOC Strategic Plan 2010-2013.

##### OVEP project objectives 1 (OVEP incorporation in schools and universities):

1. To promote awareness, engagement and modeling of the educational values of Olympism in the NZL educational system.
2. Develop the Olympism education knowledge base in physical education, sport education and sport coaching.
3. Offer OVEP to the Oceania region as opportunities for teachers.
4. Set up a research culture on Olympism (integrating OVEP) at university level.

##### Project implementation:

1. Olympism and OVEP have been included into the university curriculum of physical education students (University of Canterbury).
2. The above-mentioned University has also integrated OVEP into the education programme for sport coaching.
3. Specific courses on Olympism, Education and Sport and PhD courses in Olympic Studies are in the picture.

##### Project outcomes:

1. The Regional Seminar held in Fiji has exposed many participants to OVEP.
2. Resources and lack of curriculum time form barriers for dissemination.
3. Recommendations were sent to relevant Ministries of Education.
4. Other regional universities have been contacted. At least 3 professional development sessions for physical education teachers took place with an exposure of 200 delegates.
5. University staff have participated in a number of conferences.
6. Platforms created with other academic institutions, funding still a bottleneck.
7. Centre for Olympic studies developed at university level in NZL.

##### Project Recommendations:

1. The initiatives developed in NZL need to spread further in Oceania.
2. ONOC solidarity funding yet not available.
3. For funding beyond NZL university budgets required.
4. Strong, well-resourced leadership for Oceania is required.

##### Project follow-up:

1. Refresher courses for trainers must be organized.
2. Duplication must be avoided by a standardized monitoring and evaluation system.
3. Resources must be secured by initiating corporate partnerships.
4. Majority of trainers follow up with conducting workshops.
5. Trainers must improve their coordination and expand networking.

##### OVEP project objectives 2 (Living the Olympic Values):

1. Target group: primary school students, age 8 – 12 years.
2. Offer interactive digital education resources to primary schools.
3. Tone and technology must be engaging to youth, with a link to English, Social Sciences, Health and Physical Education.
4. Development of a promotional web development plan, focus on awareness of and demand for OV based educational resources.

##### Project implementation:

1. IT Texts are available for free with accompanying teaching notes.
2. Information on Olympism, the NZL curriculum and Resources.
3. Available texts: Olympic Values, Olympic Games, Giving it Everything, Determined to Succeed.
4. Funding was secured through NZOC, NZOA and Olympic Solidarity.
5. Corporate sponsorship currently being sought.
6. A new Board of NZOA is being formed.

#### Singapore

##### Background

In view of the inaugural 2010 Youth Olympic Games the Singapore National Olympic Council (SNOC) in collaboration with the National Olympic Academy (SOA) launched a training workshop directed to the theme of equipping and training educators for the Olympic Values Education Programme.

Under the banner of the 2009 SOA 16th Annual International Session for Young Participants, the Academy built a core group of Olympic Education champions in the Asian continent and Singapore. The Continental Association was on board and collaborated with the NOC in this initiative.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. To promote OVEP to NOCs and NOAs in the region.
2. To equip Olympic educators with knowledge and skills to deliver OVEP in their respective countries.
3. To develop a core group of Olympic Education Leaders, in view of the 2010 YOG in Singapore.

##### Project implementation:

1. Prior to Opening Ceremony a dialogue with 12 SIN Olympians was organized.
2. Olympic history and toolkit analysis.
3. Discussion in working groups on values such as peace, excellence, respect, teamwork, environment, etc.
4. Design of flags and the concept behind flag and ceremony symbolism.
5. Cultural presentations, local as well as international.
6. Simulations of the OG Opening Ceremony
7. An interactive Meet the Olympians’ session.
8. Sharing of national experiences on Olympic Education.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Very positive interaction between participants during workshop days.
2. Successful workshop as judged by the responding participants.
3. A total number of 116 participants with diverse representations.
4. Implementation of OVEP for children and youth appreciated by participants.

#### Tanzania

##### Background

Negotiations with the Ministry of Education to integrate OVEP on a national scale within the context of the school curriculum is hoped to be realized in the upcoming 2009/2010 academic year. The capital (Dar-es-Salaam) has a population of 4 million with a national population of 40+ million. Two workshops per year comprising 30 participants per session would have a high project impact taking into consideration the ripple effect. In order to empower youth, an OVEP Youth Ambassadors programme and the organization of a youth Olympic Festival is being developed by the OVEP Regional Coordinator.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. Train 30 physical education leaders from Tanzania.
2. Train 30 physical education leaders from Zanzibar.
3. Create an Olympic Education and Leadership Youth Camp.

##### Project implementation:

1. OVEP presentations were given in schools and school revisits are underway.
2. Workshop on Olympic Values Education held for 30 Women Sports leaders.
3. OVEP presentation held during East African Women Sports Journalists Forum.
4. OVEP presentation given during IOA in Olympia (117 Directors of NOAs).
5. Two day session on volunteerism for 30 young students at TOC headquarters.
6. Training of 150 students on providing Volunteer services during the Queen’s Baton Relay.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Trained students will act as coordinators during Youth Camps.
2. Report author took part in IOA Masters Course.

##### Project follow-up:

1. A proposal was submitted and approved for OVEP training 30 Physical Education Teachers (Sep 2010).
2. A proposal was submitted and approved for the training of 30 Physical Education Teachers in Zanzibar (Nov 2010).
3. A proposal has been submitted to Olympic Solidarity for funding for an International Olympic Education and Leadership Youth Camp (Nov 2010).

#### Zambia

The programme has support from the Ministry of Education, UNICEP (London 2012 International Inspirational project), NOC of Zambia, Sport for Youth and Sport in Action. Plans to expand the program involve integration into sport federations’ junior nationals. Discussions to this effect with the Zambia Schools Sport Association have been successful and it is projected that in the proposed roll-out phase more than 1,000 teachers in 72 district sport associations and that all national (inter-provincial and inter-schools nationals) will benefit from Olympic Values education.

The first Olympic Youth Development Centre (OYDC) under the IOC’s Sport for Hope Programme was officially opened in May 2010. The multi-purpose sports complex is a great addition to the local population and will also enrich multi-cultural dialogue through the running of international youth camps such as the IOC-UNODC Global Sports Fund Youth Camp.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. Develop an implementation structure for OVEP programs.
2. Integrate OVEP into Olympic and other national sport structures
3. Training of OVEP activity leaders.
4. Monitoring, evaluation and dissemination of good practices.

##### Project implementation 1 (Sensitization/engagement of stakeholders in OVEP):

To disseminate OVEP to 10 districts, 10,000 Youth & 100,000 Adults in 2010 by integration of OVEP into NOA, schools, sports clubs, NGOs.

##### Project outcomes 1:

Reach:

1. The NOA, 22 schools, 3 NGOs and 94 community youth teams have integrated OVEP into their educational programmes.
2. Implementation: 39 schools have made an OVEP implementation plan for 2010.

##### Project implementation 2 (training for sports teachers/coaches, peer leaders/coaches):

1. To equip 120 Teachers, 70 Coaches and 200 Peer Leaders with knowledge on integration of OVEP by training participants in 3 different levels of trainer skills.
2. To influence parents and teachers at targeted schools on their role in changing thought processes towards Olympic Values by holding quarterly forums in all selected schools on OVEP, the benefits for children, the role of parents and teachers, and the eventual conflict between OV versus cultural values.

##### Project outcomes 2:

1. 350 OVEP leaders have been trained to integrate life skills into games and sport and are conducting OVEP sessions now.
2. 400 Parents and Teachers were involved and provide a supportive environment; the children exposed testify positive changes in family environment.

##### Project implementation 3 (provide an OV platform through fun, learning and interaction):

1. To hold weekly OV sessions at schools and sport training sessions by OVEP leaders.
2. Organize group discussions/quizzes, also including children not-in-sport.
3. Organize OV skills ‘Challenge’ events for 400 children in 6 disciplines (football, basketball, traditional games, volleyball, netball, education quiz).

##### Project outcomes 3.

1. Children are enjoying the sport and experience a supportive environment, make friends, became healthier and active.
2. Children cope better with everyday life challenges, interact better with other communities.
3. Teachers are better motivated and have more interaction.
4. School managers encourage OVEP and the use of sport with a positive attitude.

##### Project implementation 4 (monitoring):

Progression of OVEP project and the response by target audience.

1. Response of children 6-18 years; involved vs. not involved.
2. Parent and Teacher involvement in implementation.
3. Policymaker involvement (school managers).

##### Project outcomes:

Results by observation and questionnaire:

1. Verbal expression improved in sport and day-to-day life.
2. Teachers state that OV input is easy to incorporate through sport, thereby building confidence in children.
3. Children more respectful in family situations and better motivated when tasks are asked from them.

