Information Technology and Sports: Looking Toward Web 3.0

### Abstract

From the founding of the Olympic movement in the late 19th century at the height of the Industrial Revolution through the beginning of the Information Age in the 1970s, channels of media distribution evolved from primarily written tracts in publications to electronic broadcasting. The changes in the mode of information distribution and the underlying technology over time caused the message content being promulgated to similarly change. As there were comparatively few channels available for the distribution of content during this period, a relative few individuals served as “gatekeepers” on the flow of information. These gatekeepers, such as editors and producers, exercised extraordinary control over what information entered the public domain through a process that was largely autocratic. The Information Age has changed the paradigm of information dissemination, and in so doing, has democratized the process of sharing information. The participation of the public-at-large in the development and dissemination of information that shapes humanistic ideas has grown in scale to a size unprecedented in human history. Since the advent of the Internet, this human discourse has changed over time driven both by the application of new technologies together with the exponential growth in that portion of the population that has access to them. Perhaps the most significant development in this movement was the development of the World Wide Web (the web). As the web has moved from comparatively static Web 1.0 content through the development of Web 2.0 social media applications to the beginning of Web 3.0 practices, there have been significant changes in how humans use computer technology to interact with one another. Despite the positive changes that have been brought about by the development of these technologies, such as a democratization of the information sharing process, there are still negative aspects to social media applications. There will also be significant challenges ahead in the development of new communication technologies that must be overcome before the full promise of the Internet can be realized by all.

**Key words:** Olympic movement, social media, Internet, web, technology, humanistic ideas

### Introduction

Human play, as embodied in sports, is one of the most important expressions of human culture. It can be said that the games people play in a society are a reflection of the society as a whole. It can also be said that communication is the one dominant attribute that distinguishes human beings from every other species on the planet. Thus, the intersection of communication and sports in the human experience is an important one.

The Olympic movement is considered to be one of the largest social movements in human history. Nowhere else do the countries of the world gather in one place as they do during the Summer Olympic Games. While the peaceful gathering of the world’s youth for sports competition is the embodiment of that intersection of sport and communication, this fact underscores the importance of the media in conveying Olympic values and ideals. In many respects, it is a relationship between the Olympic community and the media that allows the Games to be conducted on the scale that they are.

This presentation will briefly examine the evolution of this relationship from the founding of the Olympic movement at the height of the Industrial Revolution to the dawning of the Information Age. The discussion of the early days will necessarily be brief as the primary focus of this presentation is on the ways that technology, and more specifically the Internet, is driving the communications process and with it the dissemination of the human ideals. There will be a discussion of some of this new media and the presentation will conclude with some of the challenges before us, as we look to the future being wrought through technological change.

#### Evolution of Media

As has already been noted, the Olympic movement was founded at the height of the Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century. The founder of the Olympic movement, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, authored many articles arguing for the establishment of a modern Olympic Games. An example of this effort was the publication of an essay in the “Review de Paris” in June 1894 – on the very eve of the first Olympic Congress – setting out his vision for the establishment of a modern Olympic Games (Guttman, 1992).

Writing in the 19th century was a lengthy process, meaning that 19th century writers faced a much longer period than happens today, between researching, writing, and receiving payment for their work. Only the best educated individuals, usually from privileged backgrounds, had the time, expertise, talent, inclination, and financial backing to undertake this effort (2). Illustrated news weeklies or monthlies were among the primary means of communication and dissemination of the news in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This medium was also one that was particularly well suited to the audience that de Coubertin was trying to reach. The founders of the Olympic movement were well educated and well-to-do. Therefore, the message to this audience leant itself well to the tenets of the early games that they should only be open to amateurs; those who participated in sport as an avocation as opposed to a vocation (4).

However, the on-going Industrial Revolution was bringing about important society-wide changes that allowed sports to flourish. This included a population migration from rural to urban centers, increases in disposable income accompanying a rise in the middle-class and eventually, more leisure time that allowed more recreational activities, among them participation in and the viewing of sports events.

Concurrent with the rise in the middle class was a wider distribution of newspapers, many of which began to include sports coverage. Sports coverage did, in fact, become one of the ways that newspapers in larger metropolitan areas competed with each other. As interest in sports generally, and local teams particularly, began to appear in newspapers, the amount of space given over to this content expanded over time. As there were no broadcast media in these early days, the newspaper sports coverage of the day was largely descriptive play-by-play recaps of the sports events.

Eventually, however, broadcast media was introduced to the communications mix and began to usurp the role historically played by the newspapers. First radio, and later television, allowed the audience to experience the sport events as they occurred with their play-by-play broadcasts. Thus, the role of the newspapers and weekly or monthly sport-themed news magazines began to evolve from reporting the play-by-play, now done by the broadcast media, to more reporting of “behind the scenes” activities or analysis of the athletes, teams and events.

There are two lessons to be learned from this experience. First is that as technology evolved and new forms of communication emerged, message content carried in the channels of distribution changed as well. So, too, is this the case today; as technology evolves, so does the nature of the message content being distributed.

The second lesson concerns the role of “gatekeepers” such as editors or producers in the public communications process. During this early period, there were comparatively few media outlets. In Europe, countries might have one or two “national” newspapers, plus those in the metropolitan areas. In the United States, there was no general national newspaper until the advent of “USA Today” in 1982. While larger metropolitan areas may have as many as five news dailies, most of the country had smaller markets that could support no more than one or two. In terms of electronic broadcasting, the available air time for sports was typically limited, since most outlets aired a variety of content. Also in the early days of television in the United States, there were only three major television networks. Because of the limited availability of channels of distribution, editors in the newsroom or producers of over-the-air broadcasting wielded enormous power in determining what their audience would read or hear. The selection process for media was typically driven by market concerns; but in any case was decidedly autocratic.

#### The Information Age and Rise of the Internet

Human civilization has moved from the Age of Industry to the Information Age. While the general consensus is that the dawn of the Information Age is the 1970s, the changes wrought to society through technological change really accelerated with the creation of the World-Wide-Web (the web). As changes in technology changes channels of communication and message content, a brief discussion of the underlying technology is in order.

The early 1960s saw experimentation with computer technology that established the protocols for what became known as the Internet in 1969. This feat was followed by the development of Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML) in 1989 that became the basis for the development of the web, though it was not until 1993 that the web was introduced to the public-at-large.

Most early websites were a series of static web pages connected by hyperlinks that could be internal, which provided structure to a website, or external leading to other websites based on whatever criteria the webmaster decided. The underlying computer technology such as processors, memory, and connectivity limited the content of these early web pages. Most hosts, or the site where the web content was posted, were initially personal computers (PCs) adapted for this purpose, although eventually specialized computer devices called “web servers” evolved. Over the years, the capability of these website servers has changed dramatically as has the role of the webmaster. Today, virtually all commercial or professionally developed websites are dynamic with the web content contained in a relational database called “the backend.” Most websites also have a variety of plug-in applications, such as secure financial transaction software for ecommerce, called “middleware,” and the front facing graphic interface that people see when they arrive at a website. Webmasters have evolved into web developers and the skills required for maintaining a website can vary significantly between those working the backend and those designing the frontend.

On the recipient’s end were similar technological limitations by PC’s that had their processor capability expressed in numbers such as the 286, 386, 486 and Pentiums. In terms of connectivity, bandwidth has increased exponentially with a succession of changes from dial-up modems to ISDN and now broadband. Thus, early on the limitations of technology necessarily limited the content; e.g. the message.

Over the past 30 years, society has experienced a fundamental change in the way information is created and disseminated. From its rudimentary early beginning, the interface between computer technology and users has evolved to a point where virtually anyone can create “media content” and post it to the web where it can be accessed and read by anyone in the world with access to the computer resources to do so. This has led to another fundamental and extraordinarily significant change: a process of democratization. No longer can gatekeepers such as the editors or publishers of the old media exert autocratic or monopolistic control over the flow of information into the public sphere. There are, however, both positives and negatives to this state of affairs as we shall see in our ensuing discussion of the evolution of the web.

#### Web 1.0 – The Inaugural Web

During the formative days of the web, strategies for the dissemination of information could be broadly classified as “push” versus “pull.” Push refers to the proactively sending out or distributing messages across the Internet most commonly by email from one user’s account to another. One of the ways in which email was used as a precursor to today’s Web 2.0 applications, such as blogs and social networking sites, was the listserv. A listserv was a group of individuals typically bound together by a common interest who signed onto an email list to receive messages on a topic of mutual interest. When an email was sent in bulk to the list, anyone in the group could respond to the sent message which subsequently went to everyone else in the group. In so doing, an online discussion and sharing of ideas would ensue.

Unfortunately, the widespread abuse of email has gradually restricted its utility as a medium of communication exchange beyond personal messages. Both marketers and criminals seized upon email as a means to try and sell their wares or dupe people into giving up money which gave rise to the spam phenomenon. Unfortunately, spam is still a plague on the Internet with an estimated 48.5 billion messages sent everyday largely through networks of compromised computers called botnets. In March 2011, one of the largest of these, the Rustock Botnet that was sending as many 13.82 billion spam emails each day, was finally taken down by the authorities (8). Partially as a consequence of this abuse, more and more people are seeking out alternative channels for the sharing of electronic communications, such as through the messaging capabilities of Facebook or Twitter.

The other concept is that of “pull” in which individuals actively seek out web content utilizing web browsers and devices such as search engines. The key to this strategy is to insure that this web content is properly optimized and has appropriate tags, so it becomes more visible on the web and easier to find.

Education is the most powerful vehicle for the transmission of human ideals. It is in the realm of education that the Internet has had a profound impact. The advent of the Internet and the worldwide web has fundamentally changed the paradigm of education; a paradigm that had essentially been unchanged since the 16th century. Early on, the Academy embraced this change and developed a distance education program that can be defined as asynchronous, transformational, and computer mediated. This means that the Academy’s students can pursue their studies across the Internet using computer resources at any time and from any place without the faculty and student needing to present online at the same time. While removing impediments to learning created by time and space, the institution has transformed the traditional educational experience of the lecturer in the classroom to learning activities distributed through the web in which learning outcomes and course objectives are satisfied.

There has been a lot of skepticism with respect to the efficacy of online education. The validity of the model has been validated by the Academy’s own research among which has been the comparison of comprehensive examination results between resident and online students. The institution’s accrediting agency, Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, reviewed and approved the Academy’s distance education program in 1996, and currently more than 85% of the Academy’s students report that they have learned as much or more through online education as they did in resident study. The Academy is also pleased that more than 96% of its students would recommend the Academy’s online education programs to friends or colleagues.

Illustrative of this approach to education is the Olympic Values Education Program (OVEP) that was prepared for distance learning delivery by the Academy under a grant from the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 2008. Through the web, the OVEP program is available to anyone in the world who has access to the Internet, and further utilizing emerging technology, such as the Google Universal Translator, albeit with some inherent limitations, it can be accessed in any one of 52 different languages. The online OVEP course can be reached at students.ussa.edu/Olympic_values. I should also note that the Academy recently completed another such cross-cultural academic offering with the preparation of a bachelor’s degree course entitled the “Shaolin Philosophy of Kung Fu.” The basis for the course is a 1,500-year-old manuscript that was translated from the ancient to the modern version of Chinese and then into English. The Academy’s Department of Instructional Design then refined the English and placed it into an online course environment. In so doing, East meets West, the ancient meets the new and we come full circle insofar as the modern English course can be translated back into Chinese with the universal translator function built into the Academy’s Course Management System (CMS).

Very important in the supporting of student education and the dissemination of human values is access to libraries and research resources. In 1997, the Academy was among the first organizations to put online a peer-reviewed research journal – [_The Sport Journal_](http://www.thesportjournal.org). This Journal is provided subscription-free to the public and is accessed on average about 15,000 times per week. As a matter of interest, all of the papers from last year’s International Olympic Academy (IOA) were posted to The Sport Journal site in a special Olympic edition of the Journal. From the comfort of their own homes, the Academy’s students can use the Internet to access more than 57,000 libraries in 112 countries that have more than 70 million holdings and 270,000 unique journals through the institution’s library portal on its website. However, access to educational resources, such as libraries, are not restricted to students in universities. Very early in the development of the web, the Encyclopedia Britannica posted its entire body of work online and made it available on a subscription basis. Today, there are a myriad of libraries to which the public has access free-of-charge, such as the Alabama Public Online Library. Organizations such as Google are digitizing the holdings of entire research libraries with the ultimate intent of placing these online for ease of access; though inevitably at a price.

Web 2.0 – The Social Web
The rise of participatory information sharing through the Internet has truly revolutionized the dissemination of information using web 2.0 techniques. With the advent of the social web, the creation of content has evolved from the efforts of a comparative few in the media professions to a model that maximizes the contributions of the multitudes. With about 400 social media platforms available and an untold number of blogs being authored, the proliferation of communication channels, both public and professional, and private and amateur, allow for the contribution of millions of people sharing a public conversation unprecedented in the human experience. One of the most important consequences of the proliferation of these platforms available to virtually anyone with access to the Internet, is the democratization of media content. What people can see and hear has been taken out of the hands of the gatekeepers and placed into the hands of society at large.

It is not possible within the constraints of this presentation to cover all aspects of the social web, so the author has selected five representative examples beginning with a discussion of Wikipedia. If the Encyclopedia Britannica, long acknowledged as a definitive compendium of human knowledge, represents Web 1.0 technology in which content is simply posted and accessed by people through subscription, Wikipedia represents a web 2.0 application because of its collaborative nature insofar as anyone can submit articles for inclusion.

Ironically enough, I have turned to Wikipedia for a definition of itself, though I should note that at the Academy there is a prominent notice posted on the library portal that Wikipedia is not considered an appropriate source of citations for research papers for reasons that will be explained. By its own definition, Wikipedia is a free, web-based, collaborative, multilingual encyclopedia project supported by the non-profit Wiki Media Foundation. Its 18 million articles (over 3.6 million in English) have been written collaboratively by volunteers around the world, and almost all of its articles can be edited by anyone with access to the site. Wikipedia was launched in 2001, and has become the largest and most popular general reference on the Internet ranking seventh among all websites on Alexa.com (a web statistics reporting site) and boasting 365 million readers. (Wikipedia, 2011)

The reason that Wikipedia has not been widely accepted in academic research has its roots in its early days. The articles submitted at that time frequently were not carefully researched, often inaccurate, and sometimes posted with malicious intent. It is significant to note that many of these issues have been addressed through the use of anonymous reviewers who examine submissions from the general public for both accuracy and appropriateness. Nonetheless, it still remains a very important resource insofar as researchers, especially the youngest, still access Wikipedia as a point of departure in their research to give them ideas on where to go for additional information.

For those of you who have entries in Wikipedia, it is worth your time to periodically check the content to ensure that someone has not submitted inaccurate or even malicious information. Further, and especially given the reach of Wikipedia, it affords organizations the opportunity to promulgate their missions and activities. For example, in the entry on Olympia, the article posted there cites its role in the ancient Olympic Games and presents a chronology of the site by era to the present day. It does not, however, mention the IOA. A submission could be authored for consideration and inclusion on how Olympia serves as the site of the IOA along with a description of the IOA’s mission and function.

One of the true phenomena of the last few years in Web 2.0 technology is the rise of Facebook as suggested by Internet usage statistics posted on Alexa.com. In April 2011, more than 40% of all global Internet users visited Facebook on a daily basis, a rate of usage that has remained consistent over the past three months.

Facebook represents the power of social media as individuals sharing common experiences are provided a platform through which these experiences or interests can be shared. As friends beget friends, the media content on Facebook expands in ever increasing circles. This content is not limited to posts or messaging, but also includes YouTube video clips, decidedly unscientific opinion polls, and games. Additionally, the messaging function built into Facebook has, in many circles, replaced email as the preferred means of interpersonal electronic communication.

