Francis Petit, Ed.D.
Associate Dean for Global Initiatives and Partnerships
Adjunct Associate Professor of Marketing
Gabelli School of Business
140 West 62nd Street – Room 222
New York, New York 10023
(212) 636 7429 – work
(646) 256 2991 – mobile
Francis Petit serves as associate dean for global initiatives and partnerships and also serves as an adjunct associate professor of marketing at the Gabelli School of Business where he teaches a Sports Marketing course. Dr. Petit has established executives programs in North America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia and the Middle East.
Corporations within the United States spend over $70 billion per year on corporate training with “Leadership Development” as the top expenditure. With this as a background, the purpose of this research was to provide an alternative mechanism for learning for today’s executive. More specifically, a historical study was conducted on the professional life of Coach Pete Carril, a legendary now retired Hall of Fame Men’s Basketball Coach from Princeton University. The findings of this study indicate that there are key learning takeaways, from a leadership development perspective, for today’s executive within areas such as Honesty, Innovation, Self-Awareness, and Perspective. The overall goal of this study was to determine if there existed key learning takeaways for today’s executive from a nontraditional but legendary coach and leader.
Keywords: Pete Carril, Princeton Offense, Princeton Georgetown Game, Princeton Basketball
Corporations have made significant commitments to developing leaders within their organizations. More specifically, corporate training expenditures, within the United States, has exceeded $70 billion per year with “Leadership Development” being its top billing (6). In addition, a recent study has indicated that 89% of executives rate the need to strengthen “Organizational Leadership” as “Important” and/or “Very Important” (37). Overall, developing leaders within many organizations is considered a pressing matter.
With this as a background, the purpose of this research is to provide an alternative mechanism for learning. More specifically, a historical study has been conducted on the professional life of Coach Pete Carril, the legendary retired Men’s Basketball Coach at Princeton University. While very non-traditional in terms of function, appearance and style, the goal of this research is to provide key learning takeaways for executives and future leaders from a very unlikely source.
Pete Carril, who was born on July 10, 1930, grew up in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania and attended Lafayette College where he played on the Men’s Basketball Team under the legendary coach Butch van Breda Kolf. Upon graduating Lafayette in 1952 and after completing his required military service, Carril began his coaching career at Easton and Reading High Schools (16). Coach Carril then entered the college coaching ranks and had an exceptional thirty (30) year head coaching career at both Lehigh University (1 year) and Princeton University (29 years). As a college Men’s Basketball Coach, Carril had an overall record of 525 – 273 (0.658 Winning Percentage) and experienced only two losing seasons (1966-1967 and 1984-1985) throughout his illustrious career (21).
In 1997, the year following the completion of his collegiate coaching career, Coach Carril received the industry’s highest honor and was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. His citation, within the Naismith Memorial Hall of Fame, highlights Coach Carril’s achievements and they are as follows:
- Led the nation in scoring defense fourteen (14) out of his last twenty one (21) seasons;
- Thirteen (13) Ivy League Championships;
- Thirteen (13) Post Season Tournament Bids;
- Eleven (11) NCAA Tournament Bids;
- National Invitation Tournement (NIT) Champions, 1975;
- Upset UCLA, the defending National Champions, in the First Round of the 1996 NCAA Tournament;
- When retired was the only Division I coach to generate over 500 wins without the luxury of utilizing Athletic Scholarships.
In addition to receiving his industry’s highest honor with the induction into the Hall of Fame, Coach Carril also received Princeton University’s highest honor as he was awarded an Honorary Doctor of Humanities on June 5, 2012. Excerpts from the citation of Coach Carril’s Honorary Doctoral Ceremony stated the following:
More often than not, his players were shorter, slower and less
athletically gifted than their opponents, but he turned their limitations
into strengths – teaching them that the greatest attributes were intelligence,
discipline, selflessness and commitment. His defense was tenacious and
his offense was legendary, where movement was paramount, the pass was
as important as the shot and the back door was often the portal to victory.(34)
Overall, Coach Carril had an extraordinary collegiate coaching career. As a result of his success he received not only his industry’s highest honor but also Princeton University’s highest honor. Such a professional should be studied and that is the purpose of this research.
A historical study on the professional career of Coach Carril was conducted. Four (4) trends emerged and are discussed. Conclusions on key learning points for executives are presented.