#### Zimbabwe

##### Background

Much work at the policy decision making level and the building of a sound national foundation in respect to OVEP has been achieved. An environment conducive to OVEP implementation has been developed through joint collaboration with the NOC and Zimbabwe Olympic Academy (ZOA) via sensitization workshops. Proposals for further implementation involving cross border activities with Zimbabwe are also being looked into. In the planning it has been proposed that a series of Train the Trainer workshops be run with a projected outcome of 80 trainers trained.

The spreading of Olympism and Olympic Education through the teaching of Olympic Values is set to increase, as implementing agents are being identified in other Provinces for ZOA activities.

##### OVEP Project objectives:

1. Teaching Olympic Values in a socially acceptable manner.
2. Identify trainers from all provinces and institutional strategic leaders.
3. Trained participants to execute knowledge in their home provinces.
4. Monitoring, evaluation and dissemination of good practices.

##### Project implementation:

1. Train the Trainer Workshop:
a. With budgetary help of Olympic Solidarity, identification of participants in a national perspective.
b. Thirty participants selected in schools, communities and national associations, with help of provincial educators, local governments, Sport & Recreation Commission.
c. Workshop participants: 20 from provinces via Ministry (♂ & ♀), 4: welfare & sport officers, 4: National Sports Associations, 2: NOC & Sport & Recreation Commission.
d. Workshop took place on July 10-12, 2009, with interactive theory and practice lectures.

2. Enforcing the ZOA capacities:
a. A new ZOA Director was hired to incorporate the OVEP program and a new Board of ZOA is being formed.
b. Implementation of OVEP methodology in the school programme has been initiated.
c. Identification of corporate partners is required to cover budgetary gaps.

##### Project follow-up (Post Workshop):

1. Most Trainers trained conduct workshops, securing a roll-out
2. Resources remain a problem for further progress.
3. Trainers must improve their coordination and networking levels.
4. A continuing education after initial training is required.
5. Evaluation underlined the need to improve trainers’ knowledge on OVEP, to customize OVEP literature and to ensure monitoring and evaluation.
6. Timely submission of work plans needs to be enforced.

#### UNESCO

Associated Schools (ASPnet)

##### Background

An IOC-UNESCO Associated Schools (ASPnet) Joint Initiative was launched within the framework of “Teaching Olympic Values”. The sub-regional training workshop for ASPnet National Coordinators, teachers, youth leaders and curriculum specialists was hosted by the Trinidad and Tobago National Commission for UNESCO. ASPnet National Coordinators and teachers from six Caribbean countries of: Barbados, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago were present.

The National Olympic Committee of Trinidad and Tobago also co-organized and participated to this pilot project event. The NOC’s Olympic education programme “Shape the Community” Sport Development Project underlining Olympic values education has been well underway since 2008 and has a reach of over 3,000 children within three surrounding communities.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. To promote Values Education at school level, with a focus on the 5 values presented in the OVEP toolkit.
2. To process the implementation of the OVEP toolkit through the ASPnet laboratory by conducting a school experiment in the Caribbean.
3. Organize ASPnet Teacher and Coordinator workshops with presentation of the toolkit and elaboration of impact assessment tools.
4. Presentation of an evaluation survey to assess the impact of values education in primary and secondary schools.

##### Workshop objectives:

1. Provide participants with the necessary knowledge on the structure and content of the OVEP toolkit.
2. Elaborate assessment tools for primary and secondary schools on the integration of Olympic values in the education programme.
3. To plan school experiments over the 2010-2011 school year.
4. Draft recommendations for adaptation of the OVEP kit in the Caribbean context.
5. Complete survey data to be conducted at the end of the experimentation phase.

##### Project implementation:

1. Participants: 30 from 6 Caribbean countries, 6 ASPnet coordinators, 19 ASPnet teachers and sport coaches, 1 curriculum planner, 1 university teacher coach, 2 UNESCO staff, 1 IOC staff, 1 NOC staff, 5 national UNESCO Commission.
2. Presentation of OVEP toolkit, with a focus on (i) Joy of effort, (ii) Respect, (iii) Fair Play, (iv) Pursuit of Excellence, (v) Balance between body, will and mind.
3. Elaboration of assessment tools for (i) practicing the activities proposed in the toolkit, (ii) suggesting new activities, (iii) monitoring by questionnaire.
4. Preparation of monitoring and planning.
5. Creating commitment for participation in 2010-2011 school experimentation.
6. Joint declaration of commitment.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Participants trained on structure and content of toolkit.
2. A final report was drafted by participants.
3. Joint declaration of commitment signed by all participants.
4. Global planning for OVEP experimentation 2010-2011 has been detailed.
5. First generation of assessment tools decided upon.
6. Suggestions made for roll-out in other Caribbean countries.
7. Data collection instruments have been fine-tuned.
8. Video material is ready.

##### Project recommendations:

1. To finalize assessment tools for pre- and post-experimentation with education planners, statisticians and elected teachers and ASPnet coordinators.
2. Carry out applied research on the current vales education in the 6 participating countries.
3. To pursue research on basic socio-economic facts in the region.
4. To post workshop outcomes on the ASPnet website.
5. To collect from participants data to establish a working and monitoring platform for the school experimentation.
6. To identify a valid study sample, in terms of participating classes and students.

How to Spread and Develop Joint International Programs about Olympic Education: Cultural and Communication Problems

### Introduction

From its inception, the Modern Olympic Movement has fused education with sport and culture to improve both the body and mind. Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Modern Olympic Games, crafted a vision of universal education through Olympism, spreading such ideals as discipline, focus, vision, commitment, and persistence.

The Olympic Charter (OC) is the codification of the Fundamental Principles of Olympism, Rules and Bye-Laws adopted by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). It governs the organisation, action, and operation of the Olympic Movement and sets forth the conditions for the celebration of the Olympic Games. In essence, the Olympic Charter serves three main purposes (IOC, 2007).

* The Olympic Charter, as a basic instrument of a constitutional nature, sets forth and recalls the fundamental principles and essential values of Olympism.
* The Olympic Charter also serves as statutes for the International Olympic Committee.
* In addition, the Olympic Charter defines the main reciprocal rights and obligations of the three main constituents of the Olympic Movement, namely the International Olympic Committee, the International Federations, and the National Olympic Committees, as well as the Organising Committees for the Olympic Games, all of which are required to comply with the Olympic Charter (IOC, 2007).

Fundamental to the understanding of Olympism is its emphasis on an educational mandate. In fact, the “Olympic idea cannot be understood without an understanding of its educational mission” (Gessman, 1992:33). This educational mandate is outlined in several of the Fundamental Principles of the Olympic Charter (Binder, 2005).

The Olympic Charter (2007) states simply the relationship among Olympic philosophy, ethics, and education:

Fundamental Principle 1 and 2 (p11):

1. Olympism is a philosophy of life, exalting and combining in a balanced whole the qualities of body, will, and mind. Blending sport with culture and education, Olympism seeks to create a way of life based on the joy of effort, the educational value of good example, and respect for universal fundamental ethical principles.
2. The goal of Olympism is to place sport at the service of the harmonious development of man, with a view to promoting a peaceful society concerned with the preservation of human dignity.

This is a values education mandate. Some of the specific, positive values referred to in these principles include a respect for balance in the human character between aspects of mind, body, and spirit, an understanding of the joy found in effort, an emphasis on peaceful behaviour, and respect for others (here described as preservation of human dignity). The principles, while somewhat awkward in their English wording, also include direction for an Olympic pedagogy. That is, the fundamental principles seem to suggest components of a possible teaching and learning strategy. Note the references to such strategies as, “blending sport with culture and education,” setting “good examples,” and encouraging participation in sport as an educational situation in which these values can be developed (Binder, 2005).

### National Olympic Committees

Chapter 4 of the Olympic Charter deals with National Olympic Committees, stating very clearly important duties of NOCs with regard to Olympic education (IOC, 2007, p. 61).

Mission and Role of the NOCs:

1. The mission of the NOCs is to develop, promote, and protect the Olympic Movement in their respective countries, in accordance with the Olympic Charter (IOC, 2007).
2. The NOCs’ role is:

1. to promote the fundamental principles and values of Olympism in their countries, in particular, in the fields of sport and education, by promoting Olympic educational programmes in all levels of schools, sports and physical education institutions and Universities, as well as by encouraging the creation of institutions dedicated to Olympic education, such as National Olympic Academies, Olympic Museums, and other programmes, including cultural, related to the Olympic Movement (IOC, 2007);
2. to ensure the observance of the Olympic Charter in their countries (IOC, 2007).

### National Olympic Academies

National Olympic Academies are an integral part of the International Olympic Academy and the Olympic Movement (Georgiadis, 2008). Georgiadis further elaborates that, once the IOA had begun its activities, a number of important and substantial issues related to its operation and linked to the attainment of its goals came to light. It became obvious that IOA needed support of other organizations in order to respond to the educational requirements of the Olympic Movement.

> Attending lectures during the IOA’s sessions was not considered sufficient to make participants aware of the academy’s mission and their own contribution to it.
>
> The selection of the participants, their preliminary training, their stay at the International Olympic Academy, and the need to draw upon their knowledge and experience, led to the creation of national centres for Olympic studies in other countries.

