The Impact of NBA New Rules on Games

Authors: Mahmoud M. Nourayi1, Meghna Singhvi2

1Department of Accounting, Loyola Marymount University, CA, USA
2 Department of Accounting, Finance, Economics, and Law, California State University, Dominguez Hills, CA, USA

Corresponding Author:
Meghna Singhvi, PhD., CPA(inactive),MBA, MACC
1000 E. Victoria Street
Carson, CA 90747

Dr. Mahmoud Nourayi, PhD, CPA, CMA, CFM is the Paul Grosch Professor of Accounting at Loyola Marymount University. He earned this distinct honor by dedicating more than 25 years to LMU teaching various accounting courses at the undergraduate and graduate level. He was named Outstanding Accounting Educator by the California Society of Certified Public Accountants. He regularly presents at U.S. and international academic conferences and has served at various times as Accounting Department Chair, Associate Dean of the College of Business Administration, and as facilitator for the LMU Accounting Society.

Dr. Meghna Singhvi, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Accounting at California State University, Dominguez Hills and her research focuses on corporate governance, gender diversity in the board room and CEO Power. She is a CPA (inactive) and she earned her MBA from Ohio University in 2002 and her Masters in Accountancy from NKU in 2004. She is passionate about inspiring students and has recently established the “THRIVE” mentorship program at CSUDH along with two other faculty members to bridge the gap between industry experts and her students at CSUDH.

The Impact of NBA New Rules on Games


The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of rule changes by the National Basketball Association on pace, scoring, physicality, and shot selection in professional basketball games. Method: We use regression analysis to examine the trend of various game indicators about the speed and flow, physical plays, shooting accuracy, and shot selection over time. Results: Our findings showed an upward trend in the number of possessions, Points, and Field Goal Attempts in line with the expectation of the NBA league administrators. We also observed a downward trend in the number of Personal Foul calls, Free Throws Attempts, and Free Throws Made after the rule changes and our findings further indicated an increase in relative number of 3-point shots as well as increased shooting precision in 2-point shots. Based on our hypothetical scoring of the games and analysis, about 10.3% of the wins and 6.5% of losses were attributable to 3-point shots. Conclusion: Our analyses indicate that the 2-point shooting percentage (2P%), on average, improved more than that for 3-point shots over time, and the number of personal foul calls, free throw attempts and free throws made declined under new rules over time. Application in Sports: While 3-point shots did not seem to impact the game outcome for most games, it appears that the involvement of the more skilled and agile players has made the game faster. However, shot selection decision by the teams must be based on game conditions and managed by coaches on a game by game basis, perhaps even quarter by quarter, and player by player.

2021-01-07T09:58:40-06:00January 15th, 2021|Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on The Impact of NBA New Rules on Games

A longitudinal analysis of the differential performances of seeded male and female Grand Slam tennis players

Author: Raymond Stefani
California State University, Long Beach

Corresponding Author:
Raymond Stefani
25032 Via Del Rio
Lake Forest, CA 92630

Dr. Raymond Stefani is a professor emeritus at the California State University, Long Beach with 170 publications covering rating systems, individual Olympic sports, team sports, home advantage, and sports history

A longitudinal analysis of the differential performances of seeded male and female Grand Slam tennis players


Purpose: This paper evaluates Grand Slam tennis at the most fundamental level, the match-by-match competition between established players and their challengers. The competitive balance of men and women therefore is evaluated in this paper, as measured by the success of lower-seeded or un-seeded competitors at winning matches. Methods: A 14-season database was tabulated, covering 56 Grand Slams for men and 56 for women contested from 2006 through 2019, including nearly 5,000 matches for men and 5000 for women, each involving at least one seeded player. Results and Discussion: Overall, higher seeded players were upset in 25% of women’s matches and in 21% of men’s matches. As an average season progressed, women were involved in more upset matches than men by 28% at the season opening Australian open on hard court, by 15% on red clay at the French Open, by 14% on grass at Wimbledon (where the most upsets happened for both men and women) ending with 11% on hard court at the US Open. Lower-seeded or un-seeded men became consistently more competitive as each season progressed, while women remained at the same highly competitive level. On a year-by-year basis, competitive balance (upsets) have increased somewhat, that is, the predictability of higher-seeded players has decreased over time. Conclusions: The cumulative effect of the upset differential is that spectators watched the progress of the strongest men’s seeds, wondering how they would do against the three dominant men’s players, Nadal, Djokovic, and Federer, who won 48 of the men’s 56 Grand Slams over the 14-year period. In contrast, dynamic new young female players emerged, winning by upset until some became higher seeds and even Grand Slam champions themselves, only to be upset and replaced as champion by a new wave of enthusiastic and compelling competitors, exemplified by the fact that 24 women won their 56 Grand Slams. Applications to Sport: The marketing, advertising, and psychological/physical player preparation should consider the fundamental spectator’s eye views that differentially define men and women’s Grand Slam tennis.