After conducting historical research on the professional life of Coach Carril, there was one evident trend that emerged. Coach Carril’s honesty was apparent throughout his career and it was an endearing attribute for those who knew him.
Coach Carril once stated “I just tell them (players) what is on my mind very emphatically. I tell them the good points and I tell them the bad points” (10). In addition, not being oblivious to how his perspective would be interpreted, Coach Carril further stated “When you are as direct as I am you are going to offend some people” (10).
Yet while his honesty may have been hurtful at times, many of his former players, in hindsight, appreciated his message. For example, Brian Earl stated “He (Coach Carril) delivered the truth and it is rare in life when someone gives you the truth all the time. Some guys dealt with it great, some guys couldn’t take it” (14).
In addition, Craig Robinson, the former two time Ivy League Player of the Year and 1983 Princeton graduate, stated:
My first impression of him? Here’s a guy who looked like he never
played the game in his life telling me how bad I was, what part of my
game was the worst and what needed work…..That was his recruiting
pitch. He didn’t say one positive thing to me and that kind of honesty
is pretty intimidating because no one is brutally honest these days.
Coach (Carril) was honest with us every single day of the year, and we
are all better players and people for it.(31)
Robinson, who is the older brother of former United States First Lady Michelle Obama, went on to become the Head Men’s Basketball Coach at Brown University and Oregon State University and now serves as a Vice President for the New York Knicks in the National Basketball Association (NBA).
Steve Goodrich, another former Ivy League Player of the Year and 1998 Princeton graduate, also stated:
He was the only guy (recruiter) who didn’t say you’re going to be great.
He said ‘You’re bad at this and this and this but I can help you get better.’
He was an honest and direct communicator, which at the time, kind of pisses
you off, but he was right. He had credibility. He knew what he was talking about.(19)
Goodrich’s teammate from the famous 1996 squad, Gabe Lewullis, also indicated that on a recruiting trip to his house Coach Carril told him that he ran like he had a piano on his back (19). Such honesty did not deter Lewullis from enrolling at Princeton.
Another former player who, in hindsight, appreciated Coach Carril’s honesty is Armond Hill. The former All-American out of the now closed Bishop Ford High School in Brooklyn had multiple Division I scholarship offers as a senior. Yet Hill, who was not admitted to Princeton, decided to bypass those scholarship offers and enrolled in a “Prep Year” at The Lawrenceville School which is in close proximity to Princeton University. Such a decision, at that time, was uncommon but Hill pursued it as he was attracted to Coach Carril and his honest approach and believed that this course of action would inevitably allow him to gain admission to Princeton.
Hill had connected with Coach Carril and has stated “As a youngster growing up in Brooklyn, you really just want someone to be honest with you and he (Coach Carril) was the first guy, I thought, as a coach, who was honest with me” (39). Hill has further stated “I like Pete Carril because he was honest. He told me ‘If you come to Princeton, I can’t offer you anything but I can make you a better player’ ” (20).
After his prep year at The Lawrenceville School, Hill enrolled at Princeton and was a key member of the 1975 NIT Championship Team along with being named the Ivy League Player of the Year in 1976. After Princeton, Hill played for eight (8) seasons in the NBA and now serves as an Assistant Coach for the Los Angeles Clippers (24).
In addition to Coach Carril’s former players, there are others who have appreciated his honest approach. One example includes Coach Bobby Knight, a Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame Coach, who stated the following about Coach Carril:
I have a great admiration for Pete as a coach and a teacher and equally
great respect for him as a person. He is an extremely honest man with
great integrity. Pete has always been straightforward in everything he
Another example can be seen in an article in Ivyleaguesports.com. Regarding Coach Carril’s honest approach, it stated the following:
He saw things his way, did them his way, said them his way. If there was
truth to be promulgated, he could crawl onto the ledge of political
correctness before shouting it out.(46)
In addition, other observers have stated “Cab driver, janitor, basketball coach…it’s all fine to him. Just an honest man earning an honest dollar” (31). Further, it has been stated that “…nobody on the team was immune from (Coach) Carril’s rare honesty.” (Hager, 2012)
Overall, perhaps the description that best illustrates Coach Carril’s honest approach can be seen as follows:
Ultimately, in the end, he is a very simple man, and the more the world
around him grew complex, the simpler he became. Make shots, guard
your guy, be honest with people. And above all work hard.(43)
In closing, Coach Carril’s honesty was something that was appreciated by many who worked with him. It has been stated that being honest with your colleagues is not easy and that transparency, for those in power, is unnatural (30). It has been further stated that it is essential, for managers, to communicate their expectations for honesty (47). In addition, it has been noted that the costs for dishonesty, within organizations, is great and can include items such as decreased repeat business, low job satisfaction, weak performance and high turnover (11).