Georgiadis goes on to explain that participants in the IOA sessions and seminars now had a point of reference in their own respective countries around which they could rally in order to develop their Olympic education activities in cooperation with IOA.

Georgiadis notes that, in the discussion groups at the IOA’s sessions, the idea of a “National Olympic Academy” is considered as a popular topic. In the same observation, Georgiadis further recounts that, as many Olympic Committees do not comply with their educational obligations in a consistent manner, participants at the sessions have demanded the creation of National Olympic Academies (NOAs) to allow those who attend the sessions of the IOA once they return to their country to become involved in their core activities and operate as the ambassadors of Olympism in their homelands.

Today, 32 years after the establishment of the first National Olympic Academies, the aim of each Olympic Academy is, through Olympic Education programs, to cultivate and disseminate the Olympic Ideal, study and apply the universal education and social principles of the Olympic Movement, in conformity with the Olympic Charter, within the national and cultural boundaries of each National Olympic Committee, in cooperation with the IOA and the IOC.

These aims are achieved by NOAs by the means of programs which they develop themselves in collaboration with the NOC and other sports and educational entities in their country. National Olympic Academies are the IOA’s extensions and operate as transmitters and receivers for the promotion of the Olympic Charter’s ideals through the national Olympic education programs. Each national Olympic Academy must also encourage the practice of sport among all social and age groups and promote the idea of sport as a fundamental human right.

Georgiadis elaborates that “National Olympic Academies operate within the framework of their respective National Olympic Committees and their aims are in harmony with those of the NOCs.” The NOAs are the educational institutions of the NOCs. Even when there are differences in their structures and modes of operation, they must always be placed under the patronage of the NOC within the framework of a single Olympic Movement. It would be very difficult today to define a single system for the operation of NOAs, as there are huge administrative, cultural, and political differences from country to country.

The goal of education – of Olympism – may is summarized in a quote from 2000 by then IOC President, Juan Antonio Samaranch: “Every act of support for the Olympic Movement promotes peace, friendship, and solidarity throughout the world.”

The field of Olympic education has been studied in-depth by numerous international scholars. They have endeavoured to analyze the core of Olympic education so as to avoid the concept of Olympic education being regarded merely as a pool of all highly social and moral values. It is more or less commonly agreed that the idea of Olympic education first and foremost encompasses the long-ranging striving for individual achievement with due respect for the principles of fair play and an increase in a better transnational mutual understanding by supporting processes of intercultural learning.

In the course of the last decades, some scholars have successfully endeavoured to spread the main ideas of Olympic education. The main target groups have been students and pupils. At the International Olympic Academy in Olympia, as well as at conferences organized by various National Olympic Committees, Olympic Academies, and institutes of learning, students are offered the possibility of examining basic ideas of Olympic education.

Frequently the students bring their experience and knowledge back to their home universities in order to integrate them into classes or tutorials. Without doubt, this is a fruitful way to disseminate the central values of Olympic education.

According to Binder, Olympic education in its broadest sense encompasses the workshops and leadership training of Olympic Solidarity, the research and scholarly study of sport historians and sociologists, the public relations efforts of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), its sponsors and its affiliates, as well as the school curricula, handbooks and projects of Olympic Games organizing committees, National Olympic Committees (NOCs), and National Olympic Academies (NOAs). It also encompasses a large variety of initiatives for children and youth (Binder D., 1995).

### International Olympic Academy

The International Olympic Academy functions as a multicultural interdisciplinary centre that aims at studying, enriching, and promoting Olympism. The foundation of such an institution was inspired by the ancient Gymnasium, which shaped the Olympic Ideal by harmoniously cultivating body, will, and mind. On the eve of the 21st century, the centennial anniversary of the revival of the Olympic Games coincides with the global scale changes that are affecting every aspect of human thought and activity.

We, our cultures, and our civilisations have already entered a greater transitional period in which the images of the world that we were used to taking for granted are being altered. The interrelated scientific, technological, economic, political, and social developments that characterise the course of humanity towards the third millennium are influencing each and every idea, norm, and institution of our international community.

This dynamic wave is also opening up new forms of dialogue for the future of Olympism. Moreover, as can be seen through the study of its age-long history, the Olympic Ideal has always been conceived and formed according to the wider conditions prevailing during different periods in time.

The birth, the prosperity, the decline, and the revival of the Olympic Games have all been the reflection of the wider cultural conditions that shaped each era.

The speculations and potentials still evolving out of the Olympic Movement are naturally arising in the realisation process of such an Ideal.

“Olympism,” in the words of Pierre de Coubertin, “is not a system; it is a state of mind. It can permeate a wide variety of modes of expression, and no single race or era can claim to have the monopoly of it.”

The International Olympic Academy provides a unique opportunity for students, academics, athletes, artists, and officials from all over the world to exchange ideas and share this “state of mind” in Ancient Olympia.

The wide variety of educational sessions, academic programmes, and in depth research studies that are offered all aim towards serving the vision of the International Olympic Academy for the new century: to explore and enhance the contribution of Olympism to humanity.

The mission of the IOA is:

1. to function as an International Academic Centre for Olympic Studies, Education, and Research;
2. to act as an International Forum for free expression and exchange of ideas among the Olympic Family, intellectuals, scientists, athletes, sport administrators, educators, artists, and the youth of the world;
3. to bring together people from all over the world, in a spirit of friendship and cooperation;
4. to motivate people to use the experiences and knowledge gained in the IOA productively, in promoting the Olympic Ideals in their respective countries;
5. to serve and promote the Ideals and principles of the Olympic Movement;
6. to cooperate with and assist the National Olympic Academies and any other institutions devoted to Olympic Education;
7. to further explore and enhance the contribution of Olympism to humanity.

### Educational Programmes of the International Olympic Academy

* International Session for Young Participants
* International Post Graduate Seminar on Olympic Studies
* Joint International Session for Directors of NOAs, Members, and Staff of NOCs and IFs
* Joint International Session for Educationists and Staff of Higher Institutes of Physical Education
* International Session for Sports Journalists
* Special Sessions for institutions related with Olympism: National Olympic Committees, National Olympic Academies, International Sport Federations, Sport Medical Societies, Unions of Coaches, Referees, Sports Administrators, etc.
* Special Sessions for Institutions indirectly related with Olympism (C.I.S.M., Teachers, etc.) aiming to promote the Olympic Ideal
* Educational visits of groups from various institutions (universities, graduate schools, schools, sports clubs)
* Visits of Researchers of Olympic subjects
* Conferences on Sports

All the IOA Sessions are held in Ancient Olympia, and participants are accommodated in the guestrooms located on the Academy grounds.

The IOA has three official languages, English, French and Greek, and participants must be fluent in at least one in order to participate in the educational programmes. The Joint Session for Presidents or Directors of NOAs and Officials of NOCs, is perhaps the most important of all the sessions for the success of almost all the other sessions. This biannual Session aims to bring together Senior Administrators from organizations engaged in creating Olympic Education programmes and involved in educational and social activities aiming to promote the Olympic Movement.

The IOA’s role is to coordinate and assist the NOAs in their work, and this Session provides a forum for the exchange of ideas and educational programmes and the presentation of the activities of the NOAs and NOCs in different countries. Communication and the working culture of the NOCs and NOAs is of paramount importance in the success of these sessions. The choice of participants, preparation, and commitment of the participants is key to the realization of the intended objective.

This year’s session is the tenth in the series. As such, there is need to reflect on the organization and management of these joint sessions so as to improve the quality of the sessions and to realise the intended goal, that of developing and spreading Olympic Education. Communication is an important factor in the success of any humankind undertaking. Several factors contribute either positively or negatively on communication, such as timeliness, language, clarity, accuracy, medium, feedback or response, and ability to follow instruction, the working culture or policy of an organization in relation to communication issues.

This paper sets out to present the problems encountered in the quest of organizing such sessions, specifically focusing on cultural and communication problems.

### Methodology

The literature review method was the primary method used in developing this paper. Published and unpublished sources have been used. Correspondence between IOA, and NOAs, and NOCs, past session presentations and Conclusions were also reviewed. Personal experience from attending a number of sessions of IOA and discussions with IOA Masters students (2009 / 2010), have all been taken into consideration.