Facebook can be a double-edged sword, as the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time found out much to his chagrin. This individual, who won a record eight gold medals in the 2008 Beijing Olympics, suffered the consequences of the posting of a photograph to Facebook of him consuming illegal recreational drugs. This incident sullied his image and reputation and cost him millions of dollars in endorsement revenue. The irony is that the picture posted was not posted on his personal Facebook page, but on that of another individual who happened to be at the same party. In this instance, the interconnectivity of the medium produced dire consequences for a sports hero and role model. This incident also underscores the need to be circumspect with what one posts to social media sites. A good guideline is not to post anything you would not want to see in a newspaper. It is not uncommon for prospective employers, among others, to search out Facebook pages in an effort to gain insights on a given individual.

Another extraordinarily popular site, and one already mentioned, is YouTube. Founded in February 2005, viewership on YouTube exceeded two billion views per day in May 2010. YouTube allows viewers to watch and share originally created videos and provides a forum for people to connect, inform, and inspire others across the globe and acts as a distribution platform for original content creators and advertisers large and small (YouTube, 2011). Alexa.com reported in April 2011 that YouTube is the third most visited global website receiving just over 26% of daily website visits over the past three months.

YouTube, whose web interface is available in 42 languages, can be accessed by anyone, although those individuals who want to post content on the site must be registered. For regular users, the time limit for any one post is 15 minutes. Posting video content there can be accomplished from a wide range of devices from computers to mobile phones. YouTube video posts spread across the entire Internet by appearing as links in emails, posts on other social media platforms, such as Facebook and in blogs. Periodically, a video on YouTube will “go viral,” which simply refers to a phenomenon in which the content captures the public’s imagination and is promulgated through a vast array of distribution channels.

However, sites such as YouTube pose a recognized threat to the business model of many sports organizations. The blogging and social media rules of the IOC specifically proscribe the posting of “moving images” or sound. While these guidelines can be enforced on accredited individuals to the Games, such as national delegations or the media, it is much harder to do with spectators seated in the stadium. Modern 3G or 4G phones can easily capture video of sporting events from the stadium seat, and the video can be uploaded to YouTube through a user’s account. While such activity violates the terms of service for registered account holders, the process for removing the content and terminating a user’s account can sometimes be a lengthy one. In the meantime, to the extent to which the video has been accessed and distributed through posts on other social media web sites or platforms, it can never be removed from the web in its entirety. Obviously, this is a major issue for media companies that may pay as much as billions of dollars for exclusive media rights to the event.

Another social media phenomenon is Twitter and, in fact, the Winter Games in Vancouver were cited as the first “Twitter Olympics” (5). The Twitter posts, called tweets, of the athletes provide insights into their physical and mental preparation for competition, their reactions to being in the Olympic Games and other aspects of the Olympic experience that simply were not possible in the past through traditional media outlets. Twitter allows for the sharing of the human experience with an unparalleled immediacy and intimacy with potentially vast audiences that is not tempered with the interference of a gatekeeper. Many tweets generated by Olympians at the Vancouver Winter Games can be found on the web by simply “Googling” Olympic athlete tweets.

However, as was the case with Facebook, Twitter can also be a double-edged sword. There have been instances where athletes have posted comments denigrating their competition, the officials, and even their teammates or coaches. These actions can create dissension on teams and when comments go viral, they can take on a life of their own and stir considerable controversy and unfavorable comment in the press. This has occurred frequently enough that some teams ban their athletes from using Twitter, while other teams such as that of the Australian Olympic Team provide their athletes with training on the appropriate use of the medium.

Lastly, I would like to touch on “blogging” as a medium for the dissemination of the human experience. A blog can be thought of as an online diary, open to the public, and onto which an author can write on any topic they choose and to which anyone who reads the post can, in turn, reply. These blogs typically focus on a particular topic such as politics or sports and there are blogs on virtually every topic imaginable. Taken altogether, these blogs are referred to as the “blogosphere.”

With all of the attention that this form of human endeavor engenders and the emotion that it evokes, sports are a common topic in the blogosphere. As one might expect, the blogging commentary related to sports can be both positive and negative. Frequently the authors of blogs do not have the professional or academic preparation to speak knowingly about which they write. The unfortunate thing about blog posts that are inaccurate is that they often carry more weight than they deserve. Illustrious of this situation is the phrase, “it must be true, I read it on the Internet.” The Academy is seeking to address this situation in some small measure through its decision to change one of our online publications, [_The Sport Digest_](http://thesportdigest.com), into a blog. Through this effort, Academy faculty and other well regarded individuals in the profession generate articles on a host of issues surrounding the sport profession. These posts have a basis in fact or are otherwise well-reasoned and as is the case with other blogs, afford the readers an opportunity to respond to the issues.

#### Web 3.0 – The Semantic Web

While the term Web 2.0 has entered the lexicon, Web 3.0 will be the next step in the evolution of the Internet. A common, agreed upon definition for Web 3.0 has yet to emerge but a consensus is building that it will be a combination of technology through which the entire web is turned into a database combined with the marshaling of human resources. New computer languages such as HTML5 will allow computers to read online content and so will facilitate the identification and indexing of the web, a process that will make content more accessible.

Beyond the changes in technology, renowned web futurist Clay Shirky argues that for the first time in history the web has provided the tools to harness society’s “cognitive surplus.” Essentially, the cognitive surplus is derived from the trillions of hours of free time that the residents of the developed world enjoy and that has steadily increased since World War II. Increases in gross domestic product, education, and life span have provided riches of free time but that prior to the Internet was squandered in non-productive pursuits. The Internet democratized the tools of production and distribution and the Internet made the benefits scalable: value comes from the combined cognitive surplus of millions of individuals connected to a network that allows collaboration. (1)

Shirky is an example of this dynamic at work. In the course of researching this paper, the author continuously came across references to Shirky and his theories of cognitive surplus. As more authors agreed with the concept than those that did not, it suggests that these theories are gaining traction and apparently have some merit. Through this process of review and debate, concepts and theory are continually refined adding to the body of knowledge through which the human condition can be enriched.

#### Challenges

With all of its potential to elevate human discourse and to assist in the dissemination of human ideals, many challenges remain. This can fall into three broad areas as follows:

The first is economic. There exists in a very real sense a digital divide in which a vast proportion of the worlds’ population remains without access to computers or the Internet. In many respects, the Internet still remains a world of the “haves and have nots.” In some respects we have almost come full circle to the human condition of when Olympic movement first began in the late 19th century in which access to information was the domain of the privileged few. This fact has been recognized and there are efforts to address this imbalance through the production of low-cost machines to allow the underserved populations without the necessary economic resources to gain access to the Internet.

A looming issue is a social one. Governments all over the world took note at the “Jasmine Revolution” in Tunisia and the events in Tahrir Square in Egypt and the role that Web 2.0 applications played in mobilizing the population to overthrow the political establishment. In the most populous country of the world, the two most globally accessed websites everyday cannot be reached at all. So in a very real sense, we could be headed to a world of two Internets; one in which the flow of information is free and unfettered, and another where access to information resources are tightly controlled or restricted to what the government believes to be “politically acceptable.” (7) In the West, the Internet has played a role in self-censorship resulting in societal fragmentation and polarization insofar as people have a tendency to seek out and read only that information that reinforces their points of view. If the ability to share information is deemed to be a strength, impediments to the free flow of information can only be deemed to be a detriment in a future of shared human values.

The last issue is technical. Computers as we know them – those bulky desktop machines and even portable laptops – are going away. What is going to occur in the future will be a proliferation of smaller devices such as tablet computers, iPhones, and Androids that provide access to the Internet, but where the information that they generate is stored on the Internet itself (also called the cloud). However, all of these devices require wireless connectivity and the amount of electromagnetic spectrum through which these connections are made is a finite resource. In June 2009, the U.S. Government took back that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum through which analog television signals were broadcast. This spectrum was subsequently auctioned off to telecommunication providers and others such as Google. But the fact remains that in the not-too-distant future this bandwidth will also be exhausted. All of this is setting the stage for a time in which data consumption will be metered as is any other utility and subject to the laws of supply and demand (3). Thus, if the digital divide was created by economic conditions, the situation can be exacerbated by “metered Internet access.”

The solution will be found both in the technical, such as content providers better streamlining their services, or through the creation of better means by which access is gained, such as twisting the wireless signals.

### Conclusions

Information technology has unquestionably changed human society in ways that can scarcely be imagined. From early experiments in the 1960s to today, the Internet, as embodied in the web, has over 171 million web hosts. Assuming an average 100 pages per website (the Academy website has more than 800 pages) would yield an estimated 17.1 billion pages of web content, the vast majority of which can be accessed by anyone. Research shows that the Internet, excluding the deep web, is growing by more than 10 million new static pages every day. (6) Thus, the Internet spans virtually the entire gamut of the human existence and can be a powerful medium for the conveying of humanistic ideas. It has provided a vehicle that can educate and entertain us and can serve to make society more cohesive. In so doing, it has created an environment for public discussion unequaled in human history but at the same time, it can also serve to isolate us from each other. People can immerse themselves in an environment where the virtual becomes reality and normal communication with others slowly becomes lost. In any case, the evolution of the Internet has brought about a democratization of media content and has created an environment in which all can participate. It is, as the title of a popular novel suggests, “A Brave New World.”

### Applications in Sport

On our way to Web 3.0, it is critical that we participate in this powerful medium and spread humanistic ideas and Olympic values across the world. The Internet has provided a vehicle that can educate and entertain us and can serve to make society more cohesive. However, despite the potential to elevate human discourse, challenges remain, such as the digital divide that prevents much of the worlds’ population from accessing the Internet, tightly controlled or restricted access by some governments, and technical obstacles that limit wireless connectivity. In any case, the evolution of the Internet has brought about an unprecedented democratization of media content and has created an environment in which all can participate and make a difference.

### References

1. Davis, P. (2010). Here Comes Everything: A Review of Clay Shirky’s Cognitive Surplus. Shareable: Work and Enterprise. <http://shareable.net/blog/here-comes-everything-a-review-of-clay-shirky%E2%80%99s-cognitive-surplus>. (13 July, 2010).

2. Harper, A. (2007). 19th Century Magazine – An Amazing Source of Public Domain Information. Ezinearticles. <http://ezinearticles.com/?19th-Century-Magazines—An-Amazing-Source-of-Public-Domain-Information&id=762208>. (3 October, 2007).

3. Gruman, G. and Kaneshige, T. (2008) Is Our Internet Future in Trouble? InfoWorld. <http://www.infoworld.com/d/networking/our-Internet-future-in-danger-715>. (11 November, 2008).

4. Guttmann, A. (1992). The Olympics; A History of the Modern Games. (2nd. Ed.). Champaign-Urbana: The University of Illinois Press. 13 Ibid. 14.

5. Mann, B. (2010). Olympians On Course Using Twitter. MarketWatch Blogs. <http://blogs.marketwatch.com/vancouverolympics/2010/02/10/olympians-on-course-using-twitter/> (10 February, 2010).

6. Metamend. (2011). How Big is the Internet? Metamend. <www.metamend.com/Internet-growth.html>. (14 April. 2011)

7. McMahon, R.; Bennett, I. (2011). U.S. Internet Providers and the Great Firewall of China. Council on Foreign Relations. <http://www.cfr.org/china/us-Internet-providers-great-firewall-china/p9856>. (23 February, 2011)

8. Slashdot. (2011). Spam Drops 1/3 After Rustock Botnet Gets Crushed. Slashdot IT Blog. <http://it.slashdot.org/story/11/03/29/1516241/Spam-Drops-13-After-Rustock-Botnet-Gets-Crushed>. (29 March, 2011).

9. Wikipedia (2011). Wikipedia. Wikipedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia>. (24 March, 2011).

10. YouTube (2011). About YouTube. YouTube. <http://www.youtube.com/t/about_youtube>. (23 March, 2011).

### Corresponding Author
T.J. Rosandich, Ed.D
One Academy Drive
Daphne, Ala., 36526
<vicepres@ussa.edu>
251-626-3303

### Author Bio
Dr. T.J. Rosandich serves as Vice President for the United States Sports Academy, where he earned both his master’s and doctoral degrees. In addition to having oversight responsibility for the Academy’s administrative and financial functions, he also chairs the Technology Committee and is responsible for international programs. Dr. Rosandich rejoined the staff at the Academy’s main campus in 1994 after spending nine years in Saudi Arabia, where he was general manager of Saudi American Sports.

2013-11-25T16:29:38-05:00May 3rd, 2011|Contemporary Sports Issues, Sports Facilities, Sports Management|Comments Off on Information Technology and Sports: Looking Toward Web 3.0

Olympic Values Education Programme (OVEP) Progress Report: 2005-2010

### Introduction

In the process of organizing the Beijing Games, the Organizing Committee launched an Olympic education programme which touched such a number of young people that the record threatens to out-live generations of today’s youth. With schools across the nation participating, 400,000,000 young people partook of this programme to complete a daunting task that began just six years earlier, one year after Beijing was awarded the Games. While these numbers are staggering and the Olympic education programme was solely a national production, be it with great similarities to the IOC’s Olympic Values Education Programme (OVEP), it remains a fact that it has inspired a number of National Olympic Committees to dream of such a reach. Pro-rated, the percentages are achievable. Rwanda, with a population of just over 120,000,000 would, under this assumption, need to reach a youth population of around 3.5 million. The Indian Olympic Association is hoping its own start-up programme will touch around 20,000,000 young people through the inaugural Indian National Club Games and the ever popular Indian National Games.

This truncated progress report is meant to give some direction to the first-ever meeting of OVEP animators in Durban preceding the 7th World Conference on Sport, Education and Culture. The meeting is intended to generate discussion on the overall review and progress of the OVEP project. In view of the President of the IOC signing off to a four year extension of the programme, the participants to the meeting will be asked to contribute their thoughts and experiences in regard to the way forward. OVEP is not a Youth Olympic Games Culture and Education Programme (CEP). It is supposed to be a pre and post YOG supporting system for all youth, whether or not participants in the youth games.

The coming on board of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is an exciting dimension to OVEP. The organization’s idea of promoting the programme in its 9,000 Associated Schools Network (ASPnet) around the world to buttress values-based education bodes well for Olympism. UNESCO representatives are expected to share their experiences with participants during the meeting. Some developing countries are yet to establish ASPnet schools in their own countries.

In this report, three continents – Africa, Asia and Oceania – feature prominently as having been the successful test beds for the programme. Hopes are high that The Americans will have the programme up and running in 2011. Under the authority of the Pan-American Sports Organization (PASO) and the leadership of the Spanish Olympic Committee, OVEP is being launched in a large-scale way and will immediately be available as a standalone subject on the Spanish NOC’s virtual university. The project will also encompass Portuguese-speaking countries such as Brazil, Portugal and a number of developing countries in Africa.

The European charge is expected to be led by the International Pierre de Coubertin Committee (IPCC) which has done an impressive job of bringing together school children to a youth forum once every two years to dedicate their time to Olympic education. With the urging and material support of the IOC, IPCC has been widening its reach to include young people from other continents. Lately, young people from Asia, Africa and the Americas have participated in the biennial gatherings. OVEP will be an integral element in the established forum programme; however, OVEP as an undertaking in Europe will be driven by IPCC.

### Project Environment

#### Olympic Values Education

Taking into account the IOC’s social responsibility and with the focus on sport as a vehicle to deliver the message, OVEP was developed as a tool to further the IOC’s global youth strategy. The use of Olympic sport traditions and their inherent values is used as the backdrop for the IOC’s values-based teaching and learning opportunities. OVEP integrates sport and physical activity within a cultural and educational framework, and is in line with the United Nations General Assembly declaration of the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD – 2005-2014).

Safeguarding the needs of future generations, OVEP is a key component to the activities of the IOC and the Olympic Movement at large. In view of the fact, that in today’s world, the practice of sport has changed and with the objective to get the “Now Generation” back onto the field of play, this donor-supported project was launched in 2005 with the key objective as stated by the IOC President and approved by the Executive Board, “to develop an Olympic educational programme targeted primarily at young people and youth”.