Overall, it appears that Coach Carril was very honest within his work to all his stakeholders and also had the courage to be honest. Executives must take note as Coach Carril’s honesty was an endearing and, in hindsight, an appreciated attribute within his professional style.
Coach Carril is also considered an innovator within the game. Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame Coach Jerry Tarkanian once stated “I hate playing Princeton because they can make you look bad, even when you win … for his style Pete does the best job in the country” (7). In addition, PJ Carlesimo, the former Head Men’s Basketball Coach of Seton Hall University, once stated “If you are a coach you don’t want to play against a Pete Carril team” (35).
So what made Coach Carril such an innovative coach? The perceptive Coach Carril realized, early in his Princeton tenure, that it would become increasingly difficult to recruit top quality players within the Ivy League non-athletic scholarship need based system (40). In essence, Coach Carril stated “As the cost of going to school goes up, it gets harder and harder to recruit bonafide athletes” at Princeton (27). He therefore changed his strategy in order to compete for the talent he could recruit.
The strategy that he therefore implemented was as follows. First, in an era where each player on the court has become a “specialist”, within Coach Carril’s system, every player became a “generalist”. While he characterized his players as “guards”, “forwards” and “centers”, each one had the freedom and responsibility to pass, dribble and shoot (10).
Second, Coach Carril implemented an effective and tenacious defense that produced results. As stated earlier, in his Hall of Fame citation, Coach Carril’s teams led the nation in scoring defense in fourteen (14) out of his last twenty one (21) seasons.
Lastly, Coach Carril implemented a slow, methodical and unselfish offense that relied on passing, backdoor cuts and patience. Brian Winters, a former NBA All Star, NBA Head Coach and Princeton Assistant Coach, once stated “It’s an offense that requires precision and patience” (40). Other commentary included the following:
Incorporating the emphasis on passing and cutting from the original
offense, Carril developed a complex scheme in which all five offensive
players had to be able to pass, dribble and shoot – the Carril mantra.
Princeton players were in constant motion and made several of Carril’s
backdoor cuts, but wouldn’t shoot until they had an absolutely open look
at the basket. The process took extreme patience and would throw more
athletic teams off kilter.(40)
Others had more of a poetic interpretation including:
(Coach Carril) saw the 94-foot by 54-foot hard court as a moral playground
where the Cardinal virtue is unselfishness. The embodiment of unselfishness
was the assist, the small act of grace of giving up the ball to a teammate who
has a better shot …. It is not easy to learn and it goes against the grain of
me – first American individualism and the lore of million dollar sneaker
contracts. The highest skill of a Princeton Player is not to run, jump or shoot
but to see. And it is still the rarest basketball skill of all.(44)
Such a strategy allowed Coach Carril’s Princeton squad to be competitive with any college team in the nation. This is unique in that the more talented teams, often times, struggled against Princeton and this form of basketball. As a result, it has been noted that Coach Carril’s coaching philosophy is the “basketball equivalent of scraping fingernails across a chalkboard. If you keep it up long enough the other team is going to get aggravated not to mention beaten” (41).
Coach Carril has stated that he has been deeply impacted by Butch van Breda Kolf, his collegiate coach at Lafayette. More specifically, Coach Carril has stated the following within his Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame Induction Speech: “He (Coach Van Breda Kolf) taught me how to think …anyone can coach basketball … it’s not that hard to know about the pick and roll … the way you think affects what you see .. and what you see affects what you do .. think, see, do” (25).