### Findings and discussion

* Often times there has been confusion between delegates of NOAs and NOCs to the extent that the IOA has had to request NOAs and NOCs to clearly state whether or not a delegate is a member of NOA or NOC. Sometimes delegates have been sent who are not involved in the Education functions of the NOAs or NOCs.
* Quite a number of delegates are sent to Olympia without prior preparation as to what to expect and what is expected of them. With some countries, there is a turn-over every year, where the policy is to award the trip to members of the NOC in turns. As such, there is no continuity; this has forced the IOA to insist that the President / Director of NOAs must attend the Directors and the joint sessions.
* Non adherence to Final Enrolment date: “We have noticed in the past that many NOAs or NOCs do not submit their application forms in due time. We hereby would like to bring to your attention that no application submitted after the expiry date will be considered.”
* Language: Participants must have an excellent knowledge of either English or French, since they are expected to take active part in the discussion groups which follow the lectures. This is the quintessence of the IOA’s activities, i.e., to get people from all over the world to know and contact one another. It has been repeatedly noticed in the past that quite a few participants cannot understand or speak either English or French and consequently, they are unable to participate fully in the discussion groups. Therefore, all NOCs and NOAs are kindly requested to avoid sending over delegates who do not speak fluently at least one of the above two languages.
* Working relationship between NOAs and NOCs is another challenge that features prominently in the conclusions of the group discussions of the sessions, especially as relates to accessibility to information and financial support. This problem is more pronounced in countries which rely solely on Olympic Solidarity funding. Rarely are any Olympic Education activities undertaken for want of funding. In most other NOCs, NOAs exist only on paper, and no activities take place apart from attending the sessions here in Olympia.
* In the conclusions of English Speaking Group 5, during the 9th International Session For Directors of National Olympic Academies (1- 8 June 2007), Ibrahim Abazid, et, al., considered the challenges, difficulties, and solutions to implementing Olympic Education Program and concluded that there are three key challenges that needed to be addressed. They named these as: relationship between NOA and NOC, communication, and financial difficulties.

### Conclusion

We observe from the above that there are communication problems within the key players involved in the development and dissemination of International Joint Sessions on Olympic Education, namely, the IOC (through OS), the IOA, the NOCs, and NOAs. The gap is more pronounced between NOCs and NOAs. This communication problem is both in terms of availability and timeliness, as well as response or feedback.

This is a result of poor working relationship between NOCs and NOAs; the main cause has been attributed to non-information sharing by the NOCs, even in instances where NOAs are directly under the NOC. NOAs are hardly ever made aware of the funding opportunities from Olympic Solidarity. Even the funds provided to NOCs under “Other Activities” are hardly ever communicated to NOAs; and the quadrennial plans which offer a number of opportunities are unknown to most NOA officials.

It is also noted that in some cases, the NOAs are only on paper, or spring up when it is time for a trip to Olympia; no initiatives are done to organize and spread Olympic education in the respective countries. The young participants who are sent to Olympia are not chosen on merit since there are no Olympic Education activities, in some countries.

Officials not involved in Olympic Education have been sent to these sessions, while being fully aware that they will not involve themselves in the dissemination of Olympic Education when they go back to their countries. NOCs should work together with NOAs to select the best candidates based on merit to attend such sessions. A system should be developed to ensure that those who attend these sessions have the knowledge, motivation, and commitment to embark on creation and spreading of Olympic Education.

A working guideline should be developed to ensure a smooth working relationships among the key players in the development and spread of Olympic Education, namely: the IOC (through Olympic Solidarity), the IOA, the NOCs, and the NOAs. This document should be made available to all and be posted on the IOC and IOA websites.

### References

Binder, D.L. (2005). Challenges and Models for successful Olympic Education Initiatives at Grassroots Level. Paper presented during Forum organized by the Centre for Olympic Studies – Olympic Perspectives.

Binder, D. L. (2007).Teaching Values: An Olympic Education Toolkit. International Olympic Committee, 2007.

Binder, D. L. (2005). Teaching Olympism in Schools: Olympic Education as a focus on Values Education. University of Barcelona – Olympic Studies Centre.

Georgiadis, K. (2008). National Olympic Academies. International Olympic Academy. 9th Joint International Session for Presidents or Directors of National Olympic Academies and Officials of National Olympic Committees 12 – 19 May 2008; Conclusions.

International Olympic Academy – circular Ref. No.: 1376 / KG /st Athens, 8th December 2009.

International Olympic Academy. 8th International Session for Directors of National Olympic Academies 18th – 25th April 2005; Conclusions.

International Olympic Academy. 8th Joint International Session for Presidents or Directors of National Olympic Academies and Officials of National Olympic Committees 23 – 30 May 2006; Conclusions.

International Olympic Academy. 9th International Session for Directors of National Olympic Academies 1 – 8 June 2007; Conclusions.

International Olympic Academy. 9th Joint International Session for Presidents or Directors of National Olympic Academies and Officials of National Olympic Committees 12 – 19 May 2008; Conclusions.

IOA Website. www.ioa.org.gr

IOC. (2007). Olympic Charter. Lausanne, Switzerland.

The Place and Role of Olympism in Higher Education

### Introduction

Interpreting the place and role of Olympism in higher education is a necessary and pertinent issue. The close relationship between the Olympic Movement and universities dates back as far as 1894. The fact that the IOC was established at Sorbonne University – the “temple of science,” as Pierre de Coubertin called it – contributed to this, as did Coubertin himself. The development of sport, as well as the importance and social impact of the Olympic Games, later prompted interest among individual researchers and teams of scholars at universities. The general interest among universities in Olympism and the Olympic Games in the 1980s intensified their direct and indirect cooperation with the Olympic Movement, both in terms of education and research (c.f. Morgas, 2006). Another mediator in this process comprised the activities of the IOC and the IOA, as well as the establishment of a new Olympic Museum, which has been illustrating the connection between Olympism, sport, and culture since 1993, whilst also developing and supporting the concept of education and research projects at universities. Nonetheless, the educational and research leanings of universities, as well as the forms in which they cooperate with national Olympic Movements and the themes that have been dealt with, often differ. National specificity is important in this regard. Consequently, the starting point for our report is the Czech Republic, which makes no claims to represent the general situation.

### Why is Olympism taught and researched at universities in the Czech Republic?

* It is the Olympic Movement’s mission to cooperate with the academic community.
* The development of the Olympic Movement and the Olympic Games cannot do without academic reflections on their social impact.
* Apart from other things, the implementation of Olympic values in university curricula programmes has also been caused by a crisis in general concepts of education, which students find too theoretical, formal, and verbose.
* The autonomy of the Olympic Movement and universities, as well as their economic security and the coordination and harmonisation of research and education, are basic preconditions for their effective cooperation.
* Physical education and sports at primary and secondary schools, as well as at universities, should not only comprise sports training but should also have an Olympic and humanist dimension.
* The Olympic Movement needs experts and specialists. Universities can offer and arrange training for them, along with academic research and a specialist service.
* For the time being, we cannot be entirely satisfied with the role of primary and secondary schools as well as universities in disseminating the Olympic idea and Olympic culture.

### Implementing Olympism in the education programmes of Czech universities and faculties

Olympism, is a set of principles, ideas, visions, and challenges. Coubertin described it in not completely systematic terms as a philosophy of life with the principles of a cult of effort, eurhythmics, and a love of exercise, but also as a state of mind (c.f. Naul, 2009). Consequently, as far back as the end of the 19th century, in his philosophical, psychological, and educational musings, Coubertin already understood that sport and exercise were becoming important actors in culture as well as a means of educating and communicating across different civilisations.

Besides by the original ideas of Pierre de Coubertin, Olympism is enriched by other ideas and objectives in the Olympic Charter. These comprise reflections on the development of the Olympic Movement, sport, and culture as well as their mutual relationships (c.f. Georgiadis, 2003). Nonetheless, they also include reflections on applying the results of academic research.

As we shall illustrate below, two different approaches have been pursued in incorporating Olympism into curricula at Czech universities for training experts in physical education and sports. At other universities and faculties, the implementation of Olympism is not yet systematic and is influenced by specialists operating in the fields of philosophy, sociology, ethics, aesthetics, etc.

#### A) Implementing Olympic themes in social science curriculum subjects for training physical education specialists

Wherever Olympism cannot be applied as a separate study subject, Olympic themes are chosen and taught according to the graduates’ future work. They are primarily taught in social and sports subjects, but are also developed in courses for sports disciplines in both bachelor’s and master’s studies. As future teachers, trainers, instructors, etc., physical education students learn basic Olympic knowledge, skills and competences for their future activity in several study subjects.