The unique potential originating from the practice of sport has been repeatedly recognized. Progressive solutions to use the power of sport, its ability to initiate intercultural dialogue, its global reach, its effect on the sporting community and beyond represent an area to enhance equality, obtain personal freedom and a means for development.

However, as has been expressed by the IOC President, the delivery of a values-based education will depend on the joint efforts of all concerned; the sporting movement being a small part but a driving force within the larger playing field. In its contributions to the global platform of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), sport has a key role to play. Specifically, MDG objective Goal 2 (Achieve universal primary education) can be addressed in the framework of OVEP as the essential value of sport lends itself to quality education. That is to say that integration of sports activities can make school more appealing and increase learning motivation in youth.

The link between the IOC’s educational strategy in support of the DESD can be translated to:

– Making education more relevant and meaningful
– Building partnerships in support of sustainable development
– Developing skills both inside and outside the classroom
– Making teaching as well as learning a fun process

#### The Olympic Values Education Toolkit Resource

According to the Olympic Charter, “Olympism is a philosophy of life, exalting and combining in a balanced whole the qualities of body, will and mind. Blending sport with culture and education, Olympism seeks to create a way of life based on the joy of effort, the educational value of good examples and respect for universal fundamental ethical principles.”

Sport and the broader base of physical education provide a boundless arena from which to learn life skills such as tolerance, solidarity, fair play, non-discrimination, inclusivity, friendship, respect, excellence, dedication, loyalty and courage. Fundamental or universal virtues such as the value of effort and how to face life’s challenges such as victory or defeat are part and parcel of participation through and in sport.

The catalytic power of sport in uniting people for a common goal as well as the positive example it can provide to youth is the foundation from which the IOC embarked on the OVEP project. The resource, “Teaching Values, an Olympic Education Toolkit”, conceptualizes education and promotes the development of a values-based, life-long learning paradigm. The focus is on development of life skills and learning, that spreads beyond the sporting field or the four walls of the classroom encapsulated into the fabric of daily lives.

The OVEP project was built on the three pillars of: a teaching manual (a reference tool), an interactive database (network platform) and a label to encourage take-up (promoter of new initiatives). This report does not encompass the latter two components of the project, but strictly adheres to communicating information on the teaching manual and the implementation thereof.

#### The Five Educational Olympic Values

In November 2005, an IOC Education Expert Workshop reached a consensus on the objectives of OVEP, its constraints, deliverables and possible implementation strategies. During this ‘think tank’ event, it was agreed that the five educational values of the toolkit would be the pedagogical cornerstone and basis of the teaching resource:

Joy of effort – Young people develop and practice physical, behavioral and intellectual skills by challenging themselves and each other in physical activities, movement, games and sport.

Fair play – is a sports concept, but it is applied worldwide today in many different ways. Learning fair play behavior in sport can lead to the development and reinforcement of fair play behavior in the community and in life.

Respect for others – When young people who live in a multicultural world learn to accept and respect diversity and practice personal peaceful behavior, they promote peace and international understanding.

Pursuit of excellence – A focus on excellence can help young people to make positive, healthy choices, and strive to become the best that they can be in whatever they do.

Balance between body, will and mind – Learning takes place in the whole body, not just in the mind. Physical literacy and learning through movement contributes to the development of both moral and intellectual learning. This concept became the foundation of Pierre de Coubertin’s interest in a revival of the Olympic Games.

#### Summary of the OVEP Project Timeline

Year Action
2005 Decision by the IOC to develop a global youth strategy and address social responsibility through an educational values programme. IOC Education Expert Workshop reached a consensus on the objectives of OVEP, its constraints, deliverables and possible implementation strategies (Nov-Dec 2005). Sponsor-generated donation running over a 4 year period was presented to the IOC by ISM (2005).
2006 IOC President and EB approve OVEP project (Jan 2006). Teaching Values: An Olympic Education Toolkit was penned. The toolkit was presented at the 5th World Forum for Sport, Education and Culture (October 2006), was subsequently reviewed by the Culture and Education Working Group for Olympic Education and approved by the IOC Culture and Education Commission.
2007 Field testing started with the World Scout Jamboree Event in Chelmsford, UK (July-August 2007). Some 28,000 young people between the ages of 14 and 17 and 12,000 adults were present at this event.
Since 2008 Running of pilot phase, having successfully concluded 10 Train the Trainer Workshops with a geographical reach in 3 continents (Africa, Oceania and Asia).

### Projective Objectives

Having recognized the social and educational significance of sport, Olympic education reinforces the cultural DNA of individuals in a globalized world and further promotes the well-being of all using, among others, the tool of sport. With this fundamental principle in mind, it was agreed that the OVEP project would be initially established in developing countries in order to promote the application of Olympic values through sport.

To this effect, the following objectives were defined:

– **Objective 1:** Education – To design and implement an Olympic Education programme for children and young people in developing and developed countries in order to promote the application of Olympic values through sport.
– **Objective 2:** Multi-application – Heterogeneous applicability (e.g. multi-lingual, multi-cultural, actualization within different geo-political environments).
– **Objective 3:** Internal Collaboration – Compatible with IOC development programme policy in collaboration with other IOC departments (e.g. Olympic Solidarity, Olympic Museum, Sports Department).
– **Objective 4:** Global implementation – Evaluate the possibilities of extending OVEP into a global and general public promotional campaign following the pilot phase.

### Project Implementation

The pilot phase was built under the aegis of the “Train the Trainer” (TtT) model. The working concept underpinning the methodology was the “ripple or multiplier effect” in which the effective transfer of learning extends outward. That is to say that one person is trained in a group setting after which s/he takes that knowledge, skills and materials and confidently trains other groups. This formula was successfully implemented through 10 TtT workshops in 3 continents (Africa, Oceania and Asia) with a reach of approximately 45 countries. The latter does not take into account the integration of OVEP within Organizing Committees education programmes, national educational start-up initiatives, the OlympAfrica network and International Federations, to name a few.

### Review of Implementation from a Continental Perspective

A few outstanding facts to date:

– The OVEP project has trained over 300 delegates from approx. 45 countries so far.
– Relevant to Olympic Games special Olympic education programmes and OVEP reach was extended to 40,000 schools (Beijing 2008) and 2,100 British Columbia schools with 200,000 resource hits on the VANOC website platform (Vancouver 2010). The London Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (LOCOG) is also in full swing with their official launch of the London 2012 education programme, “Get Set”.

Following the inaugural launch of the programme in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania in 2008, the following highlights per continent can be reported.

#### Africa

– More than 155 countries have been targeted and subsequently activated.
– Over 100 trainers have been prepared to roll out the programme on a national level.
– Two regional workshops organized by the Department of International Cooperation and Development (DICD) in collaboration with OlympAfrica and hosted by the NOCs of Mali and Gambia have taken place. As a result, some NOCs have established a culture and Education Commission to further the activities on a national level.
– OlympAfrica Foundation is a valuable and key partner in disseminating and rolling-out OVEP. More than 250 activities are carried out in OlympicAfrica centres and OVEP is part of their offerings.
– The National Olympic Committee of Kenya has taken a lead interest in Olympic Values dissemination for the region and on a national level.
– The opening of the Olympic Youth Development Center in Zambia is a great boost to the programme. A cross cutting project in conjunction with United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) offers the perfect venue for the running of a Global Sports for Youth International Camp wherein OVEP modules have been integrated into the five day established programme. Six country delegations from Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zambia (host) with a total of 80 participating youths are scheduled to attend the camp in November 2010.
– Cross border implementation is a reality. This has been encouraged between the neighboring countries of Zambia and Zimbabwe between Tanzania and Kenya.
– Inroads at the policy decision making level (Ministries of Education) and the building of a sound national foundation have been made for example in Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and Uganda. Burundi will follow the same patter.
– Sensitization workshops (i.e. key to establishing a solid and sustainable foundation for programme roll-out) have been organized and incorporated in the framework for implementation in countries such as Zimbabwe, Kenya, Burundi and Egypt.

#### Asia

– The 5th World Forum on Sport, Education and Culture (Beijing, 2006) identified a network of 70 contacts in China to play a role in the outreach programme for OVEP. As illustrated during the 2008 Beijing Games, host countries of Olympic Games can and have played important roles as a channel of distribution for Olympic education.
– In view of the inaugural 2010 Youth Olympic Games a TtT Workshop was initiated by the Singapore National Olympic Council in collaboration with the Singapore Olympic Academy (SOA). Thirteen countries were targeted and have been activated through the session. Since last December 2009, 116 trainers have been trained and are rolling out the programme on a national regional level.
– Large scale dissemination in highly populated countries such as India can be very effective from a case study and learning point-of-view. For example, the Delhi Public Schools (DPS) with a student intake of 10,000 students has been utilized for the “hands-on” practicum availed to the workshop participants during the IOC and Indian Olympic Association (IOA) TtT workshop which took place in March 2010. A key outcome has been smaller-scale initiatives on a rural grass roots level which have been conducted in regional provinces such as Raipur Chhattisgarh with the assistance of the provincial government. Also an integral approach led by an academic team from the Delhi university system with 8 adjoining states in the pipeline.
– A transversal project approach has been the result within the framework of activities by the Jordan Olympic Committee. The Higher Council for Youth Summer Camps along with the Amman Greater Municipality have concluded a series of peer-engaged clinics in June/July 2009. Moreover, the Education Division of the National Olympic Committee has been instrumental in securing the interest of the two principal universities of Jordan, the University of Jordan and the Hashemite University, with a view in mind to integrate Olympic values education into the institutions’ physical education curriculum.
– Malaysia has expressed an interest in taking on board the dissemination of OVEP. The results of a graduate student project conducted for the International Academy of Sports Science and Technology in Lausanne (AISTS) illustrated that in collaboration with the NOC and NOA, implementation of OVEP would be a welcome addition within the national educational system.
– The Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) has motioned their interest to take on a lead continental role for the OVEP project in the region in 2011-2012.

#### Oceania

– Fourteen countries were targeted and subsequently activated through the OVEP Continental Seminar (Fiji, July 2009). Thirty-two trainers were trained and prepared to roll out the programme on a national level.
– A legacy of the IOC promoted Continental seminar in 2009 was also the pending MOU between the IOC and the National Universities of South Pacific and the Fiji Institute of Technology to include OVEP within their curriculum.
– Key NOCs in this region such as Australia and New Zealand have a long tradition and inclusive approach as it relates to OV education within their classroom based activities and in the physical education curriculum. Both National Olympic Committees of Australia and New Zealand widely disperse resources and materials through web-based and interactive social media platforms, programmes that are designed to encourage youth to lead active, healthy and values based lifestyles. The New Zealand “Living the Olympic Values” is a popular series of digital and interactive teaching resource with a particular focus on general subjects such as English, Social Sciences and Physical Education. These resources are available for a global audience and for free download.
– Small island projects such as that initiated by the National Olympic Committee of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) resulted in a stellar example of a promising practice with the Young Educator Promoting Olympic Values (YEPOV) workshop following the Continental Seminar in Fiji. Key to the success of this project was the support of Olympic Solidarity (OS) Programmes in collaboration with the Department, and transfer of knowledge from a larger experienced NOC. Extended roll-out in other nearby islands has been achieved.
– The National Olympic Committee of Vanuatu has made progress in its efforts to ensure the inclusion of sport and physical education in the national school curriculum. The NOC has also been proactive in linking into opportunities such as the development of rowing in the region and from a coaching perspective investigating how OVEP would fit into an overall education project.

### Reflective findings

In general, OVEP has made great strides since its inception. There needs to be a continued focus on the explicit teaching of values, together with a continuation of embedding Olympic values principles combined with sports in the classroom, as well as in all out-reach areas and activities. This will result in the development and implementation of creative and innovative programmes that will add to the overall resources in the context of education for sustainable development.

#### Summary

Some general findings which have emerged are as follows:

##### Relevance and strategic fit:

– OVEP goes beyond geo-political and artificial boundaries and is a sustainable platform which can help to address gender inequality, social exclusion, economic challenges, risky behaviors, physical handicaps, among others.
– Notable respect for cultural diversity and educational systems is an integral driver of the programme. To allow regional efficacy OVEP should be prepared to adapt and allow for decision making in the specific region.
– This transfer of knowledge and sharing experiences and good practices among animators of the programme should be the cornerstone for the future of the programme.

##### Validity of programme design and methodology:

– The toolkit does provide a sound basis for implementation and roll-out. However, as identified in the manual, caution needs to be taken in respect to tailoring the activities and TtT workshops to the local and social contexts.

### Lessons Learned

– Availability of financial resources does not guarantee uptake of the programme. What does?
– Need to diversity channels of dissemination of OVEP. Programme must be available in a controlled environment on electronic platforms.
– Derivatives of the programme should be encouraged, for social, political and cultural reasons.
– Many NOCs are taking a passive interest in the programme, leaving the initiative to “others”. There is need for NOCs to take ownership of the programme at national level but still be able to work with other entities. The Olympic brand can only be protected in a given country by the NOC who have the absolute authority to control the Olympic symbols’ use by third parties.
– Mentoring the programme by which experienced trainers coach ‘rookies’ for feedback, problem-solving and strategic modeling needs to be established.
– The need to expand on key entry points (e.g. endorsement of ministries of sport and education, involvement of International Federations, relevant UN agencies).
– The partnership with UNESCO is crucial to the introduction of OVEP in the school curriculum. NOCs need to develop relationships with UNESCO National Commissions in their own countries. This relationship does not currently exist.
– OVEP does not have to be a stand-alone subject. Elements of OVEP can and should be integrated into other educational programmes in truncated forms. The IOA sessions are a perfect platform for delivering unbundled OVEP.
– The language barrier appears to be a strong deterrent in widening the reach of OVEP. Currently, it exists only in English and French. However, the World Taekwondo Federation and a few enterprising NOCs have translated the toolkit into locally-popular languages. This should be encouraged. While NOCs in developing countries might not have the resources for such undertakings, Olympic Solidarity and the Department of International Cooperation and Development have always been sympathetic to requests for resources to advance Olympic education in general and can be counted upon to help.

### Going Forward

In the period of 2005-2010, the OVEP project was launched, tested for its global applicability and fine-tuned where necessary. The report clearly shows that the activities undertaken thus far have brought the project objectives within reach. The pilot phase has successfully rolled out over three regions, while the number and variety of follow-up activities in these regions show that the seed has fallen on fertile ground.

By definition a pilot phase of a project looks at a defined concept on a limited scale. Upon completion, the concept is being evaluated, and budget parameters are being studied. The concept of “teaching life skills through interactive play” (i.e. OVEP) and using sport as a tool is a success story. Simultaneously, in order to reliably measure the progress and impact of the OVEP project, a standardized and repeatable monitoring and reporting system should be in place. This measuring system should be applicable from a central reference point such as the IOC, but also by local authorities.

To this effect, a concept feedback mechanism has been integrated during the IOC-UNESCO Associated Schools (ASPnet) Joint Initiative, “Teaching Olympic Values”. A draft proposal for discussion on further collaboration was brought to the table during a meeting of IOC and UNESCO in September 2010. UNESCO ASPnet tallies more than 9,000 schools in 180 countries.

At the moment, a future strategic outlook or orientation to extend the reach through new partnerships and alliances is being pursued.

In addition, the collaboration with international partner organizations has shown to be of key supplementary value to the programme. Now that the immediate future of the project has been secured from a budgetary perspective with an extension of the donor-generated support, the programme will be continued in existing areas, while new activity regions can and will be added.

Like all large projects in a pilot phase, the period 2005-2010 has highlighted some areas in which the successful programme can perform even better. The fact that all activities require a regional fine-tuning to increase the efficacy (from a socio-economic and political perspective) will bring an added value to the next project phase.

**Department of International Cooperation and Development**
4 December 2010
Durban, South Africa

### Acknowledgements

The compilation of this report would not have been possible without the knowledge base, support and contribution of our global network of OVEP trainers and educators in the broadest sense of the definition.

On behalf of the IOC, the Department of International Cooperation and Development applauds and thank you for your tireless efforts and continuing passion for Olympism.