Such lessons became apparent in how Coach Carril pursued his craft. Mr. Gary Walters, the former Athletic Director at Princeton University, has stated: “He (Coach Carril) always had the ability to break down five things simultaneously that are being done the wrong way . A lot of people watch the game, but few people see it” (14)
In addition, Coach Carril also believed in a unique balance between “EQ”, “IQ” and “RQ” where “EQ” referred to the “Energy Quotient”, “IQ” referred to the “Intelligence Quotient and “RQ” referred to the “Responsibility Quotient” (10). Coach Carril was therefore looking beyond physical prowess when recruiting future Princeton Tigers basketball players.
Overall, Coach Carril’s unique approach and perspective to coaching appeared to be an effective strategy. For example, Geoff Petrie, a former player of Coach Carril’s at Princeton along with being the former President of Basketball Operations for the Sacramento Kings of the NBA, once stated:
I’ve always said this and really believed this. He (Coach Carril) made
an incredible career as a coach basically by outsmarting people … with
the way he taught and coached his players. He was hard on guys and hard
on me, but very rarely wrong …I just felt like there was a tremendous amount
Others have wondered how Coach Carril could transform non-scholarship student athletes into such a cohesive overachieving unit with similar qualities of a “neighborhood bulldog” (5). In addition, Dr. William Bowen, the former President of Princeton University, has stated “He (Coach Carril) is a healthy antidote for everything that is in college athletics. He understands the place of the athlete in the University” (45). Lastly, others believe Coach Carril was simply one of the best coaches in college basketball given his ability to work within Princeton’s lofty admissions standards and compete with any team in the country (9).
Overall, Coach Carril’s success and impact on the game can be seen in multiple ways. First, The Wall Street Journal recently reported that Coach Carril’s impact on basketball can be seen with the current style of play within the National Basketball Association. More specifically, this can be seen with shot selection, floor spacing and moving traditional post players into the perimeter for three (3) point shots. Within the Carril system, all players were expected to shoot the ball effectively from the outside along with dribbling and passing. Bob Scrabis, the former Captain on the Princeton 1989 squad, has stated “All five guys could step outside and make a 3-point shot….If you couldn’t shoot, you couldn’t play” (12). Such a strategy not only spread out the opposing defense but also allowed Princeton to achieve Coach Carril’s main objective which was to take “good shots” (uncontested high percentage) with either a three (3) pointer or a backdoor cut. Such a contrarian but also common sense philosophy is, according to The Wall Street Journal, evident within the NBA and Coach Carril was certainly “ahead of his time” (12).
Second, within the NCAA Tournament, Princeton, with its non-scholarship players, was certainly competitive. For example, Princeton, as the thirteen (13th) seed within their bracket, lost to Arkansas, a fourth (4th) seed, by a score of 68-64 in 1990. In addition, in 1996, Princeton, as a thirteenth (13th) seed upset UCLA, the defending National Champions and fourth (4th) seed, by a score of 43-41. Lastly, in 1989, Princeton, as a sixteen (16th) seed, almost upset Georgetown, a number one seed, by a score of 50-49. (16).
The Princeton / Georgetown game in 1989, besides being exciting, also had other implications as stated below.
I think the Princeton Georgetown (game) in 1989 is one of the most
important games maybe in the history of college basketball media and
you can thank the backdoor cuts and contribute what happened that night
in Providence to what then would happen for the next now twenty five
The game itself was the most viewed first round tournament game to date (2). The game, which was also televised by ESPN, was instrumental in igniting CBS to sign a $1 Billion seven year exclusive rights deal in November 1989 (seven months later) to air all first round games in prime time in essence eliminating all cable coverage. Lastly, the game’s impact quieted all the doubters who questioned the automatic bid structure that existed within entry into the tournament by the mid-major conferences (38).
Overall, Coach Carril successfully implemented an innovative strategy within Men’s College Basketball. His ingenuity not only allowed his non-scholarship athletes to overachieve but also made its impact on strategic decisions within the television networks as he illustrated the magic of the potential “David and Goliath” conquest and the subsequent fan interest.
In closing, being innovative, within most organizations, is extremely difficult as a result of the lack of the innovative mindset and culture that is prevalent within most institutions (26). This is especially true in higher education where tradition and bureaucracy seem to be the norm.
Yet Coach Carril was able to realize that his Princeton Tigers must change its strategy due to the increasing difficulty he experienced in recruiting top level players within the Ivy League structure. He therefore experimented and implemented change along with shifting the mindset of his entire unit.