Tables 1.
Implementing Olympic themes in curriculum subjects at physical education faculties in the Czech Republic

Man and the World — General Themes Olympic Themes, Knowledge, Skills, and Competences of Students Academic Disciplines and Study Subjects
The coexistence of people coming together; respecting ethical principles knowing the importance of sport as a means of bringing people together. Understanding the Olympic Games as a means of mutual understanding, friendship, solidarity and honest competition philosophy, sports philosophy, ethics, sports psychology
Human behaviour, national minorities, foreigners understanding and assessing the importance of the Olympic Charter, the role of Olympic ideals in respecting people of different nations, races and cultures, rejecting any kind of discrimination ethics, philosophy, sports philosophy, sports psychology, sports education
Building a peaceful and better wold applying youth education through sports, obser-ving Olympic principles, and setting a personal example; knowing the importance of ekecheiria in historical and contemporary reflections philosophy, sociology, sports sciences, sports activities
Personal safety, violence in society, socially undesirable behaviour realising and distinguishing the differences between polite encouragement for sports teams and various forms of direct or transferred aggression at sports matches (football, hockey) sports sociology, sports psychology, legislation, the law in sport
International and national institutions and organisations knowing and distinguishing governmental and non-governmental international and national Olympic organisations, as well as the international and national sports federations sports management, law, sports sociology
Basic human rights and citizens’ obligations understanding sport as a human right, knowing the International Charter of Physical Education and Sport as well as the European Charter of Sport and examples of their application legislation and the law in sport, ethics, sports philosophy, sports sociology
Getting to know people valuing the Olympic Movement and sport as a means of knowing and understanding other people; the Olympic Games as a meeting of young people from all over the world sports philosophy, sports sociology, sports psychology
Self-knowledge understanding Olympism as a state of mind and self-knowledge through sport, joy in efforts made; forming positive attitudes to sport sports psychology, sports philosophy
Interpersonal relationships managing to perceive manifestations of intole-rance in people’s behaviour, unfair and fair beha-viour in life and in sport; managing to shape a situation for the development fair-play behaviour ethics, sports psychology, sociology, sports sociology
Interpersonal relationships managing to perceive manifestations of intole-rance in people’s behaviour, unfair and fair beha-viour in life and in sport; managing to shape a situation for the development fair-play behaviour ethics, sports psychology, sociology, sports sociology
Interpersonal communication recognizes the importance of sport and sports “competitions” and overcome oneself in human communication. Managing to prepare and organise sports competitions in schools and in clubs in accordance with Olympic principles active participation in sports competitions, Olympic days and festivals for young people, sports management
Human solidarity knowing and being able to explain the role and importance of the Olympic and Paralympic Games Olympic Charter, sports history, ethics
Value system knowing and being able to interpret and evaluate the main Olympic values and the principles of their internalization sports history, sports philosophy, axiology
Human activity, Work, Leisure Time Olympic Themes, Knowledge, Skills and Competences of Students Academic Disciplines and Study Subjects
Leisure time and the use of this time understanding and evaluating sport as one of the most mass forms of leisure-time activities, identifying sport as a means of educating the young, health and delinquent prevention sports philosophy, sports education, biomedicine
An active lifestyle appreciating and understanding Olympism as an active life philosophy and style with sport and exercise playing an important role, adopting a positive attitude to it development sports philosophy, ethics, sports education, sports sociology
Forms and manifestations of culture in society understanding and valuing sport as one of the forms of physical culture; multiculturalism aesthetics, sports philoso-phy, cultural anthropology, artistic competitions: literature, music, drama
Culture, art and sport Being able to describe and explain the relationship between Olympism, sport, culture and art, the principle of kalokagathia, knowing important works of art as a cultural legacy aesthetics, sports philoso-phy, cultural anthropolo-gy, artistic competitions – literature, art, music and drama
History Olympic Themes, Knowledge, Skills and Competences of Students Academic Disciplines and Study Subjects
Antiquity sport and games in antiquity understanding ancient Olympic traditions, understanding the purpose and mission of the ancient Olympic Games, appreciating the importance of antiquity in modern Olympism sports history, sports philosophy, aesthetics
The origin of international sport and the Olympic Games, Pierre de Coubertin knowing the founder of the modern Olympic Games, Olympic symbolism. Understanding the important and mission of the Olympic Games, Olympic institutions and organisations sports history, philosophy, sports philosophy, sports management
Man and Health Olympic Themes, Knowledge, Skills and Competences of Students Academic Disciplines and Study Subjects
The preventive importance of exercise and sport understanding and being able to explain the health importance of active exercise and sport. Being able to shape a situation for overcome one-self, the importance of interpersonal competition biomedicine, health physical education, sports physiology, sports sociology
Addictive drugs, health, doping knowing the detrimental nature of stimulants, prohibited means of performance enhancement in sport, understanding the destructive signify-cance of doping in personal self-development biomedicine, health physical education, sports physiology, hygiene, ethics, sports psychology
Doping and preventive anti-doping measures understanding the essence of the fight and campaign against doping in sport, the causes for the fight against its misuse, knowing the main principles of preventive anti-doping measures biomedicine, biochemistry, sports physiology, hygiene, ethics, sports psychology
Physical Education a Sport Olympic Themes, Knowledge, Skills and Competences of Students Academic Disciplines and Study Subjects
Olympic Charter, Olympic ideals, Olympic ceremonials, symbols valuing the importance of Olympic ideas, their reaching beyond sport, fair competition even in extreme situations in games and contests, nature conservation in sport, assistance for the handicapped, etc. sports philosophy, sports sociology, sports psychology, nature conservation, health physical education

#### B) Olympism as a separate instructional and educational subject in the curriculum

Universities together with Czech Olympic Academy are jointly taking part in formulating the content of the curriculum for Olympic education at primary and secondary schools (c.f. Rychtecký & Dovalil, 2009). Apart from this, private and public universities and sports faculties are also creating their own implied “Olympic” subjects, which they offer their students in a obligatory or elective form in bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral studies. The most frequent names given to mostly elective subjects taught at the sports and educational faculties of universities in the Czech Republic are, “Olympism” and “Olympic Education.” Their content is based on the themes in the table, but it is taught in a condensed form.

A common and unifying basis for an Olympism curriculum at universities is the textbook, _Olympism_ compiled by a team of authors from universities as well as specialists and experts from the Olympic Movement. It was published in 2004 with the support of the Czech Olympic Committee and contains the following chapter topics: Sport; Pierre de Coubertin, Philosophy of Olympism; Relations of Sport, Olympism and Culture; Antique Inspirations; Olympic Symbols and Ceremonies; Olympic Movement; Brief History of the Olympic Movement; Olympic Games; Czech Olympic Movement; Financing of the Olympic Movement; Sport for All in the Olympic Movement; Women and Sport in the Olympic Movement; the Ecological Dimension in Olympism; Olympism and Arts; Sport and Olympism in the Examination of Time; Future of Olympism; Olympic Education; Education in Sport. The textbook is used by university students, as well as by experts and interested persons of the Olympic Movement in the Czech Republic.

### Olympism as a subject of research at Czech universities

An analysis of contemporary Olympism indicates that its declaratory and concise expression in the Olympic Charter does not provide a sufficiently vivid picture or answers to questions such as, “What exactly is Olympism?” This brevity, due to the nature of the Charter, currently also poses a challenge for this unique social phenomenon to be more comprehensively analysed and interpreted in the broader context of social, sports, and natural sciences at universities. Moreover, the mission of the IOC and IOA, NOCs and NOAs (also cited at the 13th Olympic Congress in Copenhagen last year) is to develop, protect, and spread the principles of Olympism and Olympic values in physical education and sports programmes at schools and universities.

### Olympism in the context of academic research

![Figure. 1: Olympism and the Olympic Movement in the system of academic disciplines](http://thesportjournal.org/files/special-edition-olympism/rychtecky-figure-1.png)
Figure. 1: Olympism and the Olympic Movement in the system of academic disciplines

Olympism transcends sport, both as a set of preferred values and within a cultural framework. In many cases, it advocates sport (c.f. Parry, 1998; Jegorov, 2001). Consequently, incorporating Olympic themes into university research projects in social and sports sciences is of crucial significance, both for the academic and subsequent education activities of universities. In the next section, we shall recall selected methodological problems and stereotypes, which sometimes appear in basic and applied research on Olympism and the Olympic Games, and are transferred to education activities.

### Philosophy, sports philosophy, and Olympism

In historical and contemporary reflections, philosophy devotes itself to the anthropological and aretological characteristics of sports competitions, as well as to the socio-political, religious, aesthetic, and symbolic attributes of Olympism and the Olympic Games. The general goal is to create a consistent philosophy for the Olympic ideal. The aretological and anthropological dimensions of the Olympic Games are linked to the values of the body and mind, as well as the limits of educational values in sport. Stereotypes in the philosophical interpretation of the Olympic Games and the Olympic Movement include the fact that their transcendent wholes are underestimated. The Olympic Games contain virtues and a further disctintion of the attributes of perfection, glory, goodness, heroism, grace, etc. Some of these are particularly important because they involve crucial issues concerning human consciousness and existence. Olympism and the Olympic Games are no exception in this respect (c.f. Eyler, 1981). Besides by philosophy and sports philosophy, Olympism is also examined by other philosophical disciplines and sub-disciplines, i.e. the philosophy of art, comparative philosophy, ontology, phenomenology, the philosophy of gender, axiology, etc. (First World Olympic Congress of Philosophy, Athens, 2004).

### Sociology, sports sociology, and Olympism

In sociology and the sociology of sport, the following questions are posed in an analytical (sometimes not sufficiently defined) context and relationship to sport and Olympism:

* What is so specific in the Olympic Movement, which has been systematically extending its influence for more than a century despite counterarguments that Olympism is “running out of steam?”
* How has sport and Olympism changed over time and in the wider social context?
* What is the public image of sport, the Olympic Games, and the Olympic Movement, etc.?