### Annex A: OVEP Geographical Reach

The bold countries in the table below reflect TtT workshops. The remaining countries in the table were either present as participants or otherwise exposed to OVEP. The table is limited to OVEP related activities and does not take into account wider Olympic education initiatives carried out by the NOCs, Ifs or Recognized Organizations, to name a few.

Africa Asia Ocenia The Americas Europe
B. Faso
Ivory Coast
Egypt
Gambia
G. Bissau
Guinee
Libya
Mali
Niger Nigeria
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Tanzania
Zambia
Zimbabwe
Brunei
Cambodia
China
Chinese Tapei
India
Indonesia
Japan
Jordan
Mongolia
Myanmar
Oman
Phillippines
Singapore
South Korea
Thailand
American Samoa
Australia
Cook Islands
Fiji
FS Micronesia
Guam
Kiribati
Marshall Islands
Nauru
New Zealand
P. New Guinea
Palau
Samoa
Tonga
Canada (Vancouver 2010)
Carribbean (ASPnet Schools)
Great Britain (London 2012)

### Annex B: OVEP Country Implementation

#### Australia

##### Background

Olympic education and the Olympics have always stolen the hearts of the Australian population. The NOC education programmes and aims are implemented by using the Olympic sport traditions and values as the context for teaching life values and life skills. The promotion of the Olympic spirit and values to the wider community is performed through established education programs: (i) Live Clean Play Clean – delivered by young Olympians; (ii) Pierre de Coubertin Awards – open to all senior secondary school students across Australia and (iii) the A.S.P.I.R.E. school network.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. Using the Olympic sport traditions and values as the context for teaching life values and skills.
2. Educating young athletes on the moral, ethical and physical reasons for not taking performance-enhancing drugs.
3. Through the Coubertin Awards, select students who demonstrate attributes of fair play and respect for others.
4. Involve the community and stakeholders (NOC, Ministry of Education, Universities, Youth Council, IOC and IFs).
5. A.S.P.I.R.E. School Network (ASN) founded on the Australian Olympic Team’s set of values, namely: attitude, sportsmanship, pride, individual responsibility, respect and express yourself, which is the Australian Olympic Committee’s national education program for primary educators designed to instill in young Australians an appreciation for the values, spirit and philosophy of the Olympic Movement. This comprehensive programme organizes Olympic related activities such as on-line video conferencing providing the opportunity for primary school children to talk with Olympians, Olympic Day Celebration, BK Zone – website for primary students containing fun, interactive educational activities themed around the Olympic Games and Olympic Village Art. Primary students are invited to decorate the Australian section of the Olympic Village (AOC) received over 2,000 pieces of artwork from 100 schools for the Beijing Games).

##### Project implementation:

1. Coubertin Awards: open to all senior students, 779 awarded in 2008.
2. Village Art – Students are invited to deliver a literature or artistic piece of work for the Olympic Games.
3. More than 24,500 ASPIRE teachers registered since 2006.
4. A.S.P.I.R.E. activities: Learn from a Champ, Chat to a Champ, Olympic Day and Village Art, BK Zone and Medallion.
5. Fit OVEP in with Higher Council for Youth activities.
6. Cross-curriculum lectures for primary teachers with focus on the upcoming Olympic Games.
7. On-line Olympic Resources emphasizing Olympic values, literacy and numeracy skills, information and communication technology, active lifestyles and community links.

##### Project follow-up:

As part of the AOC OVEP implementation plan, the toolkit will be distributed to schools participating in the Pierre de Coubertin Awards, State and Federal Departments of Education (8,000 schools and 14,850 teachers registered) and State Olympic Councils (7 SOCs in total).

One of the key challenges pinpointed by the AOC for OVEP implementation is that there is no established uniform national curriculum in the country.

#### Federated States of Micronesia

##### Background

Keeping in mind the agreed commitment of the Regional Seminar in Fiji to prioritize youth empowerment and participation, the Young Educator Promoting Olympic Values (YEPOV) initiative was brought forward by the NOC. The objectives of the project are to: promote OV to Micronesia schools through the Junior Sport Program, increase the number of Micronesia youth interested in participating in sport, to train Micronesia youth and have them share the Olympic Movement with their peers, improve the quality of life of the youth of Micronesia.

Nineteen schools were targeted for this initiative and the project was launched in January 2010. Funding was obtained through the Olympic Solidarity World Programmes. This project is an example of good practices and joint collaboration of a larger experienced NOC lending a hand to one of her smaller counterparts.

##### OVEP workshop objectives:

1. Mentoring of young people, Education and Healthy Lifestyles.
2. Sharing experiences of the Youth Olympic Games.
3. The Role of the Olympic Movement.
4. A positive reinforcement of the Olympic Values and the value of sport.

##### Project implementation:

1. A selection of best students and teachers took place.
2. Endorsement by the participating schools.
3. OVEP objectives shared and incorporated with physical exercise.
4. Financial support received from Olympic Solidarity; material resource support received from the IOC Department of International Cooperation and Development.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Excellent teamwork in the organization of the workshop.
2. Students of Youth Camps and YOG gave presentations.
3. High level of satisfaction in participant evaluation.
4. Exposed schools are already implementing OVs in their programme.
5. Involved NOCs will assist students to follow-up on school activities.

##### Project recommendations:

1. Project will be continued at 2010 High School Track & Field Championships
2. Concept of Youth promoting OVs should be extended through other seminars.
3. The Women & Sport Committees in Oceania could organize such workshops.
4. ONOC to be involved in proposal for OV workshops with senior students.

#### India

##### Background

The introduction of the OVEP programme augured well with the Presidential launch in Pune (October 2008). In the early part of 2010, an IOC National “Train the Trainers” workshop comprised of 35 State Olympic Associations (28 states and 7 union territories) took place. The Delhi Public Schools (DPS) with a student intake of 10,000 was utilized for the “hands-on” practicum availed to the participants during the course of the workshop.

The NOC is committed to the OVEP programme and developing sport diversity at the grassroots level. It was agreed that OVEP would be part of the activities of the Indian National Club Games that will target 800,000 clubs in the country. Roll-out post workshop on a grassroots level is being implemented via the respective State Olympic Associations (SOAs).

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. Update participants on OVEP and the Education Toolkit.
2. To offer the OVEP learning and teaching theories.
3. Discuss implementation of OVEP in schools, universities and sport organizations.
4. Create a platform of leaders in schools and communities.
5. Select coaches to instruct OVEP leaders.
6. Involve rural children by providing an opportunity for participation.

##### Project implementation:

1. Creation of a master list of students’ expectations for feedback purposes.
2. Curriculum theory and toolkit analysis.
3. Learning as an active and interactive process (English and Hindi).
4. Learning in group discussions, creative activities, simulations, writing skills.
5. OVEP implementation and concept given to teaching coaches.
6. Motivate coaches to spread the concept to a ‘second’ layer of teachers.
7. Motivate these teachers to involve youth in the learning concept.
8. Nine target areas have been selected for the project.
9. One year of preparation, three years of OVEP implementation.
10. Core OVEP group; Project Directors & Coordinator, (Master) Trainers, Teachers & School Administrators, Performing Artists, Film Makers, University Students & Sportspersons, NGO Volunteers.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Olympic Values: Theory, content and methodology comprehended by students.
2. Toolkit: structure and content comprehended by students.
3. Participation 28 students (teachers 4, professors 5, Parent Advisory Committee 1, NOC officials 4, Sport organizations 14).
4. Implementation of OVEP in educational, sport and youth groups settings.
5. Feedback on resources.
6. Extend OVEP to other countries.

##### Project recommendations:

1. To adapt lecture-oriented, textbook teachers to a programme of physical activity.
2. Practicality of the toolkit in a multi-faceted setting.
3. Establish networking with other global similar projects.
4. University involvement required now to increase the impact.

##### Project assessment:

1. Endless support of staff, IOC and NOC very valuable.
2. Engagement of participants in activities and exercises positive.
3. Flexibility in regard to programme required.
4. Transparency in ideas between participants very helpful.

#### New Zealand

##### Background

For a number of years, the New Zealand Olympic Committee (NZOC) in collaboration with the New Zealand Olympic Academy (NZOA) have been very active in producing educational resources targeted at primary/secondary school levels and inclusion of Olympic education as a classroom-based activity in physical education training curriculum. The Ministry of Education and other key agencies on a country level are involved in this educational context.

The NOC has recently put in place dedicated staff in the form of a full-time Olympic Educator (participant to OVEP Fiji Workshop). The NZOC and NZOA have started to incorporate OVEP into digital education resources for primary schools and at university level. Academic courses on Olympism are now available. IT resources are accessible for free, together with the OVEP manual; this educational process is being channeled through Lift Education, an educational publishing company. This approach is in line with the NZOC Strategic Plan 2010-2013.

##### OVEP project objectives 1 (OVEP incorporation in schools and universities):

1. To promote awareness, engagement and modeling of the educational values of Olympism in the NZL educational system.
2. Develop the Olympism education knowledge base in physical education, sport education and sport coaching.
3. Offer OVEP to the Oceania region as opportunities for teachers.
4. Set up a research culture on Olympism (integrating OVEP) at university level.

##### Project implementation:

1. Olympism and OVEP have been included into the university curriculum of physical education students (University of Canterbury).
2. The above-mentioned University has also integrated OVEP into the education programme for sport coaching.
3. Specific courses on Olympism, Education and Sport and PhD courses in Olympic Studies are in the picture.

##### Project outcomes:

1. The Regional Seminar held in Fiji has exposed many participants to OVEP.
2. Resources and lack of curriculum time form barriers for dissemination.
3. Recommendations were sent to relevant Ministries of Education.
4. Other regional universities have been contacted. At least 3 professional development sessions for physical education teachers took place with an exposure of 200 delegates.
5. University staff have participated in a number of conferences.
6. Platforms created with other academic institutions, funding still a bottleneck.
7. Centre for Olympic studies developed at university level in NZL.

##### Project Recommendations:

1. The initiatives developed in NZL need to spread further in Oceania.
2. ONOC solidarity funding yet not available.
3. For funding beyond NZL university budgets required.
4. Strong, well-resourced leadership for Oceania is required.

##### Project follow-up:

1. Refresher courses for trainers must be organized.
2. Duplication must be avoided by a standardized monitoring and evaluation system.
3. Resources must be secured by initiating corporate partnerships.
4. Majority of trainers follow up with conducting workshops.
5. Trainers must improve their coordination and expand networking.

##### OVEP project objectives 2 (Living the Olympic Values):

1. Target group: primary school students, age 8 – 12 years.
2. Offer interactive digital education resources to primary schools.
3. Tone and technology must be engaging to youth, with a link to English, Social Sciences, Health and Physical Education.
4. Development of a promotional web development plan, focus on awareness of and demand for OV based educational resources.

##### Project implementation:

1. IT Texts are available for free with accompanying teaching notes.
2. Information on Olympism, the NZL curriculum and Resources.
3. Available texts: Olympic Values, Olympic Games, Giving it Everything, Determined to Succeed.
4. Funding was secured through NZOC, NZOA and Olympic Solidarity.
5. Corporate sponsorship currently being sought.
6. A new Board of NZOA is being formed.

#### Singapore

##### Background

In view of the inaugural 2010 Youth Olympic Games the Singapore National Olympic Council (SNOC) in collaboration with the National Olympic Academy (SOA) launched a training workshop directed to the theme of equipping and training educators for the Olympic Values Education Programme.

Under the banner of the 2009 SOA 16th Annual International Session for Young Participants, the Academy built a core group of Olympic Education champions in the Asian continent and Singapore. The Continental Association was on board and collaborated with the NOC in this initiative.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. To promote OVEP to NOCs and NOAs in the region.
2. To equip Olympic educators with knowledge and skills to deliver OVEP in their respective countries.
3. To develop a core group of Olympic Education Leaders, in view of the 2010 YOG in Singapore.

##### Project implementation:

1. Prior to Opening Ceremony a dialogue with 12 SIN Olympians was organized.
2. Olympic history and toolkit analysis.
3. Discussion in working groups on values such as peace, excellence, respect, teamwork, environment, etc.
4. Design of flags and the concept behind flag and ceremony symbolism.
5. Cultural presentations, local as well as international.
6. Simulations of the OG Opening Ceremony
7. An interactive Meet the Olympians’ session.
8. Sharing of national experiences on Olympic Education.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Very positive interaction between participants during workshop days.
2. Successful workshop as judged by the responding participants.
3. A total number of 116 participants with diverse representations.
4. Implementation of OVEP for children and youth appreciated by participants.

#### Tanzania

##### Background

Negotiations with the Ministry of Education to integrate OVEP on a national scale within the context of the school curriculum is hoped to be realized in the upcoming 2009/2010 academic year. The capital (Dar-es-Salaam) has a population of 4 million with a national population of 40+ million. Two workshops per year comprising 30 participants per session would have a high project impact taking into consideration the ripple effect. In order to empower youth, an OVEP Youth Ambassadors programme and the organization of a youth Olympic Festival is being developed by the OVEP Regional Coordinator.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. Train 30 physical education leaders from Tanzania.
2. Train 30 physical education leaders from Zanzibar.
3. Create an Olympic Education and Leadership Youth Camp.

##### Project implementation:

1. OVEP presentations were given in schools and school revisits are underway.
2. Workshop on Olympic Values Education held for 30 Women Sports leaders.
3. OVEP presentation held during East African Women Sports Journalists Forum.
4. OVEP presentation given during IOA in Olympia (117 Directors of NOAs).
5. Two day session on volunteerism for 30 young students at TOC headquarters.
6. Training of 150 students on providing Volunteer services during the Queen’s Baton Relay.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Trained students will act as coordinators during Youth Camps.
2. Report author took part in IOA Masters Course.

##### Project follow-up:

1. A proposal was submitted and approved for OVEP training 30 Physical Education Teachers (Sep 2010).
2. A proposal was submitted and approved for the training of 30 Physical Education Teachers in Zanzibar (Nov 2010).
3. A proposal has been submitted to Olympic Solidarity for funding for an International Olympic Education and Leadership Youth Camp (Nov 2010).

#### Zambia

The programme has support from the Ministry of Education, UNICEP (London 2012 International Inspirational project), NOC of Zambia, Sport for Youth and Sport in Action. Plans to expand the program involve integration into sport federations’ junior nationals. Discussions to this effect with the Zambia Schools Sport Association have been successful and it is projected that in the proposed roll-out phase more than 1,000 teachers in 72 district sport associations and that all national (inter-provincial and inter-schools nationals) will benefit from Olympic Values education.

The first Olympic Youth Development Centre (OYDC) under the IOC’s Sport for Hope Programme was officially opened in May 2010. The multi-purpose sports complex is a great addition to the local population and will also enrich multi-cultural dialogue through the running of international youth camps such as the IOC-UNODC Global Sports Fund Youth Camp.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. Develop an implementation structure for OVEP programs.
2. Integrate OVEP into Olympic and other national sport structures
3. Training of OVEP activity leaders.
4. Monitoring, evaluation and dissemination of good practices.

##### Project implementation 1 (Sensitization/engagement of stakeholders in OVEP):

To disseminate OVEP to 10 districts, 10,000 Youth & 100,000 Adults in 2010 by integration of OVEP into NOA, schools, sports clubs, NGOs.

##### Project outcomes 1:

Reach:

1. The NOA, 22 schools, 3 NGOs and 94 community youth teams have integrated OVEP into their educational programmes.
2. Implementation: 39 schools have made an OVEP implementation plan for 2010.

##### Project implementation 2 (training for sports teachers/coaches, peer leaders/coaches):

1. To equip 120 Teachers, 70 Coaches and 200 Peer Leaders with knowledge on integration of OVEP by training participants in 3 different levels of trainer skills.
2. To influence parents and teachers at targeted schools on their role in changing thought processes towards Olympic Values by holding quarterly forums in all selected schools on OVEP, the benefits for children, the role of parents and teachers, and the eventual conflict between OV versus cultural values.