Executives must take note. Recognizing the need for change and shifting the mindset of one’s organization are key attributes for being innovative (13). Coach Carril has certainly exhibited this within his career at Princeton.
Self-awareness is a key trait within effective leaders. This is well documented within the literature and research.
More specifically, it has been noted that self-awareness is a key component within emotional intelligence (EQ) in regard to understanding one’s “inner voice” and being attentive to “psychological signals” (15). Others, for example, have indicated that self-awareness is a key trait and pillar within all successful leaders (28) along with being an instrumental characteristic of leaders who can effectively build trust in organizations (23). Overall, the importance of self-awareness within leadership is nothing new.
In addition, Merrian-Webster defines self-awareness as “knowledge and awareness of your own personality and character.” Furthermore, Oxford Living Dictionaries defines self-awareness as “conscious knowledge of one’s own character, feelings, motives and desires.”
With this as a background and after conducting historical research on Coach Carril’s professional career, it is apparent that he has demonstrated a level of self-awareness.
For example, Coach Carril understood himself and the job of the Head Men’s Basketball Coach at Princeton University. It has been stated that “(Coach) Carril was never driven by the desire to make a lot of money, nor did he ever seek fame … Princeton was the perfect setting for him and he well understood that” (42).
Coach Carril reiterated this point by stating “One of the things that helped me at Princeton is that I have no desire to be famous, because the Admissions office turns down the guys who would have made me famous“ (10).
Coach Carril further understood the limitations of Princeton Basketball. He knew and understood that he could never win a National Championship for the Tigers and accepted this reality. The Ivy League non-athletic scholarship system prevents anyone, per his perspective, in achieving this goal (3).
In addition, it should be noted that Coach Carril understood his motivational factors at not only coaching at Princeton but also not accepting other coaching offers elsewhere. More specifically, he stated that what truly energizes him is as follows: “I take a look at a basketball player who’s got some innocence in his face, with eyes that are telling me he wants to be good and wants me to help him – that turns me on” (10).
In addition, in terms of motivation, Coach Carril has stated “I don’t care if I never see my name in the paper. I don’t care if I am never on television … I don’t need any of that to motivate me to do my work” (10).
It is apparent that Coach Carril was not driven by money or fame in his coaching vocation and also apparent that he understood that leaving Princeton, for a higher paid position, would not be optimal for him. More specifically, he has stated that leaving Princeton for a more high powered, visible college coaching position would not be for him as it is “a different kind of life” where he believed he would not thrive. There was also an ethical dilemma for Coach Carril as he stated “Too many times (big time schools) are involved in defending things that are indefensible” (4). In addition, Coach Carril, who was courted by other institutions, has stated that he “couldn’t believe anybody would give me that much (money)…” and also indicated he did not need the extra revenue to be happy (10).
Furthermore it should be noted that Coach Carril demonstrated a level of self-awareness on when it was time to retire from Princeton. In terms of knowing when it was the right time, Coach Carril stated “I saw myself getting more cantankerous, less understanding and less patient … I was less forgiving of errors, so I felt it was time to go” (36). In addition, Coach Carril further reiterated this point by stating “I wasn’t active on the bench. On the floor, I was letting things go in practice. There were all the signs of a guy who’s seen better days … I said to myself you’ve had your day in the sun. It is time to go” (32).
In addition to being self aware in terms of knowing when it was time to retire, coach Carril had an awareness of his physical attributes and this can be seen as follows:
My clothes, often ridiculed, is not Armani style, but it is good.
It doesn’t cost much, and its never prevented me from doing what I
know I have to do. I have always tried to be on the outside what I
am on the inside.(10)
This was further reinforced by Coach Butch van Breda Kolf when initially recommending Coach Carril for the Princeton University Coaching position. He told the Search Committee the following:
I know a guy who is the best coach in the world… But you’ll never
hire him, because he doesn’t fit the Ivy League image. He’s balding.
He’s got floppy ears. He doesn’t dress Ivy. He’s just plain Pete Carril.(18)
Overall, perhaps the most telling sign of Coach Carril’s self-awareness can be seen below: “…. and the end result is that you feel useful and that you’ve helped somebody and if those conditions are met you’re going to be happy” (1).
As one can see, Coach Carril has demonstrated a level of self-awareness within his professional career and therefore had an understanding of his “character, feelings, motives and desires.”