Without answers to these and other questions, any examinations of sport, and Olympism will be reductive and restrictive in terms of their insights in sociological descriptions of modern societies (c.f. Pawłucki, 2009).

### Psychology, sports psychology, and Olympism

Research in sports psychology interprets the Olympic ideals, which facilitate an overlap of personal excellence and the development of performance (c.f. Cross & Jones, 2007; Gould, Collins, Lauer& Chung, 2006). Coubertin’s concept of Olympism as a “state of mind” is nothing other than an emotional, personality, and intra-individual overlap and means of overcoming oneself, as expressed in the motto, “Citius, Altius, Fortius.” It comprises the most important component of an individual’s motivation structure for sport and performance. Consequently, Coubertin’s cult of effort is always more important than external motivations – the stimulation of performance through external incentives. Therefore, competition in the spirit of Olympism primarily has a self-reconciling and self-improving significance while achieving maximum individual performance (c.f. Shields & Bredemeier, 1995; Müller, 2000). Sports psychology seeks adequate answers to the following frequently asked questions:

* How can one bridge the gap between Olympic ideals and the application of contemporary methods of operation used in sports training for youths (incentives, inappropriate awards)?
* Does sport always have a positive impact on personal development?

It is apparent, however, that motivation which emphasises victory at all costs may have a negative influence on the behaviour of sports people, and can lead to bribery or cheating (c.f. Miller & Kerr, 2002).

### Education, sports education, and Olympism

Coubertin understood sport as an educational instrument – a school of moral chivalry, purity, and physical force. The content, aim, and outcome of this education comprise attitudes and interiorised Olympic values. Current concepts of Olympic education have been updated through systematic research, just as the Olympism and Olympic education textbook have been. Research in education and sports education has also raised other questions:

* How, and by which means and methods, is it possible for an individual as a subject of education to identify with Olympic values through sport?
* Has contemporary sport lost its former values for young people?

Doubt is sometimes cast on sport as an edifying instrument with the assertions that the development of qualities and skills is not always linked to participation in sport. This is true because merely participating in sport does not automatically impact upon the personal development of a subject. Nevertheless, sport without ideals can increase one’s tolerance of cheating, both in terms of one’s competitors and the person themselves (c.f. Gould, Collins, Lauer & Chung, 2006).

### Ethics, Olympismus, and the Olympic Games

Fair play and respect for one’s competitors develop through active participation in sport and are preconditions for free competition without discrimination (Olympic Charter, 2004). The Olympic Movement aspires also to spread these values beyond the realm of sport (c.f. Dziubiński, 2008). “Sport is and should remain a forum where everyone has a chance to actively participate and develop in it. Consequently, sport is a human right, but it is not possible to separate it from the rest of the world” (c.f. Rogge, 2004).

### Culture, art, and Olympism

The original Greek ideal of _Kalokgathia_ became the model and moderator for the personal development of sports people. The stereotype in looking at the reality of the Olympic Movement is that, in our traditional education, we are strongly influenced by rational thinking adapted to the one truth. The Cartesian ideal of the one truth was the foundation stone of modern science and has been particularly successful in natural sciences. Sometimes, however, this ideal fails in the demanding and critical situations and problems of the Olympic Movement. Art, however, offers a grasp of reality which cannot be provided by modern rationalism. In the critical and difficult reality of its context, which is not focused on the one truth only, art can describe a given situation more precisely than science. Culture in Olympism and sport, however, does not mean abandoning rationalism and Europe’s cultural heritage.

### Conclusions

* The IOC and NOCs should systematically support research in universities focused on Olympism, the Olympic Movement, and the Olympic Games. The 13th Olympic Congress in Copenhagen last year confirmed the importance and prospects of cooperation among the Olympic family and educational institutions.
* In cooperation with NOAs and OSCs, universities should focus part of their research and educational capacities on current issues concerning the Olympic Movement.
* Olympism, the principles, values, and relationship of Olympism to sport and culture should be an integral part of professional training for future teachers, coaches, managers, etc.
* The results of research activities in Olympism should be subsequently a predicate of education programmes and systematically developed in university concepts of Olympic education programmes. They may be applied as a separate educational subject or as a set of selected Olympic themes included in the content of education for social sciences and sports subjects.
* Cooperation between Olympic institutions and universities is beneficial, not only for the development of a deeper and more comprehensive interpretation of Olympism in historical and contemporary reflections, but also for the development of sports and social sciences, as well as for sport itself and its relationship with culture. Today, without the ideas and principles of Olympism, it is not possible to assess sport in its complex and rapid development, or to assess the evolution of society in the 20th and 21st centuries.
* The master’s programme on Olympic Studies entitled “Olympic Studies, Olympic Education, Organisation and Management of Olympic Events,” which opened in 2009 at the University of Peloponnése (c.f. Dimopoulos, 2009), has been inspirational and beneficial whilst also increasing the professionalism of specialists in the Olympic Movement.

### References:

Cross, J. A. & Jones, M. I. (2007). Sport Psychology and Olympism: How research on learning transferable life skills through sport can help the Olympic ideal become a reality. Sport & Exercise Psychology Review Vol 3 (1) 11 – 18.

Dimopoulos, K. A. (2009). The Master´s Programme on Olympic Studies: “Olympic studies, Olympic Education, Organization and Management of Olympic Events,” the University of Peloponnése, Ancient Olympia, Greece.

Dovalil, J. et al. (2004). Olympismus. Praha: Olympia 220 p.

Dziubiński, Z. (2008). Olympism in the Context of Modernity. Research yearbook, medsportpress, 14, (2), 2008, 115-124.

Eyler, M. H. (1981).”The Right Stuff.” In IOA Proceedings. 1981, pp. 159-168.

First World Olympic Congress of Philosophy on the topic of: Philosophy, Competition and Good Life. (Αthens-spetses, June 27th – July 4th, 2004).

Georgiadis, K. (2003). Olympic Revival. The Revival of the Olympic Games in Modern Times. Athens.

Gould, D., COLLINS, K., LAUER, L. & CHUNG, Y. (2006). Coaching life skills: A working model. Sport & Exercise Psychology Review, 2, 4 –12.

Miller, P. S. & KERR, G. A. (2002). Conceptualizing excellence: Past, present and future. Journal of Applied Psychology, 14, 140–153.

Morgas, M. (2006). Academic institutions and the Olympic Movement [online article]. Barcelona: Centre d’Estudis Olímpics UAB. [http://olympicstudies.uab.es/pdf/wp106_eng.pdf](http://olympicstudies.uab.es/pdf/wp106_eng.pdf)

Müller, N. (Ed.). (2000). Olympism: Selected writings – Pierre de Coubertin. Lausanne: IOC.

Naul, R. (2008) Olympic Education. Oxford: Mayer & Mayer, 189 p.

Pawłucki, A. (2009). Sport as olympic modernism. Studies in physical culture and tourism. 16, No. 2, 2009; 147 – 153.

Parry, J. (1998). Physical Education as Olympic Education. European Physical Education. Review Volume 4 (2), 153-167.

Parry, J. (203). Olympism for the 21st Century. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona: Centre d’Estudis Olímpics: 7p.

Shields, D. L. L. & BREDEMEIER, B, J. L. (1995). Character development and physical activity. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Rogge, J. (2004). Jacques Rogge IOC and UNAIDS Join Forces to Engage Sport Community in Fight Against Aids. IOC Press Release, 1 June.

Rychtecký, A. & Dovalil, J. (2009). The concept of Olympic education in the Czech school. In: 9th International Session for Directors of National Olympic Academies. Olympia: IOA, 2009, 158-164.

The National Olympic Committee: Its Role and Position at the Dawn of the 21st Century

First of all, I wish to thank the President of the IOA, Mr. Isidoros Kouvelos, and the Director, Mr. Dionyssis Gangas, for their honoring invitation to speak as a lecturer at this Session. I share with both of them a sincere, enduring friendship and sports cooperation.

The subject was a challenge for me and should maybe be the topic of a one-day meeting, for I believe that the problems and challenges facing the Olympic Movement are many, just as there are many opposite views on where Olympism and its principles are heading today, in the 21st century.

Looking briefly back to the last century, we see that since the 70s, and especially during the 80s, the World Sports Movement has gone through a major crisis. The first problem is related to the escalation of violence inside and outside competition venues. Hooliganism has become the plague of football matches both inside and outside the stadiums, placing world sports authorities in a difficult position. The second problem is doping that was quite often encouraged by the governments of the former Eastern bloc. Alongside these two problems, we have witnessed terrorist attacks during the Olympic Games (Munich Olympic Village in 1972, Atlanta Olympic Park in 1996) and, during the Cold War, the boycotting of the Olympics by the USA and the former Soviet Union and their allies (Moscow 1976, Los Angeles 1980).