##### Project outcomes 2:

1. 350 OVEP leaders have been trained to integrate life skills into games and sport and are conducting OVEP sessions now.
2. 400 Parents and Teachers were involved and provide a supportive environment; the children exposed testify positive changes in family environment.

##### Project implementation 3 (provide an OV platform through fun, learning and interaction):

1. To hold weekly OV sessions at schools and sport training sessions by OVEP leaders.
2. Organize group discussions/quizzes, also including children not-in-sport.
3. Organize OV skills ‘Challenge’ events for 400 children in 6 disciplines (football, basketball, traditional games, volleyball, netball, education quiz).

##### Project outcomes 3.

1. Children are enjoying the sport and experience a supportive environment, make friends, became healthier and active.
2. Children cope better with everyday life challenges, interact better with other communities.
3. Teachers are better motivated and have more interaction.
4. School managers encourage OVEP and the use of sport with a positive attitude.

##### Project implementation 4 (monitoring):

Progression of OVEP project and the response by target audience.

1. Response of children 6-18 years; involved vs. not involved.
2. Parent and Teacher involvement in implementation.
3. Policymaker involvement (school managers).

##### Project outcomes:

Results by observation and questionnaire:

1. Verbal expression improved in sport and day-to-day life.
2. Teachers state that OV input is easy to incorporate through sport, thereby building confidence in children.
3. Children more respectful in family situations and better motivated when tasks are asked from them.

#### Zimbabwe

##### Background

Much work at the policy decision making level and the building of a sound national foundation in respect to OVEP has been achieved. An environment conducive to OVEP implementation has been developed through joint collaboration with the NOC and Zimbabwe Olympic Academy (ZOA) via sensitization workshops. Proposals for further implementation involving cross border activities with Zimbabwe are also being looked into. In the planning it has been proposed that a series of Train the Trainer workshops be run with a projected outcome of 80 trainers trained.

The spreading of Olympism and Olympic Education through the teaching of Olympic Values is set to increase, as implementing agents are being identified in other Provinces for ZOA activities.

##### OVEP Project objectives:

1. Teaching Olympic Values in a socially acceptable manner.
2. Identify trainers from all provinces and institutional strategic leaders.
3. Trained participants to execute knowledge in their home provinces.
4. Monitoring, evaluation and dissemination of good practices.

##### Project implementation:

1. Train the Trainer Workshop:
a. With budgetary help of Olympic Solidarity, identification of participants in a national perspective.
b. Thirty participants selected in schools, communities and national associations, with help of provincial educators, local governments, Sport & Recreation Commission.
c. Workshop participants: 20 from provinces via Ministry (♂ & ♀), 4: welfare & sport officers, 4: National Sports Associations, 2: NOC & Sport & Recreation Commission.
d. Workshop took place on July 10-12, 2009, with interactive theory and practice lectures.

2. Enforcing the ZOA capacities:
a. A new ZOA Director was hired to incorporate the OVEP program and a new Board of ZOA is being formed.
b. Implementation of OVEP methodology in the school programme has been initiated.
c. Identification of corporate partners is required to cover budgetary gaps.

##### Project follow-up (Post Workshop):

1. Most Trainers trained conduct workshops, securing a roll-out
2. Resources remain a problem for further progress.
3. Trainers must improve their coordination and networking levels.
4. A continuing education after initial training is required.
5. Evaluation underlined the need to improve trainers’ knowledge on OVEP, to customize OVEP literature and to ensure monitoring and evaluation.
6. Timely submission of work plans needs to be enforced.

#### UNESCO

Associated Schools (ASPnet)

##### Background

An IOC-UNESCO Associated Schools (ASPnet) Joint Initiative was launched within the framework of “Teaching Olympic Values”. The sub-regional training workshop for ASPnet National Coordinators, teachers, youth leaders and curriculum specialists was hosted by the Trinidad and Tobago National Commission for UNESCO. ASPnet National Coordinators and teachers from six Caribbean countries of: Barbados, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago were present.

The National Olympic Committee of Trinidad and Tobago also co-organized and participated to this pilot project event. The NOC’s Olympic education programme “Shape the Community” Sport Development Project underlining Olympic values education has been well underway since 2008 and has a reach of over 3,000 children within three surrounding communities.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. To promote Values Education at school level, with a focus on the 5 values presented in the OVEP toolkit.
2. To process the implementation of the OVEP toolkit through the ASPnet laboratory by conducting a school experiment in the Caribbean.
3. Organize ASPnet Teacher and Coordinator workshops with presentation of the toolkit and elaboration of impact assessment tools.
4. Presentation of an evaluation survey to assess the impact of values education in primary and secondary schools.

##### Workshop objectives:

1. Provide participants with the necessary knowledge on the structure and content of the OVEP toolkit.
2. Elaborate assessment tools for primary and secondary schools on the integration of Olympic values in the education programme.
3. To plan school experiments over the 2010-2011 school year.
4. Draft recommendations for adaptation of the OVEP kit in the Caribbean context.
5. Complete survey data to be conducted at the end of the experimentation phase.

##### Project implementation:

1. Participants: 30 from 6 Caribbean countries, 6 ASPnet coordinators, 19 ASPnet teachers and sport coaches, 1 curriculum planner, 1 university teacher coach, 2 UNESCO staff, 1 IOC staff, 1 NOC staff, 5 national UNESCO Commission.
2. Presentation of OVEP toolkit, with a focus on (i) Joy of effort, (ii) Respect, (iii) Fair Play, (iv) Pursuit of Excellence, (v) Balance between body, will and mind.
3. Elaboration of assessment tools for (i) practicing the activities proposed in the toolkit, (ii) suggesting new activities, (iii) monitoring by questionnaire.
4. Preparation of monitoring and planning.
5. Creating commitment for participation in 2010-2011 school experimentation.
6. Joint declaration of commitment.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Participants trained on structure and content of toolkit.
2. A final report was drafted by participants.
3. Joint declaration of commitment signed by all participants.
4. Global planning for OVEP experimentation 2010-2011 has been detailed.
5. First generation of assessment tools decided upon.
6. Suggestions made for roll-out in other Caribbean countries.
7. Data collection instruments have been fine-tuned.
8. Video material is ready.

##### Project recommendations:

1. To finalize assessment tools for pre- and post-experimentation with education planners, statisticians and elected teachers and ASPnet coordinators.
2. Carry out applied research on the current vales education in the 6 participating countries.
3. To pursue research on basic socio-economic facts in the region.
4. To post workshop outcomes on the ASPnet website.
5. To collect from participants data to establish a working and monitoring platform for the school experimentation.
6. To identify a valid study sample, in terms of participating classes and students.

### Annex B: OVEP Country Implementation

#### Australia

##### Background

Olympic education and the Olympics have always stolen the hearts of the Australian population. The NOC education programmes and aims are implemented by using the Olympic sport traditions and values as the context for teaching life values and life skills. The promotion of the Olympic spirit and values to the wider community is performed through established education programs: (i) Live Clean Play Clean – delivered by young Olympians; (ii) Pierre de Coubertin Awards – open to all senior secondary school students across Australia and (iii) the A.S.P.I.R.E. school network.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. Using the Olympic sport traditions and values as the context for teaching life values and skills.
2. Educating young athletes on the moral, ethical and physical reasons for not taking performance-enhancing drugs.
3. Through the Coubertin Awards, select students who demonstrate attributes of fair play and respect for others.
4. Involve the community and stakeholders (NOC, Ministry of Education, Universities, Youth Council, IOC and IFs).
5. A.S.P.I.R.E. School Network (ASN) founded on the Australian Olympic Team’s set of values, namely: attitude, sportsmanship, pride, individual responsibility, respect and express yourself, which is the Australian Olympic Committee’s national education program for primary educators designed to instill in young Australians an appreciation for the values, spirit and philosophy of the Olympic Movement. This comprehensive programme organizes Olympic related activities such as on-line video conferencing providing the opportunity for primary school children to talk with Olympians, Olympic Day Celebration, BK Zone – website for primary students containing fun, interactive educational activities themed around the Olympic Games and Olympic Village Art. Primary students are invited to decorate the Australian section of the Olympic Village (AOC) received over 2,000 pieces of artwork from 100 schools for the Beijing Games).

##### Project implementation:

1. Coubertin Awards: open to all senior students, 779 awarded in 2008.
2. Village Art – Students are invited to deliver a literature or artistic piece of work for the Olympic Games.
3. More than 24,500 ASPIRE teachers registered since 2006.
4. A.S.P.I.R.E. activities: Learn from a Champ, Chat to a Champ, Olympic Day and Village Art, BK Zone and Medallion.
5. Fit OVEP in with Higher Council for Youth activities.
6. Cross-curriculum lectures for primary teachers with focus on the upcoming Olympic Games.
7. On-line Olympic Resources emphasizing Olympic values, literacy and numeracy skills, information and communication technology, active lifestyles and community links.

##### Project follow-up:

As part of the AOC OVEP implementation plan, the toolkit will be distributed to schools participating in the Pierre de Coubertin Awards, State and Federal Departments of Education (8,000 schools and 14,850 teachers registered) and State Olympic Councils (7 SOCs in total).

One of the key challenges pinpointed by the AOC for OVEP implementation is that there is no established uniform national curriculum in the country.

#### Federated States of Micronesia

##### Background

Keeping in mind the agreed commitment of the Regional Seminar in Fiji to prioritize youth empowerment and participation, the Young Educator Promoting Olympic Values (YEPOV) initiative was brought forward by the NOC. The objectives of the project are to: promote OV to Micronesia schools through the Junior Sport Program, increase the number of Micronesia youth interested in participating in sport, to train Micronesia youth and have them share the Olympic Movement with their peers, improve the quality of life of the youth of Micronesia.

Nineteen schools were targeted for this initiative and the project was launched in January 2010. Funding was obtained through the Olympic Solidarity World Programmes. This project is an example of good practices and joint collaboration of a larger experienced NOC lending a hand to one of her smaller counterparts.

##### OVEP workshop objectives:

1. Mentoring of young people, Education and Healthy Lifestyles.
2. Sharing experiences of the Youth Olympic Games.
3. The Role of the Olympic Movement.
4. A positive reinforcement of the Olympic Values and the value of sport.

##### Project implementation:

1. A selection of best students and teachers took place.
2. Endorsement by the participating schools.
3. OVEP objectives shared and incorporated with physical exercise.
4. Financial support received from Olympic Solidarity; material resource support received from the IOC Department of International Cooperation and Development.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Excellent teamwork in the organization of the workshop.
2. Students of Youth Camps and YOG gave presentations.
3. High level of satisfaction in participant evaluation.
4. Exposed schools are already implementing OVs in their programme.
5. Involved NOCs will assist students to follow-up on school activities.

##### Project recommendations:

1. Project will be continued at 2010 High School Track & Field Championships
2. Concept of Youth promoting OVs should be extended through other seminars.
3. The Women & Sport Committees in Oceania could organize such workshops.
4. ONOC to be involved in proposal for OV workshops with senior students.

#### India

##### Background

The introduction of the OVEP programme augured well with the Presidential launch in Pune (October 2008). In the early part of 2010, an IOC National “Train the Trainers” workshop comprised of 35 State Olympic Associations (28 states and 7 union territories) took place. The Delhi Public Schools (DPS) with a student intake of 10,000 was utilized for the “hands-on” practicum availed to the participants during the course of the workshop.

The NOC is committed to the OVEP programme and developing sport diversity at the grassroots level. It was agreed that OVEP would be part of the activities of the Indian National Club Games that will target 800,000 clubs in the country. Roll-out post workshop on a grassroots level is being implemented via the respective State Olympic Associations (SOAs).

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. Update participants on OVEP and the Education Toolkit.
2. To offer the OVEP learning and teaching theories.
3. Discuss implementation of OVEP in schools, universities and sport organizations.
4. Create a platform of leaders in schools and communities.
5. Select coaches to instruct OVEP leaders.
6. Involve rural children by providing an opportunity for participation.

##### Project implementation:

1. Creation of a master list of students’ expectations for feedback purposes.
2. Curriculum theory and toolkit analysis.
3. Learning as an active and interactive process (English and Hindi).
4. Learning in group discussions, creative activities, simulations, writing skills.
5. OVEP implementation and concept given to teaching coaches.
6. Motivate coaches to spread the concept to a ‘second’ layer of teachers.
7. Motivate these teachers to involve youth in the learning concept.
8. Nine target areas have been selected for the project.
9. One year of preparation, three years of OVEP implementation.
10. Core OVEP group; Project Directors & Coordinator, (Master) Trainers, Teachers & School Administrators, Performing Artists, Film Makers, University Students & Sportspersons, NGO Volunteers.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Olympic Values: Theory, content and methodology comprehended by students.
2. Toolkit: structure and content comprehended by students.
3. Participation 28 students (teachers 4, professors 5, Parent Advisory Committee 1, NOC officials 4, Sport organizations 14).
4. Implementation of OVEP in educational, sport and youth groups settings.
5. Feedback on resources.
6. Extend OVEP to other countries.

##### Project recommendations:

1. To adapt lecture-oriented, textbook teachers to a programme of physical activity.
2. Practicality of the toolkit in a multi-faceted setting.
3. Establish networking with other global similar projects.
4. University involvement required now to increase the impact.

##### Project assessment:

1. Endless support of staff, IOC and NOC very valuable.
2. Engagement of participants in activities and exercises positive.
3. Flexibility in regard to programme required.
4. Transparency in ideas between participants very helpful.

#### New Zealand

##### Background

For a number of years, the New Zealand Olympic Committee (NZOC) in collaboration with the New Zealand Olympic Academy (NZOA) have been very active in producing educational resources targeted at primary/secondary school levels and inclusion of Olympic education as a classroom-based activity in physical education training curriculum. The Ministry of Education and other key agencies on a country level are involved in this educational context.

The NOC has recently put in place dedicated staff in the form of a full-time Olympic Educator (participant to OVEP Fiji Workshop). The NZOC and NZOA have started to incorporate OVEP into digital education resources for primary schools and at university level. Academic courses on Olympism are now available. IT resources are accessible for free, together with the OVEP manual; this educational process is being channeled through Lift Education, an educational publishing company. This approach is in line with the NZOC Strategic Plan 2010-2013.

##### OVEP project objectives 1 (OVEP incorporation in schools and universities):

1. To promote awareness, engagement and modeling of the educational values of Olympism in the NZL educational system.
2. Develop the Olympism education knowledge base in physical education, sport education and sport coaching.
3. Offer OVEP to the Oceania region as opportunities for teachers.
4. Set up a research culture on Olympism (integrating OVEP) at university level.

##### Project implementation:

1. Olympism and OVEP have been included into the university curriculum of physical education students (University of Canterbury).
2. The above-mentioned University has also integrated OVEP into the education programme for sport coaching.
3. Specific courses on Olympism, Education and Sport and PhD courses in Olympic Studies are in the picture.

##### Project outcomes:

1. The Regional Seminar held in Fiji has exposed many participants to OVEP.
2. Resources and lack of curriculum time form barriers for dissemination.
3. Recommendations were sent to relevant Ministries of Education.
4. Other regional universities have been contacted. At least 3 professional development sessions for physical education teachers took place with an exposure of 200 delegates.
5. University staff have participated in a number of conferences.
6. Platforms created with other academic institutions, funding still a bottleneck.
7. Centre for Olympic studies developed at university level in NZL.

##### Project Recommendations:

1. The initiatives developed in NZL need to spread further in Oceania.
2. ONOC solidarity funding yet not available.
3. For funding beyond NZL university budgets required.
4. Strong, well-resourced leadership for Oceania is required.

##### Project follow-up:

1. Refresher courses for trainers must be organized.
2. Duplication must be avoided by a standardized monitoring and evaluation system.
3. Resources must be secured by initiating corporate partnerships.
4. Majority of trainers follow up with conducting workshops.
5. Trainers must improve their coordination and expand networking.

##### OVEP project objectives 2 (Living the Olympic Values):

1. Target group: primary school students, age 8 – 12 years.
2. Offer interactive digital education resources to primary schools.
3. Tone and technology must be engaging to youth, with a link to English, Social Sciences, Health and Physical Education.
4. Development of a promotional web development plan, focus on awareness of and demand for OV based educational resources.