Merriam-Webster defines “perspective” as “the capacity to view things in their true relations or relative importance.” The Cambridge Dictionary defines it as “a particular way of viewing things that depends on one’s experience and personality.”
With this as a background and after conducting historical research on Coach Carril’s professional career, it is apparent that his experience as a coach has enabled him to develop a unique perspective that is worth noting.
For example, in Coach Carril’s address within the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame induction ceremony, he begins by stating “No one ever starts out wanting to be a Hall of Fame Coach…. sometimes its just circumstance.” He further, in his address, discusses the concept of circumstance on how he secured his first college coaching job at Lehigh University. More specifically, he stated that there were only three candidates for the position. The first one did not want the position and the second one lived in Wisconsin and Lehigh did not want to pay travel costs for the interview process. Coach Carril therefore secured the position and he attributed it to circumstance (25). Such a perspective illustrates not only a level of humility but also an appreciation for circumstance. This can be further reinforced on his securing 525 collegiate victories when Coach Carril stated “It just means I have been around for a while. It’s better than 525 losses” (10).
In addition, Coach Carril understood the importance of academics and the place Princeton Basketball held within the life of the University when he stated “The real superstars here are in the library. In fact, some of them take their sleeping bags into the stacks so they can study off and on all night long” (18).
This can be further reinforced with his view on the type of uniforms that should be used by his team. The most important item for Coach Carril was to play as a team. The following statement illustrates his sentiment: “Buying uniforms for Pete Carril was like asking him for money… He used to say ‘it doesn’t matter what you wear as long as you put the ball in the basket’ ” (40).
In a time where greed and self-importance seems to define many of today’s leaders, it is refreshing to learn of Coach Carril’s overall perspective to his vocation. This can be further illustrated with his general approach to coaching. More specifically, when he arrived at Princeton, his perspective and attitude is worth highlighting.
When Princeton hired me, I never thought I could not do the job. I never
looked at things as challenges, or set goals, or anything like that. I didn’t
say to myself, well, I’ll stay at Princeton for five years and then move to a
bigger school. It was an opportunity that I wanted and I was able to get,
and so, you go ahead and do what you’ve always done, which is to do the
best you can. I did not feel intimidated.(10)
He further illustrated his approach and perspective by stating:
I define success as having a chance to win every game. It’s my job to
give my players the chance to have their character, their drive to win,
determine the outcome. And the quality of your teaching – your own
character – comes out.(10)
Further examples of his approach to the coaching profession can be seen as follows:
I am committed by my style and principles of life to make the best
of whatever the situation. It has been the way I have done things for
my entire life… I get my happiness out of seeing things done right, out
of being successful, out of seeing the interaction of people working
together for a good cause, spilling their hearts out on the floor, giving you
the best of what they have.(22)
Coach Carril’s approach to his profession and his overall perspective can be further exemplified by the following: “I’ve said this before,” Carril said, “the measure of any teacher, provided he is not an egomaniac, is to see anybody that he taught do better than he did” (8).
Another example of his approach to his vocation and his overall perspective can be seen by the following statement: “All I ever wanted since I got into coaching was to get the best from every kid I had. And I have not improved one bit in that respect. I will never be able to understand that. But that’s what I stand for ….” (29).
One final example illustrating Coach Carril’s approach to his profession and his overall perspective can be seen as follows: “When Carril does reflect on Princeton, he prefers singling out the players who overachieved, and the teams, in his view, that accomplished greater feats, but received less attention than the 96 squad” (17).
After conducting historical research on Coach Carril’s professional career, there are certainly takeaways for today’s executive. First, Coach Carril’s honesty was an apparent attribute within his interaction with his players (colleagues and subordinates). As previously stated, Coach Carril was “brutally honest” to those around him and such honesty improved his unit’s performance. In addition, Coach Carril displayed a level of innovation by developing the “Princeton Offense” which allowed his less athletically gifted players to compete against any team in the nation. Furthermore, Coach Carril displayed a level of self-awareness. He understood not only what motivated him but also the constraints of his institution and he therefore was able to thrive over the long term. Lastly, Coach Carril illustrated a level of perspective that is worth noting. Such perspective allowed for humility along with his healthy and successful approach to his work.
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