To answer the question, “What is the NOC’s role in the 21st century?“ one should take into account not only the conditions that prevail today worldwide, but also those that will follow. On the one hand, there are major scientific and technological breakthroughs that contribute to the propagation and development of sport, but on the other you have a financial crisis, an institutional crisis, a value crisis, and scandals that come to light even within the IOC in connection to briberies accepted by its members during the voting for the 2002 Olympic Winter Games. The crisis continues to exist within the Olympic Movement, as the problems of the past century persist with an additional factor, commercialization, which has invaded all levels of sport and the Olympic Movement and makes the situation even worse.

As crises occur, their handling depends on the administration and leadership of each NOC, which determines the levels of its authenticity. Dealing with a crisis requires leadership skills. When times are difficult, we all feel the temptation to compromise or forget our principles. However, the Olympic principles that have been handed down are not negotiable and should not disappear as the result of excessive commercialization. NOCs and, above all, the IOC, have the duty to be something more than the managers of the Olympic Idea. They have the duty to be its trustees.

The NOC’s mission is set out in the Olympic Charter (Rule 31, art. 2.1), according to which their mission is to develop and protect the Olympic Movement in their respective countries. The following paragraphs of this article detail the areas on which they should focus their activities.

Their first obligation is to propagate the fundamental principles of Olympism and contribute to their diffusion through educational programs. The precise definition of Olympism cannot be found in the best known international dictionaries, nor is it contained in the Olympic Charter. Moreover, Coubertin himself refrained from giving a definition, and it seems that the term was coined and appeared from 1909 onward as a set of values. These values are not clearly defined, but they are the basic values of ancient Greek philosophers who believed that young people should exercise in order to have a healthy body and should also cultivate their ethical and spiritual values in order to attain perfection. This standpoint is based on five elements: (a) unity of mind and body, (b) development of abilities, (c) impartiality, (d) fair play; and (e) peace. It is, therefore, obvious that today the philosophy of Olympism pursues pedagogical and educational objectives and does not influence only those who participate in the Olympic Games, but also millions of people who watch them on their television sets.

### The NOC And Olympic Education

In this century, the era of innocence for sport has irrevocably ended, and this is why we should understand that Olympic education is the primary element of the Olympic Movement and its quintessence.

Having established that, I believe that the NOCs should intensify their efforts of promoting Olympic education, which should be developed in two directions. The first involves theoretical consideration of the philosophy, sociology, and psychology of Olympism, with the view to enhancing its values. The second refers to the educational process as such that will initiate young people to the values of the Olympic Movement. This can be achieved in the following ways:

a. Through the athletes who have competed or won at the Olympic Games. Great athletes fascinate people with their fame and glory, and they may become role models for youth. The popularity and prestige which athletes enjoy at national and international level should be built on as they represent Olympism’s best ambassadors.
b. Through sports organizations and, in particular, through their country’s national federations and associations that can promote the spirit of sport and the principles of _fair play_, as well as combat violence and drug use propensity.
c. Through the media propagating Olympic education, by highlighting the great moments of the Olympic Games and interviews with their stars that focus on the human interest angle of their personal stories.
d. Finally, NOCs can propagate Olympism and its principles, especially in countries that have organized Olympic Games, through the volunteers. The Olympic Movement has the largest participation of volunteers, more than any other organization, and with proper training by NOCs, they can become the best heralds of Olympism.

The hovering question in the sports-loving world today is the following: Does sport build ethical persons, or should we build ethical persons who will become involved in sport? The answer is that by spreading Olympic education, we can build ethical persons.

### The Autonomy Of NOCs And Political Interventions

It is very important to protect and ensure the autonomy of NOCs. Each NOC is an independent legal entity and should not fall prey to political exploitation or be dependent on political authority. Unquestionably, NOCs should work to maintain harmonious cooperation with their governments and appropriate government bodies (Rule 31, §5). Quite often governments intervene in the operation of sports institutions to an extent that violates the autonomy of sports associations or federations, and even of the NOC, either through financial support by means of regular or special grants, or through legislative provisions. Such intervention becomes easier when government support leads to financial dependence. NOCs should, therefore, organize their relationship with the government in a way that ensures that the support they receive does not turn into subordination and dependence.

The fact that the European Parliament has been dealing with this problem since 2009 shows how serious it is. The “White Paper on Sport,” sets out the guidelines that will create the future framework of the European Policy for Sport, taking into account the specific nature of sport and respectful of its autonomy and self-governing status (Μ. Μavromatis, 9th Congress of Sports Administration – The Olympic Movement in society, 2008).

Moreover, history teaches us that politics have always been present in the development of the Olympic Movement, since its inception, and participate in all the facets of social life, including sport politics and sport that must live together and establish a general framework of mutual respect (J. A. Samaranch, p.88).

If NOCs realize that there are political interventions that abolish the autonomy of the Olympic Movement in their country, or that the principles of the Olympic Charter are not respected, they should immediately notify the IOC and ask for its help.

### The Obligations Of NOCs And Financial Resources

The NOCs have the exclusive powers for the representation of their country at the Olympic Games and world competitions and must participate in the Games of the Olympiad by sending athletes (Rule 31, § 3). This means that they also have the obligation to develop Olympic preparation programs to enable their athletes, if they cannot win a medal, to participate in a fitting manner. The problem of the athletes’ preparation in those difficult economic conditions is extremely complex. Already since the beginning of the last decade, it has become clear that there will be cut-downs in government grants in the future, and several governments have communicated their views and encouraged their National Federations and NOCs to seek new sources of financing for sport. In return, they propose concluding agreements with private sponsors. The Greek government, in the context of its austerity program, has already reduced by 20% the Federation’s budget for 2010. In my opinion, the end of government grants, for NOCs in particular, will be a serious blow to sports promotion and development. What’s more, under difficult economic conditions, even the most traditional national sponsors (banks, foundations, enterprises, etc.) are reluctant. For the National Sponsorships ‘experiment’ to succeed, NOCs will have to ask their governments to introduce by law significant tax reliefs, equal to the amounts offered, to provide some kind of incentive to sports sponsors.

I also believe that NOCs should re-assess their sports need In order to reduce expenses by developing a National Sports Plan with priorities and new objectives. This can be achieved by ranking the sports that each NOC will support for Olympic preparation. Specialized studies by sports experts will be needed to establish which sports people like best combined with the country’s sports tradition and citizens’ physical and psychological conditions. Let me give you the example of Greece, a country with a population of 11 million, that finances from the state budget 32 Federations of Olympic Sports (28 summer and 4 winter sports) and approximately 20 Federations of non-Olympic Sports. This cannot go on under the present conditions. It is an enormous waste! Each NOC should, therefore, select, based on strict criteria, the sports to be financed for Olympic preparation among those that have a strong chance of doing well at the Olympics. This choice should be reasoned and based on documented research. Sports that will not be selected could be developed by means of private sponsors’ funds. If their athletes achieve good performances, these sports could then be funded by the State Budget or join the NOC Olympic Preparation Program. In this way, promising sports will obtain larger amounts, while the development of the other sports will continue to be encouraged.

### Olympic Preparation Programs

As already mentioned, NOCs have exclusive powers for the representation of their respective countries at the Olympic Games. This means an additional responsibility for the good appearances of their athletes. Until the Seoul Games (1988), there was no limit to the number of entries. However, faced with the problem of gigantism as new sports were added to the Olympic program, the IOC decided that from the Barcelona Games (1992) onward the number of competitors should not exceed 10,000. This is still the case today, apart from a few exceptions. To ensure that this maximum number will not be exceeded, the IOC, in cooperation with the IFs concerned, every four years establishes, qualification criteria and limits that are different for each (individual-team) sport wishing to ensure participation of athletes from all continents, as well as top level performances. Moreover, in order to help developing countries that are represented by less than six athletes, the IOC may decide to offer a small number of one or two places in each sport. This could also be the case for countries whose athletes failed to meet the IOC’s criteria. The aim of this decision is to allow all countries to participate symbolically and propagate the world spirit of Olympism. Under these new conditions, the NOC of a country that does not have top performance sports and wishes to be represented at the Olympic Games, even by one athlete, should present the relevant request to the IOC that will decide following consultation with the International Federation concerned and the Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games. The above clearly show that NOCs must develop programs for the Olympic Preparation of their athletes. The working-out of this program should start right after the closing of the Olympic Games, setting as time horizon the opening of the next celebration of the Games.