##### Project implementation:

1. IT Texts are available for free with accompanying teaching notes.
2. Information on Olympism, the NZL curriculum and Resources.
3. Available texts: Olympic Values, Olympic Games, Giving it Everything, Determined to Succeed.
4. Funding was secured through NZOC, NZOA and Olympic Solidarity.
5. Corporate sponsorship currently being sought.
6. A new Board of NZOA is being formed.

#### Singapore

##### Background

In view of the inaugural 2010 Youth Olympic Games the Singapore National Olympic Council (SNOC) in collaboration with the National Olympic Academy (SOA) launched a training workshop directed to the theme of equipping and training educators for the Olympic Values Education Programme.

Under the banner of the 2009 SOA 16th Annual International Session for Young Participants, the Academy built a core group of Olympic Education champions in the Asian continent and Singapore. The Continental Association was on board and collaborated with the NOC in this initiative.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. To promote OVEP to NOCs and NOAs in the region.
2. To equip Olympic educators with knowledge and skills to deliver OVEP in their respective countries.
3. To develop a core group of Olympic Education Leaders, in view of the 2010 YOG in Singapore.

##### Project implementation:

1. Prior to Opening Ceremony a dialogue with 12 SIN Olympians was organized.
2. Olympic history and toolkit analysis.
3. Discussion in working groups on values such as peace, excellence, respect, teamwork, environment, etc.
4. Design of flags and the concept behind flag and ceremony symbolism.
5. Cultural presentations, local as well as international.
6. Simulations of the OG Opening Ceremony
7. An interactive Meet the Olympians’ session.
8. Sharing of national experiences on Olympic Education.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Very positive interaction between participants during workshop days.
2. Successful workshop as judged by the responding participants.
3. A total number of 116 participants with diverse representations.
4. Implementation of OVEP for children and youth appreciated by participants.

#### Tanzania

##### Background

Negotiations with the Ministry of Education to integrate OVEP on a national scale within the context of the school curriculum is hoped to be realized in the upcoming 2009/2010 academic year. The capital (Dar-es-Salaam) has a population of 4 million with a national population of 40+ million. Two workshops per year comprising 30 participants per session would have a high project impact taking into consideration the ripple effect. In order to empower youth, an OVEP Youth Ambassadors programme and the organization of a youth Olympic Festival is being developed by the OVEP Regional Coordinator.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. Train 30 physical education leaders from Tanzania.
2. Train 30 physical education leaders from Zanzibar.
3. Create an Olympic Education and Leadership Youth Camp.

##### Project implementation:

1. OVEP presentations were given in schools and school revisits are underway.
2. Workshop on Olympic Values Education held for 30 Women Sports leaders.
3. OVEP presentation held during East African Women Sports Journalists Forum.
4. OVEP presentation given during IOA in Olympia (117 Directors of NOAs).
5. Two day session on volunteerism for 30 young students at TOC headquarters.
6. Training of 150 students on providing Volunteer services during the Queen’s Baton Relay.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Trained students will act as coordinators during Youth Camps.
2. Report author took part in IOA Masters Course.

##### Project follow-up:

1. A proposal was submitted and approved for OVEP training 30 Physical Education Teachers (Sep 2010).
2. A proposal was submitted and approved for the training of 30 Physical Education Teachers in Zanzibar (Nov 2010).
3. A proposal has been submitted to Olympic Solidarity for funding for an International Olympic Education and Leadership Youth Camp (Nov 2010).

#### Zambia

The programme has support from the Ministry of Education, UNICEP (London 2012 International Inspirational project), NOC of Zambia, Sport for Youth and Sport in Action. Plans to expand the program involve integration into sport federations’ junior nationals. Discussions to this effect with the Zambia Schools Sport Association have been successful and it is projected that in the proposed roll-out phase more than 1,000 teachers in 72 district sport associations and that all national (inter-provincial and inter-schools nationals) will benefit from Olympic Values education.

The first Olympic Youth Development Centre (OYDC) under the IOC’s Sport for Hope Programme was officially opened in May 2010. The multi-purpose sports complex is a great addition to the local population and will also enrich multi-cultural dialogue through the running of international youth camps such as the IOC-UNODC Global Sports Fund Youth Camp.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. Develop an implementation structure for OVEP programs.
2. Integrate OVEP into Olympic and other national sport structures
3. Training of OVEP activity leaders.
4. Monitoring, evaluation and dissemination of good practices.

##### Project implementation 1 (Sensitization/engagement of stakeholders in OVEP):

To disseminate OVEP to 10 districts, 10,000 Youth & 100,000 Adults in 2010 by integration of OVEP into NOA, schools, sports clubs, NGOs.

##### Project outcomes 1:

Reach:

1. The NOA, 22 schools, 3 NGOs and 94 community youth teams have integrated OVEP into their educational programmes.
2. Implementation: 39 schools have made an OVEP implementation plan for 2010.

##### Project implementation 2 (training for sports teachers/coaches, peer leaders/coaches):

1. To equip 120 Teachers, 70 Coaches and 200 Peer Leaders with knowledge on integration of OVEP by training participants in 3 different levels of trainer skills.
2. To influence parents and teachers at targeted schools on their role in changing thought processes towards Olympic Values by holding quarterly forums in all selected schools on OVEP, the benefits for children, the role of parents and teachers, and the eventual conflict between OV versus cultural values.

##### Project outcomes 2:

1. 350 OVEP leaders have been trained to integrate life skills into games and sport and are conducting OVEP sessions now.
2. 400 Parents and Teachers were involved and provide a supportive environment; the children exposed testify positive changes in family environment.

##### Project implementation 3 (provide an OV platform through fun, learning and interaction):

1. To hold weekly OV sessions at schools and sport training sessions by OVEP leaders.
2. Organize group discussions/quizzes, also including children not-in-sport.
3. Organize OV skills ‘Challenge’ events for 400 children in 6 disciplines (football, basketball, traditional games, volleyball, netball, education quiz).

##### Project outcomes 3.

1. Children are enjoying the sport and experience a supportive environment, make friends, became healthier and active.
2. Children cope better with everyday life challenges, interact better with other communities.
3. Teachers are better motivated and have more interaction.
4. School managers encourage OVEP and the use of sport with a positive attitude.

##### Project implementation 4 (monitoring):

Progression of OVEP project and the response by target audience.

1. Response of children 6-18 years; involved vs. not involved.
2. Parent and Teacher involvement in implementation.
3. Policymaker involvement (school managers).

##### Project outcomes:

Results by observation and questionnaire:

1. Verbal expression improved in sport and day-to-day life.
2. Teachers state that OV input is easy to incorporate through sport, thereby building confidence in children.
3. Children more respectful in family situations and better motivated when tasks are asked from them.

#### Zimbabwe

##### Background

Much work at the policy decision making level and the building of a sound national foundation in respect to OVEP has been achieved. An environment conducive to OVEP implementation has been developed through joint collaboration with the NOC and Zimbabwe Olympic Academy (ZOA) via sensitization workshops. Proposals for further implementation involving cross border activities with Zimbabwe are also being looked into. In the planning it has been proposed that a series of Train the Trainer workshops be run with a projected outcome of 80 trainers trained.

The spreading of Olympism and Olympic Education through the teaching of Olympic Values is set to increase, as implementing agents are being identified in other Provinces for ZOA activities.

##### OVEP Project objectives:

1. Teaching Olympic Values in a socially acceptable manner.
2. Identify trainers from all provinces and institutional strategic leaders.
3. Trained participants to execute knowledge in their home provinces.
4. Monitoring, evaluation and dissemination of good practices.

##### Project implementation:

1. Train the Trainer Workshop:
a. With budgetary help of Olympic Solidarity, identification of participants in a national perspective.
b. Thirty participants selected in schools, communities and national associations, with help of provincial educators, local governments, Sport & Recreation Commission.
c. Workshop participants: 20 from provinces via Ministry (♂ & ♀), 4: welfare & sport officers, 4: National Sports Associations, 2: NOC & Sport & Recreation Commission.
d. Workshop took place on July 10-12, 2009, with interactive theory and practice lectures.

2. Enforcing the ZOA capacities:
a. A new ZOA Director was hired to incorporate the OVEP program and a new Board of ZOA is being formed.
b. Implementation of OVEP methodology in the school programme has been initiated.
c. Identification of corporate partners is required to cover budgetary gaps.

##### Project follow-up (Post Workshop):

1. Most Trainers trained conduct workshops, securing a roll-out
2. Resources remain a problem for further progress.
3. Trainers must improve their coordination and networking levels.
4. A continuing education after initial training is required.
5. Evaluation underlined the need to improve trainers’ knowledge on OVEP, to customize OVEP literature and to ensure monitoring and evaluation.
6. Timely submission of work plans needs to be enforced.

#### UNESCO

Associated Schools (ASPnet)

##### Background

An IOC-UNESCO Associated Schools (ASPnet) Joint Initiative was launched within the framework of “Teaching Olympic Values”. The sub-regional training workshop for ASPnet National Coordinators, teachers, youth leaders and curriculum specialists was hosted by the Trinidad and Tobago National Commission for UNESCO. ASPnet National Coordinators and teachers from six Caribbean countries of: Barbados, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago were present.

The National Olympic Committee of Trinidad and Tobago also co-organized and participated to this pilot project event. The NOC’s Olympic education programme “Shape the Community” Sport Development Project underlining Olympic values education has been well underway since 2008 and has a reach of over 3,000 children within three surrounding communities.

##### OVEP project objectives:

1. To promote Values Education at school level, with a focus on the 5 values presented in the OVEP toolkit.
2. To process the implementation of the OVEP toolkit through the ASPnet laboratory by conducting a school experiment in the Caribbean.
3. Organize ASPnet Teacher and Coordinator workshops with presentation of the toolkit and elaboration of impact assessment tools.
4. Presentation of an evaluation survey to assess the impact of values education in primary and secondary schools.

##### Workshop objectives:

1. Provide participants with the necessary knowledge on the structure and content of the OVEP toolkit.
2. Elaborate assessment tools for primary and secondary schools on the integration of Olympic values in the education programme.
3. To plan school experiments over the 2010-2011 school year.
4. Draft recommendations for adaptation of the OVEP kit in the Caribbean context.
5. Complete survey data to be conducted at the end of the experimentation phase.

##### Project implementation:

1. Participants: 30 from 6 Caribbean countries, 6 ASPnet coordinators, 19 ASPnet teachers and sport coaches, 1 curriculum planner, 1 university teacher coach, 2 UNESCO staff, 1 IOC staff, 1 NOC staff, 5 national UNESCO Commission.
2. Presentation of OVEP toolkit, with a focus on (i) Joy of effort, (ii) Respect, (iii) Fair Play, (iv) Pursuit of Excellence, (v) Balance between body, will and mind.
3. Elaboration of assessment tools for (i) practicing the activities proposed in the toolkit, (ii) suggesting new activities, (iii) monitoring by questionnaire.
4. Preparation of monitoring and planning.
5. Creating commitment for participation in 2010-2011 school experimentation.
6. Joint declaration of commitment.

##### Project outcomes:

1. Participants trained on structure and content of toolkit.
2. A final report was drafted by participants.
3. Joint declaration of commitment signed by all participants.
4. Global planning for OVEP experimentation 2010-2011 has been detailed.
5. First generation of assessment tools decided upon.
6. Suggestions made for roll-out in other Caribbean countries.
7. Data collection instruments have been fine-tuned.
8. Video material is ready.

##### Project recommendations:

1. To finalize assessment tools for pre- and post-experimentation with education planners, statisticians and elected teachers and ASPnet coordinators.
2. Carry out applied research on the current vales education in the 6 participating countries.
3. To pursue research on basic socio-economic facts in the region.
4. To post workshop outcomes on the ASPnet website.
5. To collect from participants data to establish a working and monitoring platform for the school experimentation.
6. To identify a valid study sample, in terms of participating classes and students.

2015-10-22T23:43:49-05:00February 7th, 2011|Contemporary Sports Issues, Sports Facilities, Sports Management|Comments Off on Olympic Values Education Programme (OVEP) Progress Report: 2005-2010

Factors that Influence African-American Millennials to Purchase Athletic Shoes

### Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine which factors greatly influenced African-American millennials to purchase athletic shoes. A sample of (n=101) African-American millennials participated in the study. The participants rated the following seven purchasing factors in order of importance using a Likert scale from one (“strongly disagree”) to five (“strongly agree”). The seven factors were athlete endorsement, brand name, color of shoe, comfort level, cost, style of shoe, and quality. The results indicated that athletic shoe style, color and cost were determining factors among the participants when purchasing athletic shoes. T-test for unequal sample sizes indicated that there were significant differences as it related to males’ and females’ purchasing preferences. This study supports previous research findings on African-American youth purchasing behavior. Moreover, athletic shoe marketers should use this information as a means to understand the purchasing behavior of African-American millenials and to design marketing strategies to better reach this target audience.

### Introduction

African-American buying power has increased by 187 percent since 1990 (5). African-American buying power rose from $318 billion in 1990 to $590 billion in 2000, to $845 billion in 2007, and it is projected to increase to $1.1 trillion by 2012 (18). The buying power increase has been a result of African-American upward mobility (3). This increased buying power has afforded African-Americans from all generations the opportunity to purchase more goods and services, particularly African-American millennials. In general, millennials are those individuals born from 1980 to 1995, they are technologically savvy, very tolerant when it comes to sexual orientation, religion, and politics to name a few. Moreover, millennials are characterized by their independent nature, optimism, propensity to question the status quo, self-expression, and financial acumen (2,13,19). In contrast, generation x individuals (generally those born between 1964 and 1980) are characterized as pragmatic, self-reliant, less accepting of other viewpoints, and multi-taskers (17). Again, African-American millennial purchasing clout and influence is unparalleled, as witnessed by the following statement in the African-American/Black Market Profile report(8):

> Today’s African-American teen market (12- to 19-year-olds) are consumers and creators of trends, strong influencers of household purchases and a valuable target for advertisers. The same holds true for African-American/Black teens, who have a major impact on today’s mainstream culture—especially in music, sports and fashion. African-American/Black teens spend an average of $96 dollars monthly, 20% more per month than the average U.S. teen. In addition, when compared to all U.S. teens, male and female African-American/Black teens spend more yearly on items such as apparel and technology-related products and athletic shoes. (p. 11)

What’s more, the African-American/Black Market Profile report indicated that African-

American millennials have more brand loyalty to a variety of goods, including personal

products, food and footwear. Specifically, African-American millennial males exert more influence on household athletic shoe purchasing decisions and they are more brand loyal than other racial segments of millennials when it comes to purchasing athletic shoes (10). This trend in purchasing visible goods (such as athletic shoes) will continue as the African-American millennials continue to exert more influence on household purchases and as they continue to enter the workforce and earn wages (4).

In regard to the sport industry, athletic footwear is a thriving and lucrative business. According to the National Sporting Goods Association (2009), athletic shoe sales reached $17.1 billion for 2009 (12). Furthermore, of the 2.3 billion pairs of footwear purchased in the United States in 2007, Americans purchased 334 million pairs of athletic (1). African-Americans spent $391 per consumer unit on athletic footwear in 2006. This was more than any other race that year (5). Thus, the propensity that African-Americans have toward purchasing athletic shoes along with their loyalty to brands makes this population one worth investigating to determine their athletic shoe purchasing preferences.

There have been very few empirical studies dedicated to understanding the athletic shoe purchasing behaviors of youth and there is a dearth of information on the factors that influence African-American millennials to purchase athletic shoes. It is the intent of this study to add to the existing body of knowledge. The purpose of this study was to determine and identify the most important factors that influence African-American millennials to purchase athletic shoes.