2021-01-07T09:57:31-06:00December 25th, 2020|Research, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on A longitudinal analysis of the differential performances of seeded male and female Grand Slam tennis players

How the NFL Responded to the Colin Kaepernick Protests in 2016-2017 and How the League Responded to Athlete Protests During the Black Lives Matter Movement of 2020: A Sport Study, Social Phenomenological Approach

Authors: Ben Donahue, MS, MEd

Corresponding Author:
Ben Donahue, MS, MEd
3304 Sierra Meadows Dr.
Bakersfield, Ca. 93313
(425) 359-3248

Ben Donahue has worked for over 25 years in sports at the k-12, college, and professional levels.  His experience includes athletic director, game day operations and guest relations, football operations, coach, and baseball scout.  Currently, he is a public-school teacher and contributing writer for and

How the NFL Responded to the Colin Kaepernick Protests in 2016-2017 and How the League Responded to Athlete Protests During the Black Lives Matter Movement of 2020: A Sport Study, Social Phenomenological Approach


This study examined the use of social phenomenological research by examining key figures in the National Football League (NFL) after the Colin Kaepernick and George Floyd, Black Lives Matter (BLM) protests.  The author researched several responses from NFL personnel and the NFL commissioner after both events.  These responses were divided into statements made in 2016-2017 (Kaepernick protests) and statements made in 2020 (Floyd/BLM protests).  Using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), the author coded the statements into specific themes, and then analyzed and interpreted the themes as relating to phenomenological awareness.  This approach used phenomenological analysis to better understand the latent or ‘disguised’ reason for an experience to come to light. 

The results of the study show that, while the primary impetus of both protests were the same, the responses from NFL personnel were vastly different for each protest.  Key to these responses were the influences of external interests that put pressure on the NFL to respond in a specific way.  These external interests included government figures, NFL fans, and the public at large.  The conclusions of this study suggest that in the future, the NFL should take greater care to look for the underlying causes of their employees’ concerns before assuming that they implicitly understand those concerns.  The applications of the study can be used as a teaching tool for other sports organizations, including coaches and sport administrators, as they work to respond to matters of great concern and importance to their employees.  

2020-11-04T11:08:36-06:00November 24th, 2020|Research, Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on How the NFL Responded to the Colin Kaepernick Protests in 2016-2017 and How the League Responded to Athlete Protests During the Black Lives Matter Movement of 2020: A Sport Study, Social Phenomenological Approach

The Impact of COVID-19 on the Well-Being of Division III Student-Athletes

Authors: JoAnne Barbieri Bullard
Department of Health & Exercise Science, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ, USA

Corresponding Author:
JoAnne Barbieri Bullard, Psy.D., CSCS
201 Mullica Hill Road
Glassboro, NJ 08028

JoAnne Barbieri Bullard, Psy.D., is an Assistant Professor in the Health & Exercise Science Department at Rowan University.  She holds her doctorate in Sport Psychology and Performance and is a NSCA Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist.  She also serves as the NCAA Faculty Athletics Representative for Rowan University. 