The program should also establish, from the very beginning, the selection criteria and limits for the athletes and teams whose Olympic preparation will be supported, depending on the NOC’s objectives each time. This is an objective system that ensures transparency and prevents any political or other interference. During a first stage, based on the criteria, the athletes of the pre-Olympic team will be selected by means of this system. It would, however, be useful for each NOC to set up a special Olympic Preparation Commission whose members would remain, for the whole four-year period, in close contact with the Federations and the athletes to help them solve any problems and guide them. I think it would be a good idea to mention the five main areas on which the Olympic Preparation Program should focus, in my view:

1. The legal framework that governs sports, which should also include incentives for athletes of all levels.
2. The planning of the sports programs of the country’s federations. This planning should include: (a) the training schedule (in the country and abroad), (b) the competition schedule (for qualifications, goals), (c) scientific support (ergometrics, sports medicine, physiotherapy, psychology, etc.)
3. Planning control and monitoring by the NOC.
4. Assistance and support by state bodies, mainly the Ministries of Education, Defence, Health, Labour, etc.
5. Financing of programs from the state budget. It should be noted here that the IOC does not give NOCs any finances for their Olympic preparation. However, as we will see further on, direct financial assistance can be provided to elite athletes through Olympic Solidarity.

At this point, it is worth noting that the Hellenic Olympic Committee developed in 1986 for the first time an Olympic Preparation Program for the Olympic Games with limits and criteria for the athletes who would be taking part in the Seoul 1988 Olympics. These criteria were accepted by all Federations when they were submitted to them; however, during the plenary meeting (30.08.1988) that would finalize the list of athletes to be entered for the Games, a number of Federation representatives expressed reservations when it became apparent that wellknown athletes would be excluded from the Games because they failed to meet the criteria and limits. In the end, by an overwhelming majority (23–2), the Plenary of the Hellenic Olympic Committee decided to respect the criteria. As could be expected, after the announcement of the Olympic Team from which some famous names were missing, there was a general outcry against the decision on the part of the athletes who had been excluded and by their Federations. Moreover, there were also some unexpected political reactions. The aunt of an excluded sailing athlete, who was Deputy Minister of Education, resigned after denouncing the Hellenic Olympic Committee and demanded the athlete’s Inclusion in the Olympic Team.

Despite strong reactions and unbearable pressure, the Committee did not change its decision, and so the criteria and Olympic Preparation Programs were established in this way and are regularly readjusted. These programs proved to be extremely useful. Greece, from a single medal in the 1988 Olympic Games, reaped 16 medals in 2004 and has achieved excellent results in all sports at the international level. For history, let me mention that the excluded athlete who was 18 at the time won three Olympic medals at the next Olympiads, is still competing today, and represents a shining example for our youth, a model of sports ethics and fair play, and offers huge services to sports education.

### The IOC’s Financial Support To NOCs

NOCs can, under certain conditions, obtain financial support from the IOC through the Olympic Solidarity Commission. This Commission, in accordance with Rule 8 of the Olympic Charter, is responsible for the management and redistribution of the share of the television rights from the broadcasting of the Olympic Summer and Winter Games, which belongs to the NOCs and represents 6%. The Commission is chaired by the President of the IOC, and it develops programs for technical, educational, and financial assistance. These programs are numerous and varied, and their aim is to promote the development of sport, from grass root to top performance level throughout the world, by helping athletes in each country.

NOCs have the right to use all these programs that enable them to implement their activities and draw upon the financial benefits resulting from the celebration of the Olympic Games in order to develop and support sport in their countries.

Today, there are 21 programs that cover four main areas of action: athletes, coaches, NOC management, and special issues. These programs help developing countries, in particular, and those facing financial difficulties, in the last stage of their athletes’ preparation for the Olympic Games.

1. Athletes: (a) preparation in training centers and participation in qualifying competitions, (b) individual scholarships for participation in the Olympic Games, (c) identification of new talents at national level. The athlete is the central figure of the Olympic Games.
2. Coaches: The coach’s role for the athletes’ preparation is pivotal. The object of these programs is to offer coaches the possibility to acquire the necessary technical knowledge with the help of specialized programs, such as,

* technical courses at national and regional level for all sports;
* Scholarships on sports science subjects in academic establishments and training in specific sports; and
* development of the national coaching structure with the support of a foreign coach who will train national coaches, training programs, etc.

3. NOCs can use and benefit from programs of

* administration assistance, technological and IT support and electronic communication, marketing;
* sports administration for NOC officials; and
* further education of their country’s sports administrators.

4.Finally, NOCs are given the opportunity to draw upon Olympic Solidarity’s programs concerning the Environment, Women for Culture and Education, Sports Medicine, Sports for All, etc.

### NOCs – The Problem Of Doping And Violence

As mentioned already, the problem of doping and violence originated in the previous century. Unfortunately, despite the efforts that were made in this first decade, far from diminishing, they are steadily increasing.

Doping, in particular, is the scourge of modern sport. Doping cases have not dropped. Random, out-of-competition controls, as well as those performed during the Olympic Games, show, in fact, that their number is rising. Some theoreticians report that the IOC and the NOCs, despite the Olympic Charter’s strict provision (Rule 31, §2.6), did not realize from the start, the magnitude of the problem; they reacted with laxity and leniency and failed to arrive at a precise definition of doping. This view is partly correct, for it is true that the IOC for the first time in 1987 (94th Session) encouraged governments to apply the general legislative measures on combating drugs and to adopt specific laws for doping. Until then, the use of banned substances and methods was only punishable by disciplinary sanctions, as it was considered to be just a sports offence. Very few countries, including Greece (1975), considered this to be a criminal offence as well, entailing harsh sanctions against user athletes, and even harsher for traffickers and pushers. I was among the first who affirmed that doping was also a criminal offence, as it harms: (a) the athlete’s health, (b) sport’s social and cultural role, and (c) the authenticity of the sports result (cf. IOC 1986). Closing this subject, I believe that doping is the outcome of sport’s commercialization, which has permeated the Olympic Movement. The gold bars and the astronomical bonuses handed out at the different Grand Prix, drive athletes to the use of banned substances. Furthermore, the commercial contracts that top athletes are allowed to sign with different sponsor companies of the Olympic Games for their products’ promotion, in addition to acting as an incentive for greater efforts, are also an incentive for higher profits, which will also lead to the use of banned substances. In this way, one of the fundamental principles of the Olympic Movement, the principle of _fair play,_ is abolished.

I am not a pessimist, but I am worried about these very close contacts with huge financial Interests.

Violence is a phenomenon, which has existed since man was born, and has remained, through time, a major component of human life in all its manifestations that has grown periodically.

Sport, which is closely linked to social life, could not prevent the arrival of violence in its domain, all the more so since competition is one of the elements of sport. We are talking about the violence that breaks out inside and outside sports venues, often with tragic results, as people lose their lives or are seriously wounded, and facilities extensively damaged. Violent incidents were originally limited to football matches, but, as time went on and the phenomenon became stronger, these incidents also occurred during the meetings of other team events.

As the number of these incidents was growing after the Heysel tragedy (1985), European governments were compelled to sign the European Convention on Violence at Sports Events (1986). Furthermore, in 1997, the European Union included in its program for combating criminality the amount of 600 million euros for the period 2007-2013. At the same time, the Council of Europe adopted a Code of Sports Ethics.

All the above measures, combined with Rule 31, paragraph 2.5, of the Olympic Charter, do not appear able to control this social phenomenon that is steadily expanding.

In this area, NOCs are invited to take action in order to support the ideological framework of Olympism. This should be an educational action, for this lasting phenomenon has shown that repressive measures alone are not enough. Sports education and Olympic philosophy must become part of school educational programs. This will lead to prevention that is far better than repression.

### NOC Marketing And The Commercialization Of Olympism

There is no doubt that in the days of Juan Antonio Samaranch’s presidency (1980-200), the Olympic Movement achieved financial independence, mainly through the exploitation of TV rights and marketing activities under the TOP program. At the same time, however, the number of athletes was growing, as new sports that had interest for only a limited number of sports fans were added. This led to the gigantism of the Olympic Games and to the considerable expansion of their program. The IOC became aware of the problem and decided to remove a number of sports but added others. The risk of commercialization was very much present, and it was important to achieve a delicate balance, in the marketing sector, in particular, to prevent the selling off of the Olympic Idea and Symbols (Olympic emblem, Olympic flame, etc.) in return for financial profits.

NOCs can improve their finances by offering, with caution, their emblems to National Sponsors, in accordance with the Olympic Charter.

Sport today becomes identified with business activity. Each sector sustains the other. Owners of big teams, athletes’ and coaches’ managers, fan clubs, etc., are involved in these transactions. The commercialization of sport is linked to the globalization of the economy and the domination of multinationals to the detriment of the real values of Olympism. I believe that the NOCs, through their representatives who are IOC members, should sound the alarm, because if this situation persists, sport will become the image of capital and capital the image of sport. However, one of the IOC’s powerful figures, R. Pound, affirms that without commercialization and because of the enormous cost of staging the Olympic Games, no government would be able to meet the expenses of such a huge and costly event.

### Epilogue

It is quite possible that, to quote Michael Paine, the IOC’s Marketing Director:

> The Olympic Games have avoided disaster and become the best known franchise brand. The answer though comes from the past, from Pierre de Coubertin himself, ‘My friends and I have not worked to give you the Olympic Games so that they will be turned into a museum object or a subject for the movies (there was no TV at the time), nor so that commercial or political interest should take them over.’

I leave it to you to draw the conclusions.