### Methods

#### Procedures

The study was carried out in the summer of 2009 at a small historically black university in the southeastern United States. The researchers randomly selected a course time block to disseminate the questionnaire. This practice was initiated to prevent the same student from completing the questionnaire at one course time period and then attempting to complete during another course time period. The 11:30 am course time block was randomly selected. The researchers contacted all of the professors that taught a class during the time block via email to ask permission to disseminate the questionnaire. Professors were also informed that the researchers had received permission from the university’s institutional review board to conduct the study utilizing responses from university students, and that the questionnaire would take their students approximately ten minutes to complete. Thirteen professors offered courses at the 11:30 am time period. Of the thirteen, eight professors agreed to have their students complete the questionnaire.

#### Instrument

The researchers utilized a modified version of the Lyons and Jackson Athletic Shoe Survey. A ten item questionnaire was used to elicit responses from the participants. The questionnaire contained three demographic questions pertaining to the participant’s age, gender and race. In addition, seven questions addressing athletic shoe purchasing factors were included. The participants were asked to rate each factor on a Likert scale from one to five with one being strongly disagree and five being strongly agree.

#### Participants

Participants for this study were African-American millennials (n=101) between the ages of 18 and 24. All of the participants attended a historically black university in the southeastern United States. Of the participants, 52 (46.8%) were male and 59 (53.2%) were female.

#### Statistical Analysis

Descriptive statistics such as percentages, frequencies, and means were utilized to analyze data. Moreover, the researchers employed inferential statistics to further analyze data. The researchers used the t-test for independent unequal sample sizes. Specifically, the t-test for independent unequal sample sizes was employed to determine if there were significant differences between the purchasing factor mean scores of males and females.

### Results

Results from the study produced the following information regarding athletic shoe purchasing factors of African-American millennials. Group mean scores for both males and females revealed that style of shoe, comfort, color and quality were the most influential purchasing factors (Table 1).

For females style (M = 4.31), comfort (M = 4.14) and color (M = 4.03) were the most important factors (Table 2).

Style (M=4.63), quality (M=4.19), color (4.10) and brand (4.08) were the most influential factors for African-American males (Table 3).

T-test results revealed that there were no significant differences between males and females on each of the factors at the .05 level. To this end, there is indication that African-American males and females (in this study) have similar buying behaviors in that they valued each of the study factors somewhat equally (Table 4).

In terms of mean scores, athlete endorsement was the least influential factor for both males and females. Moreover, the cost factor did not rank highly for either group. In addition, the researchers considered the number of strongly agree and agree responses for each factor. Ninety-one percent of the participants indicated that they either strongly agreed or agreed that style was a crucial factor in purchasing athletic shoes. This factor was followed by comfort (76%), color (75%), quality (75%), brand (72%), cost (61%) and athlete endorsement (36%).

### Discussion

It became very apparent that style of shoe was the most dominating factor when deciding whether to purchase athletic shoes. The style factor mean score for males in this study was 4.63 and 4.31 for females. This finding is consistent with the findings from previous athletic shoe purchasing studies (16,20). It confirms to an extent that when African American youth are purchasing athletic shoes they focus primarily on the look of the shoe. Perhaps, as has been suggested, wearing a shoe that looks good makes one feel good. Better yet, the style of shoe may convey a form of status. Lyons and Jackson’s (2001) study on factors that influence African-American gen Xers to purchase athletic shoes also found that style was the most influential factor(7). This finding mirrored the responses of African-American millennials studied in this investigation, suggesting that the style phenomenon may be passed from generation to generation via cultural communication methods within the African-American community. It could also suggest that athletic shoe companies should continue to effectively communicate style as an influential feature among the African-American community.

Even though style was the predominant factor, other factors were influential as well. In regard to females, color and comfort ranked high, with mean scores of 4.14 and 4.03 respectively. For males, quality, color and brand name received mean scores of 4.19, 4.10 and 4.08 respectively, suggesting that African-American millennials are considering a specific set of factors that influence their purchasing decisions, based on their knowledge and experience with the athletic shoe. This knowledge and experience may be derived from the fact that African-American millennials may have purchased athletic shoes before and or they may have received information about the shoe via commercials, friends or other sources.

Athlete endorsement was rated the least influential purchasing factor in this study. Again, this finding is consistent with Lyons and Jackson’s 2001 study on African-American generation Xers(7). Both males and females rated athlete endorsement the least influential purchasing factor. This is surprising when one considers the enormous amount of money that athletic shoe companies spend to have athletes endorse their shoes. Nike spent close to three billion dollars in endorsements and sponsorship deals in 2007 with players like Michael Jordan and Tiger Woods receiving over twenty million dollars each (6). Perhaps athlete endorsement creates awareness for the shoe and even evokes some sort of emotion that causes a person to become loyal, curious and attached to the shoe brand. However, Martin stated that “the image of sport, independent of the athlete, can contribute significantly to the consumer’s response to an endorsement. The image of the sport can enhance, or detract from, the effects of the personality and appearance of the athlete making the endorsement” (9). In light of this statement, perhaps the respondents in this study held negative views of athlete endorsers and or their particular sport. Still, based on findings from this study, when an African-American millennial decides to make a purchase the athlete endorser does not figure prominently into the purchasing equation.

### Sport Marketing Implications

Based on the results of this study, athletic shoe sport marketers should be cognizant in crafting media messages that focus on style, color, and comfort. Moreover, athletic shoe retailers should develop in-store sales techniques that sales people can use to highlight shoe comfort, style and the importance of shoe color scheme when encountering African-American millennial customers. Marketing products and services are extremely important to the survival of many sport companies and franchises (11). Effectively marketing sport products and services can translate in to increased revenue for sport entities if they understand the needs and wants of their target audience (15).

### Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study, the researchers recommend the following:

– that a larger sample size be utilized to solidify and strengthen results;
– that studies comparing the purchasing behaviors of African-American and non-African-Americans should be conducted to determine if there are cultural and racial differences; and
– that athletic shoe studies comparing the purchasing behaviors of African-American generation-Xers and millennials be conducted to determine generational differences.

### Tables

#### Table 1
Factor Group Mean Scores

Factor Group Means
Athlete Endorsement 2.83
Brand 3.98
Color 4.06
Comfort 4.06
Cost 3.50
Quality 4.01
Style 4.46

#### Table 2
Mean scores for African-American Millennial Females

Factor Means
Athlete Endorsement 2.92
Brand 3.88
Color 4.03
Comfort 4.14
Cost 3.63
Quality 3.85
Style 4.31
Style 4.31

#### Table 3

Factor Means
Athlete Endorsement 2.73
Brand 4.08
Color 4.10
Comfort 3.98
Cost 3.41
Quality 4.19
Style 4.63

#### Table 4

Factor Males Females p-values (p > 0.05)
Athlete Endorsement 2.73 2.92 0.167
Brand 4.08 3.88 0.423
Color 4.10 4.03 0.252
Comfort 3.98 4.14 0.102
Cost 3.41 3.63 0.251
Quality 4.19 3.85 0.256
Style 4.63 4.31 0.256

### References

1. American Apparel and Footwear Association, (2008). Shoe stats 2008. Retrieved May 22, 2009 from <http://www.apparelandfootwear.org/UserFiles/File/Statistics/ShoeStats2008_0808.pdf>.
2. Armour, S. (2005, November 6). Generation Y: They’ve arrived at work with a new attitude.USA Today. Retrieved May 20, 2009, from <http://www.usatoday.com/money/workplace 2005-11-06-geny_x.htm>.
3. Buford, H (2005) Getting serious about winning the African American market. The SourceBook of Multicultural experts 2004/2005. Retrieved May 20, 2009, from <http://www.primeaccess.net/downloads/news/Sourcebook_AA_04-05.pdf>.
4. Charles, K. K., E. Hurst, & N. Rousannov (2008, May 14). Conspicuous consumption and race: Who spends more on what. Retrieved May 23, 2009 from <http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=1963>.
5. Humphreys, J. (2009). The multicultural economy 2009. Georgia business and economic conditions, 69 (3), 1-16. Retreived August 17, 2009 from <http://www.terry.uga.edu/selig/docs/GBEC0903q.pdf>.
6. Kaplan, D. & Lefton, T. (2008, January 28). Nike to keep federer with a 10-year deal. The SportBusiness Journal. Retrieved May 22, 2009 from <http://www.sportbusinessjournal.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=article.main&articleId=57885&requestTimeout=900>.
7. Lyons, R., & Jackson, E. N. (2001). Factors that influence African American Gen-Xers to purchase Nikes. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 10 (2), 96-101.
8. Magazine Publishers of America (2008). African-American/Black market profile: Drawing on diversity for successful marketing. New York, NY.
9. Martin, J. A. (1996). Is the athlete’s sport important when picking an athlete to endorse a nonsport product? Journal of Consumer Marketing, 13 (6), 28 – 43.Mediamark Research & Intelligence (2007). Teenmark New York, NY.
10. Mullin, B., Hardy, S. and Sutton, W. (2008). Sport marketing (4th ed.). Human Kinetics: Champaign, IL.
11. National Sporting Goods Association (2009). Athletic footwear sales by month 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2009 from <http://www.nsga.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3513>.
12. Neuborne, K. (1999, February 15). Generation Y. BusinessWeek. Retrieved May 20, 2009, from <http://www.businessweek.com/1999/99_07/b3616001.htm>.
13. Shani, D. (1997). A framework for implementing relationship marketing in the sport industry. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 6 (2), 9-15.
14. Shank, M. (2008). Sports marketing: A strategic perspective (4th ed.). Prentice Hall: New York.
15. Stevens, J., Lathrop, A., & Bradish, C. (2005). Tracking Generation Y: A contemporary sport consumer profile. Journal of Sport Management, 19 (3), 254-277.
16. Turco, D. M. (1996). The X factor: Marketing sport to Generation X. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 5(1), 21-23, 26.
17. University of Georgia, Selig Center for Economic Growth (2008). The multicultural economy 2008. Retrieved May 22, 2009, from the Terry College of Business Web site: <http://www.terry.uga.edu/selig/docs/buying_power_2008.pdf>.
18. Yan, S. (2006, December 8). Understanding generation Y. The Oberlin Review. Retrieved May 22, 2009 from <http://www.oberlin.edu/stupub/ocreview/2006/12/08/features/>
19. Yoh. T., Mohr, M. S., & Gordon, B. (2006).  The effect of gender on Korean teens’ athletic footwear purchasing. The Sport Journal, 9(1), 14-28.
20. Yoh. T., & Pitts, B.  (2005). Information sources for college students athletic shoe purchasing. Sport Management and Related Topics, 1(2), 28-34.

2013-11-25T16:36:38-05:00January 25th, 2011|Contemporary Sports Issues, Sports Facilities, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Factors that Influence African-American Millennials to Purchase Athletic Shoes

Preparation for an International Sport Event: The Promotional Strategies of 2009 Kaohsiung World Games

### Abstract
This investigation presented administrative and marketing-related information on Kaohsiung City’s preparation for the 2009 World Games. The presented information was allocated through an extensive literature review on secondary sources, personal interviews, and observations from fall of 2008 to summer of 2009. Promotional strategies and activities, projected financial and sales data, reports on constructions, and issues and challenges related to the Games were further analyzed. The study further discussed the “not-for-profit” approach that was practiced by many East Asian Countries to gain international recognition and promote patriotism while hosting a major sport event.

### Introduction
The International World Games Association (IWGA), which currently includes 33 international sports federations, has been holding its competitions every four years since 1981 (24). The World Games is considered one of the largest sport competitions, other than the Olympic Games (7). The City of Kaohsiung was fortunate to be awarded the opportunity to host the World Games after a competitive bidding process (11,25). The 2009 World Games were held in the largest port city of Taiwan, Kaohsiung, from July 16 to July 26, 2009. Past literature has shown that hosting a gigantic international sport competition has provided a golden opportunity for the hosting country to demonstrate power and wealth, to boost economics and tourism, to increase publicity and media exposure, and to improve the hosting cities’ infrastructure (10,12-14,33). In addition, an enormous amount of national pride is often associated with the host countries when they host mega-events such as the Olympic Games or Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup (1,14,29,39). For the aforementioned reasons, the administrators and citizens of Kaohsiung City sincerely hoped that the city could realize economic benefits from the 2009 World Games.

The Mayor and citizens of Kaohsiung City believed the 2009 World Games was a main event that would launch Kaohsiung to the center of the world stage (21). According to Tsai’s comments on the city government’s approach (37), the World Games was a perfect opportunity for the Kaohsiung residents to reaffirm their identity and loyalty toward the city. The potential economic profits and benefits brought by the events could also help the central government reevaluate the importance and development of the city. With the support of Kaohsiung citizens and volunteers, the Kaohsiung Games was described as the most successful World Games by the IWGA President, Ron Froehlich (16,18). In this investigation, the researchers went beyond the scope of a case study by presenting administrative and marketing-related information on how Kaohsiung City prepared for its first-ever major international sport event. The collected information and analyzed results may serve two specific purposes. First, the collected information can be valuable for the city to plan its bidding proposal for 2012 University Games. Second, the information may also provide great insights for other Taiwanese cities in preparing for any future international major sport events (i.e., the 2009 Deaflympic Games in Taipei and bidding for the 2010 World University Games).

#### Background History and Facts about the World Games
When the IWGA was formed in 1980, it had 12 international sport federations as charter members (7). The 2009 Kaohsiung World Games was the IWGA’s 8th competition and included 31 different sports. Since 1981, the number of participants in the World Games has increased from approximately 1500 to approximately 3400 in 2005 (7,24). Prior to the 2009 Kaohsiung World Games, it was estimated that the city would host more than 4,500 athletes, coaches, and staff. Athletes competed in 31 different sports which were divided into six categories, artistic and dance, ball sports, martial arts, precision sports, strength sports, and trend sports (24). In general, the seven previous World Games were all financed through a virtual company or foundation established by the government of the hosting countries (35). The hosting city was also responsible for covering the lodging, transportation, and dinner costs for all of the participants (34).

Building the venues for competitions was considered the most difficult challenge in preparing for the World Games. Kaohsiung City started two major constructions as early as 2004 (9). The Main Stadium of the Kaohsiung World Games was designed by the famous Japanese architect, Toyo Ito. It has a capacity of 40,000 seats and 15,000 standing spaces (9). The total construction cost of the stadium was estimated around $150-million USDs (31). The construction of the Kaohsiung Arena costs about $20-million USDs. The central government supported about 10% of the total construction cost (7). The arena has a 16,000-person seating capacity. The DC Construction company holds the right of business operation for the next 50 years. The Kaohsiung City Government will retain the operational right thereafter. For the infrastructural preparation, the Kaohsiung City planned to complete two tracks of the Metro Rapid Transit System (MRTS), both Red and Orange Lines, in 2009 prior to the opening ceremony of the World Games (11). Apparently, both systems were completed on time.

#### Preparations Completed by the National and Local Government
As soon as Kaohsiung City was awarded the opportunity to host the 2009 World Games, the former Mayor Hsieh Chang-ting announced three programs to transform Kaohsiung into a “City of Health” (25). It was Mr. Hsieh’s most lofty ambition to utilize the World Games to further develop the city and promote its competitiveness by becoming the largest trading seaport in Southeast Asia.

The information on organization of the Kaohsiung Organizing Committee (KOC) was obtained through personal conversation with Ms. Hus, the CEO of KOC. KOC was commissioned by the Kaohsiung City Government to plan and organize the 2009 World Games. In order to complete the required tasks for the game operation, the KOC formed nine divisions to handle the businesses. They were: (1) Administration, (2) Treasury, (3) Sport Competition, (4) City Development, (5) Supportive Division, (6) Marketing and Public Relations, (7) Culture and Tourism, (8) Information Technology, and (9) Safety (27). There were 26 full-time employees in the KOC. The leadership positions of the KOC include a President, a Sport Director, three Deputy CEOs, an Assistant Coordinator, two Executive Secretaries and a Chair of Divisions. In addition, the Kaohsiung City Government further assigned 43 people (including the CEO) and 14 non-committee staff members to support the KOC. Several visiting teams were also sent to Beijing to observe the practices of the Chinese Government in preparing for the 2008 Olympic Games (22).