The Impact of COVID-19 on the Well-Being of Division III Student-Athletes


The Coronavirus (COVID-19) has caused societal impact that has been intense and fast-paced, especially for college students when education was transitioned quickly into a distance learning format during the spring 2020 semester raising numerous health concerns. Spring athletic seasons were cancelled abruptly raising concern about the mental distress student athletes could be experiencing that could impact their future.  The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) addressed the disruption that COVID-19 has caused and the negative impact it has made on both physical and mental health of athletes (14).  The purpose of this research study was to examine the mental distress and programming needs of Division III student-athletes in response to COVID-19.  Through the use of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale (GAD-7) and the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS), anxiety was assessed among participants suggesting that both genders and all academic years have experienced some level of anxiety during this pandemic which deserve to be addressed and explored on a deeper level.  Significant findings revealed that female participants were more likely than male participants to effectively manage their schoolwork, use social media at least four hours per day, express worry for the future and the fall 2020 semester related to COVID-19, experience challenges moving home, and to utilize mindfulness practices.  Findings also revealed that as compared to other races/ethnicities, white participants indicating experiencing higher challenges regarding social distancing.  Mental distress was associated with lack of resources and  the absence of available facilities to train for their sport.  This setback led student-athletes to experience decreased levels of motivation, increased feelings of stress, and general feelings of helplessness. The need for interventions to be provided both remotely and in-person to provide modalities assisting in coping with anxiety is apparent.

2021-01-07T08:38:42-06:00October 7th, 2020|Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on The Impact of COVID-19 on the Well-Being of Division III Student-Athletes

Correlations in Self-efficacy and Participation in Roller Derby

Authors: Margaret Shields1, Andrea Eklund2, and Angelina Williams3

1Department of Health Sciences, Fort Lewis College, Durango, CO, USA
2Department of Family & Consumer Sciences, Central Washington University, Ellensburg, WA, USA
3Department of Public Health, Charleston Southern University, Charleston, SC, USA

Corresponding Author:
Margaret Shields, PhD, CHES
1000 Rim Drive
Durango, CO 81301

Margaret Shields, PhD, CHES is an Assistant Professor of Health Sciences at Fort Lewis College in Durango, CO. Her research interests focus on veteran mental health, stress, self-efficacy, and nutrition.

Andrea Eklund, MFA is an Associate Professor of Family and Consumer Sciences at Central Washington University.  Her research interests focus on empowerment and body image, sustainable textiles, and innovative fashion design.   

Angelina Williams, CHES is a recent graduate in public health from Charleston Southern University. She is currently a family navigator for Americorps in Charleston, SC.

Correlations in self-efficacy and participation in roller derby


Roller derby has been connected with self-confidence in participants; however, little is known about the correlation of increased self-efficacy and roller derby. The purpose of this study was to examine correlation in changes of self-efficacy and participation in roller derby, specific to overall confidence, exercise patterns and body image. This study was a primary data analysis collected from a specially designed self-efficacy survey using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Self-efficacy for Exercise Scale. Participants were asked to give demographic and physical information. Self-efficacy was measured through three categories: exercise, appearance and general statements about daily life. Four hundred and twenty-four international participants completed the survey. Descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon Signed-ranks test were used for the pre- and post-sport data of the participants to assess and compare perceived changes in the individuals. The sample included 412 completed surveys. Participants indicated increased perception of self-efficacy given involvement in roller derby. This included significance in decisions and leadership roles, body image, and exercise.  Perceptions of decisions and leadership roles, body image, and exercise routines increased with sport involvement. Participation in roller derby was associated with increased perceived self-efficacy. This is not confined to sport alone but other day-to-day activities that may require similar amounts of resilience, self-perception, and self-reflection. By fostering these feminist beliefs, gender roles, and simultaneously building self-efficacy among women, researchers have noted the higher perception of physical attractiveness, lowered poor body image, and ability to buffer societal pressures.  With the vast struggle for improved mental and physical health to curb chronic diseases, it is important to encourage leisure sports and activities such as roller derby.  It is vital as a coach or league to urge participants to recognize growth within in the sport, not only while skating but also applying this to career and relationships outside of the sport.

2020-07-15T11:30:03-05:00October 2nd, 2020|Sports Studies and Sports Psychology|Comments Off on Correlations in Self-efficacy and Participation in Roller Derby
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