#### Economic Benefits and Profits for Hosting Major International Sport Events
Past literature has documented how host cities of major sport events (i.e., Super Bowl, National Basketball Association (NBA) All-Stars Games, and Olympic Games) reaped direct and indirect profits from gate receipts, tourism, and television (TV) fees. To name a few examples: (1) visitors of the 2006 Super Bowl spent as much as $180 million during their trips and the total economic impact of the event was estimated to exceed $300 million (32); (2) the 2007 NBA All-Stars Game drew more than 25,000 out-of-town visitors, generating non-gaming revenue of $26.7 million (32); and (3) $400 million in TV rights and $200 million sponsorship fees were at stake in the 2002 Salt Lake City Winter Games (4). The National Broadcast Company paid broadcasting rights fees of $793 million and $894 million for the 2004 and 2008 Summer Olympic Games (14). The Chinese government announced its operating profit for the 2008 Summer Olympic Games at $146 million(5).

To the contrary, there were reports and studies that rejected the notion of international sport events, such as the Olympic Games, generating any profit at all. It is extremely difficult to calculate the financial merits of any particular Olympic Games, due to expensive construction and many, varying costs(15). It is estimated that costs for hosting the 2012 event could run more than $3 billion USDs. Sydney and Athens spent $3.4 billion and13 billion, respectively, on the Summer Games. With these huge costs, it is hard to perceive how profits can be made(15). In fact, host countries did not make money at all prior to the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Games (3,4). The Los Angeles Games were able to turn the Olympics into a gold mine, netting $200 million, by introducing aggressive commercializing strategies and minimizing the construction costs (3). Cities such as Barcelona, Athens, Beijing and London would spend far more money than the U.S. host cities to build new facilities and develop their community, so the profits severely dwindle (2). Local residents seldom benefit from the profits. According to Sports economist Philip Porter, who studies the effect of large sporting events on communities, it’s not unusual for cities to make less than has been projected (4).

Most economists agree that economic impact of major sport events are often calculated from three areas (5). They are direct financial impacts, indirect financial impacts and intangible. Although most of the host cities may not prosper from the profit gains, cities such as Lillehammer, Norway, and Nagano, Japan have enjoyed worldwide attention by hosting the winter Olympics. Mayors of hosting cities clearly understand that the spectacle will promote national pride and justify local development (15). Burton and O’Reilly (5) warned against focusing solely on cost and profits as the criteria for evaluating the impact of the events. They want people to consider the intangible benefits of the Atlanta Games. Although the Atlanta Games only broke even financially, Atlanta has subsequently become a bigger, better, and more respected global city.

The Kaohsiung City Government is standing on a crossroads facing an uncertain future. Based on the aforementioned paragraphs, the city has clearly spent a huge amount of money to prepare for the World Games, and anticipates huge economic profits and intangible benefits. Will the city’s investment turn out to be a prosperous return? The researchers sincerely hope the results of this study will provide preliminary findings to this difficult question.

### Methods
The information on construction costs and spending on community development was gathered through a series of reviews of secondary sources and online articles prior to March of 2009. The findings related to this topic have mainly been presented in the Introduction. In order to obtain the marketing related information, promotional strategies, and projected financial data of the 2009 World Games, the researchers conducted interviews with the Chief Executive Officer, Marketing Director of the KOC, and two city councilmen. Seven specific questions given to the interviewees to obtain qualitative and statistical information are listed in Table 1.

The interviewees received the questions at the beginning of 2009. The researchers received all of the interviewees’ responses in early March of 2009. Answers were received via e-mail and phone calls. Information on stadium construction and promotional strategies released by the city government and press from 2005 to 2008 was extensively reviewed and analyzed in the month of February, 2009. The researchers categorized the collected information into two aspects: (1) public relations and promotional activities associated with the game, and (2) sales and other marketing related data.

### Results
Based on the results of interviews and search on the secondary sources, the researchers obtained the following marketing and public relations related information. The information was analyzed and categorized based on their two aspects.

#### Promotional Strategies and Public Relations Activities
To promote the World Games to Kaohsiung residents and countrymen of Taiwan, both local and national governments put great effort into creating many, varied activities. Special design competitions were held to solicit ideas for the official logo and mascot. Mr. Lin Hung-he won the (approximately) $13,000 USDs grand-prize as his design was chosen as the official logo (35). The former interim Mayor, Yeh Chu-lian also revealed the official mascot, Water Spirit, during her short tenure (35,38). Nearly $20,000 USDs was spent to reward the winners for naming the official mascot (38). To educate the fans and residents about the World Games the Kaohsiung Education Bureau established the World Games Education Program which involved all of the elementary and secondary schools. Students at each school were assigned to study a specific sport. They became familiar with the rules, history, and star athletes of their assigned sport. These students also received complimentary tickets to the games to cheer for the athletes (20). Other promotional activities for the World Games included: (1) a special float for the Independence Parade on October 13, 2003, (2) the announcement of national sport heroes, Chi-Cheng and baseball star of the Yankees, Wang Chien-ming to be the event spokespersons, (3) a poster contest, and (4) sport movie festivals (24,26,40).

The Taiwanese government publicized the news of hosting the World Games to many of its treaty nations. Delegates traveled more than half a world away to South America to express appreciation for the support and friendship provided by treaty nations (25). Former President Chen Shui-bian also promised to invite the Army parachute troopers to perform during the opening ceremony of the World Games(19).

On May 20, 2009 with the inauguration of the Main Stadium, a special concert was held in the Main Stadium of the World Games. The Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, the Vienna State Opera Choir, the National Experimental Chorus, the National Sun Yat-sen University Music Department Women’s Chorus and the Kaohsiung Medical University Singers worked together to perform Tchaikovsky’s ‘1812 Overture’ and Beethoven’s ‘Ode to Joy’. More than 40,000 people attended the concert (6). The Kaohsiung Metro Rapid Transit System also proved its capability to handle a high volume of passengers during the peak hours. During the competition period, fireworks shows, expositions, and food fairs were held every night at the True Love Harbor, one of the most popular tourist attractions in the city (6).

#### Sales and Marketing-Related Data

Table 2 lists the major sponsors of the 2009 World Games. A total of 40 sponsors and partners are further classified into three levels. About 80% of the total sponsors and partners were domestic business organizations. The amount of contribution from each level of sponsors and partners was not available for disclosure.

Public Television Service of Taiwan televised selected events. However, no fee amount for the TV rights has been disclosed. Most media coverage and exposure came mainly relied from the Internet. The KOC also collaborated with AllGenki.net to sell event tickets. Spectators purchased the tickets in one of the 4,800 7-11 stores in Taiwan by using the I-bon system, or at the event sites. The information on ticket prices was released in March 2009, and tickets were available for sale in April 2009. According to the news report, revenues for the gate receipts exceeded $2-million USDs (8).

For the sale of licensing merchandise, the official mascot, “Water Spirit”, was used as the main icon to create a series of subsidiary products.  These products were produced by Cheerful Fashion Goods CO., LTD., a company devoted to cultivating young Taiwanese designers who design products based on traditional Taiwanese culture.  The World Games licensing merchandise included polo shirts and t-shirts with color choices, recyclable chopsticks, flip-flops, key chains, passport holders, purses, shopping bags, coffee mugs, caps, and poker cards. The price of these souvenirs generally ranged from $4 to $30 USDs.

Prior to the event, an optimistic estimation (over 5,000) was given regarding the number of potential participants. According to the news report, the total number of participants from 131 countries indeed exceeded 5,000 (8). Because the Kaohsiung World Games was held during the summer time, which is the “hot” season for the city’s tourism, it was difficult to estimate the actual number of foreign visitors who arrived strictly due to the World Games. However, some economists estimated the number of the foreign visitors would reach between 30,000 and 50,000 people (31). The World Games was also predicted to bring in business worth $30 million USDs to Kaohsiung City. It was thought that the event could have a great impact on the price of real estate, estimating that the price of a house near the Main Stadium could expect a 30% increase in value (31). Based on the researchers’ personal observations, this prediction has been realized in some areas near the MRT stations adjacent to the stadium.

### Discussion and Conclusions
Past literature has in-depth discussions of economic impact and financial gains for international sport events. The data of sponsorship deals, TV rights fees, and gate receipts for past events such as FIFA Tournament or Olympic Games are available for the public to browse (1-2,17,30,36,41-42). It seems logical that scholars in Western societies, with the strong influence of capitalism, would focus more on financial (or economic) related information of the events. Clearly, there was a series of pre-game promotional and cultural activities sponsored by the KOC to increase the residents’ awareness of the World Games. However, all of the interviewees failed to provide valuable financial data on TV rights fee and sponsorship incomes. They seemed to have a vague idea or no interest at all regarding the topics of potential economic impact or projected revenues of the Kaohsiung World Games. There was also no available data on revenue generation through merchandise sales. More attention was devoted to issues related to the possible boycott by the Chinese team, the potential outbreak of H1N1 influenza, and cultural festivals sponsored by the city.

Financial information related to the Kaohsiung World Games, other than the spending in promotional activities and construction costs, was difficult to retrieve. A report had indicated the revenues in ticket sales exceeded $2 million USDs (8), but this is a small amount compared to the construction costs of nearly $170 million USDs. Based on the KOC CEO Ms. Hsu’s explanation, Kaohsiung City has taken a “not-for-profit” approach to recruiting volunteers and sponsors. This seems to be a common approach used by many of the East Asian countries to host major sport events. This implies that the local government is willing to absorb the operational cost, even if revenues fail to cover expenses. As long as the country receives recognition and media attention, it is seen as worthwhile to spend a huge amount of money for hosting the event. Thus, it is not difficult to understand why the Taipei city would promise to offer free admission to all spectators of the Deaflympic Games. Although the KOC outsources the ticket and merchandise sales to AllGenki.net and Cheerful Fashion Goods CO respectively, potential revenues through TV rights and ticket sales are not clearly discussed and emphasized. Apparently the previous seven World Games were all financed by a virtual company established by the governments of the hosting countries; however, none of the previous hosts has spent so much money in trying to advertise their country and the events.

In Kaohsiung’s case, the researchers would actually like to see a more commercialized approach to allocating funding. This would mean less spending of tax dollars for the games (35), and more involvement of the private sectors in advertising, donations, and sponsorships. There is no advantage to putting the city in debt in hosting an event that shows no promise in bringing profits.

Prior to the opening ceremony of the World Games, the Taiwanese government had monitored politically-related issues closely.

The patriotic acts of the Taiwanese residents and the Chinese government’s unfriendly political actions were considered to be critical issues during the competition period (28). Although it is common to witness political activists taking actions during a gigantic international sport event (i.e., Olympic Games) to express their ideologies (14), for a new event host such as Taiwan, any unexpected political activity during the event would negatively affect the reputation and image of the nation and future business opportunities brought by foreign enterprise. The Chinese team eventually boycotted the Opening Ceremony, but the KOC adhered strictly to the Olympic operational model to prevent any further political disruption (23,34). From the political perspective, the Kaohsiung World Games can be considered a great success. From the economic standpoint, it seems the city is not clearly standing on the “winning” side.

### Practical Applications in Sport
Based on the aforementioned discussions, the researchers would recommend the following to the City of Kaohsiung and other sport organizing committees for planning the future events:

1. Future sport organizing committees should develop a strategic plan to solicit more well-known international and domestic business franchises/industries to sponsor the event. In this case, the KOC had done a great job in recruiting a variety of sponsors according to their nature of business and functionality to satisfy the needs of the events. However, the KOC did not provide enough onsite opportunities for the sponsors to actively interact with the spectators. A future strategic plan for targeting sponsors should cover how to execute “activation” activities effectively and utilize complimentary tickets for hospitality. The committees need to provide clear incentives and business opportunities for the sponsors, so the sponsors can be convinced to invest their capitals and manpower. More complimentary tickets could be offered to the sponsors to enhance the level of hospitality.
2. The sport organizing committees should closely collaborate with the governmental agencies (i.e., city government, Sport Affairs Council, and Bureau of Tourism) to aggregate accurate financial reports (especially on the revenues of broadcasting rights and ticket sales and costs of construction) of the events. The collected information will be beneficial to the planning and bidding of future events. It also acts to show accountability to the public, by making the figures of total spending transparent. Without a clear income figure on broadcasting rights and sponsorship deals, it is hard to imagine how the organizing committee could make any profits.
3. For any developing countries wishing to achieve political stardom rapidly, bidding to host a mega-international sport event seems to be a good alternative. Evidently, China and South Africa both greatly increased their political visibility by hosting the 2008 Olympic Games and 2010 FIFA World Cup. The City of Kaohsiung should be actively involved in bidding on a moderate-scale for continental and international sport competitions, such as East-Asian Games, Asian Games, World University Games and special track-and-field invitationals. This will help Taiwan increase its political visibility and learn to handle its political conflict with China peacefully. Having these events in Kaohsiung will also maximize the opportunities for the use of existing facilities and boost potential tourism.

### Tables

#### Table 1. The List of Interview Questions
Q1. Who are the primary sponsors of the World Games? (If the numbers are available, please specify the amounts of contributions for each level of sponsors.)

Q2. Which television network will televise the World Games? What is the estimated amount of the TV right fee?

Q3. How are tickets sold to the general public? How many types of tickets are available? What are the prices of all different types of tickets?

Q4. What are the major types of the World Games licensed merchandise along with their prices?

Q5. What are the projected revenues that the World Games may bring to the city?

Q6. What is the estimated number of the visitors during the period of World Games competitions?

Q7. How many full-time staff members are recruited by the city to prepare for the World Games?

#### Table 2. Major Sponsors of the 2009 World Games

Level Company
Level A (n=11) Official Partners China Airline, 7-11, Chunghwa Telecom, Carrefour, China Steel Company Group, Taipower, China Petroleum Company Corporation, Marina, Tissot, Volkswagen, Coca-Cola
Level B (n=7) Partners SECOM, Banana Chippy, Wei Mon Industry, China Postal, Kaohsiung Medical University & Hospital, Heineken, Real Estate Development Association of Kaohsiung
Level C (n=22) Sponsors Taiwan High Speed Rail, Taiwan Sugar Corporation, Giant, SYM, PXmart, Greenoil, Fish888, Starbucks, ShinKong Life, Hellocar, Hamilton Sunscreen, Dole, New Zealand Kiwifruit, Nitto Denko, Sundance, Bank of Kaohsiung, Sakura, Tong-yang, Cold Stone Creamery, Bros Sports, White Flowers

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### Corresponding Author
Steve Chen
208C Combs Business Building, Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351
<s.chen@morehead-st.edu>
606-783-2433 (office)
606-780-8173

2015-10-02T23:25:11-05:00October 4th, 2010|Sports Facilities, Sports Management|Comments Off on Preparation for an International Sport Event: The Promotional Strategies of 2009 Kaohsiung World Games

The price of NFL fandom: An exploratory study of the past, present, and future purchasing power of NFL fans

### Abstract

Concerns regarding gentrification of sports and the loss of middle-income fans have increased throughout the years, as ticket prices have continued to increase well beyond the rate of inflation for professional sports. This research focused on the changes in purchasing power for fans wishing to attend live games in the National Football League from 1991 to 2009 and then made subsequent forecasts for purchasing power 10 years into the future, should current pricing trends continue unabated. The Fan Cost Index (FCI) was utilized to compare purchasing power over time. Results showed that average FCI price for the league increased by 75% beyond inflation from 1991 to 2009. Purchasing power for fans from all the teams in the study diminished in some fashion from 1991 to 2009. However, eight of the 24 teams in the study severely reduced fan purchasing power, including a 50% or more reduction in the number of tickets alone. If pricing trends continue, the league could experience decreased attendance, particularly from fans in the lower income brackets.

**Key words:** purchasing power, FCI, gentrification, NFL, ticket prices
(more…)

2017-08-03T10:21:27-05:00October 4th, 2010|Contemporary Sports Issues, Sports Facilities, Sports Management, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on The price of NFL fandom: An exploratory study of the past, present, and future purchasing power of NFL fans