Physical Education Teacher Candidates and Professional Codes of Ethics

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the levels by which the students in Departments of Physical Education agree with the professional codes of ethics for physical education teachers. One hundred twenty-two students receiving education in Departments of Physical Education and Sports in three universities participated in the research. A questionnaire consisting of 32 items was used as the data collection tool. Physical education teacher candidates studying in different universities stated that they fully agreed with the professional codes of ethics for physical education teachers. However, they were observed to have different opinions regarding some ethics codes depending on gender, class, and school variables.

Introduction

Ethics lies on the basis of all relationships established by humans. There are such values as love, respect, gratitude, and trust in a relationship between two persons. (Kuçuradi, 1996). Ethical behavior considers the rights and interests, as well as the existence of others (Haynes, 2002). The goal of an ethical relationship is being able to show that ethical action is a basic characteristic of human existence; that is being able to teach to love people (Pieper, 1999). Studies on ethics deal with the standards used in the rightfulness or wrongfulness of human behavior. They seek answers to such questions as to which behaviors are good, desirable, and acceptable (Gözütok, 1999).

Professional ethics resulted from an increase in ethical problems in certain professions or from the awareness of these increasing problems. Ethics of medicine, law, sports, press, and education are some examples of professional ethics (Tepe, 2000). Professional ethics are a set of general rules that look at the work performed by the members of the profession from an ethical point of view and that are complied with by the majority of these members (Sockett, 1990; Kultgen, 1988). Ethical codes laid down by professional organizations and supported by sanctions will guide the person who applies them and help him/her to decide in potential dilemmas (Fain, 1992). Even though professional codes of ethics are regulated separately for every profession, such codes as honesty, legality, reliability, professional loyalty, and respect apply to all professions (Wiley 2000).

When education was taken up as a multidimensional system, ethical conduct came to be one of these dimensions (Barcena & Gıl, 1993). Ethics of education interests all of society. Behaviors related to students are central to the ethics of education. It is the duty of all educators to provide the student with humane living conditions within the environment of education. The relationship between the teacher and the student must be based on love and respect (Bilgen, 1994).

Ethical relationships are expected to be experienced within the environment of education. For this reason, ethics codes that are determined for education must have compliance by educators. Universal values such as honesty, fairness, loyalty, and respect are taken as basis when determining ethics codes. The basic purpose of ethics codes is to make application most beneficial, to provide public benefit, to protect the profession, to discipline the members, and to guide the teachers in solving ethical dilemmas they may encounter during daily applications (Campbell, 2000).

Physical education teachers are faced with making ethical decisions while they are fulfilling their duties in schools and sports facilities (Harrison and Blakemore, 1992). Physical education teachers must act in compliance with professional ethics while they are performing their duties in order to protect service ideals, regulate competition within the profession, and raise the quality of the service provided. The first known codes of ethics in literature for physical education teachers were proposed in 1950 by the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education and Recreation (AAHPER) professional ethic board, and published in the Journal of Physical Education and Recreation in 1950 (Resick, Seidel, & Mason, 1975). A major part of these professional codes of ethics regulate the relationship between the teacher and the student. Other ethics codes are concerned with the relationship of teachers and their colleagues, their responsibilities towards the society, participation in professional organizations, and professional development.

It was observed that the definitions made related to ethical dilemmas were more successful, their theoretical and practical knowledge concerning ethical dilemmas increased, and their solutions and recommendations for ethical problems became more successful at the end of their education (Bergem, 1993). In a study conducted by Priest, Krause, and Becah (1999), ethical value choices of students were discovered to have changed positively at the end of a four years higher education.

The pre-service education received by teachers will have an influence on the decisions to be made by them in ethical incidents they encounter during the course of their professional lives. In research conducted by Tirri (1999), teachers stated that they encountered ethical dilemmas in matters related to passing courses, education, lessons and success, moral dimensions of student behavior, cheating, negative student behavior, and general rules in school. Some very sensitive situations were expressed by some of the teachers who took part in the research. For instance, if a teacher has to touch his/her student as required by his/her profession, s/he is faced with a dilemma. The teacher must decide on the limits of the help s/he will provide to his/her students. Such dilemmas are mostly encountered by special education and physical education teachers (Tirri, 1999).

Physical education teachers in Turkey are educated in Schools of Physical Education and Sports in universities and Departments of Physical Education and Sports connected education faculties. Students take special skill examinations in order to be admitted to these departments. Physical education teacher candidates receive four years of higher education consisting of general knowledge, professional knowledge for teaching, and field education knowledge. The physical education teacher training program, which was prepared centrally by the Higher Education Council in 1997, is applied in all universities. All physical education teacher candidates graduate from programs consisting of the same courses and contents. With a recent amendment made to the program, optional courses have been proposed to be introduced for the students to acquire professional ethics (YÖK, 2007).

The education received by physical education teachers has a major influence on their behavior inside the school and the classroom. Therefore, physical education teacher candidates should acquire the qualifications of being able to act in compliance with the professional ethics along with professional knowledge and skills during their pre-service education.

The basic aim of this study was to determine the levels by which the students in departments of physical education agree with the professional codes of ethics for physical education. With this aim was an intent to determine whether or not the opinions of students in Departments of Physical Education regarding the levels of agreement with the professional codes of ethics displayed differences depending on gender, class, and school variables.

Method

The survey method was used in this research. The scale developed by Özbek (2003) was used in order to measure the levels by which physical education teacher candidates agreed with of professional codes of ethics for physical education teachers. The validity and reliability of the measuring tool, was studied again. Factor analysis was carried out for the structural validity of the measuring tool and total correlation analysis of items was evaluated. Before conducting factor analysis, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) value was observed in order to determine the suitability of the size of sampling to factor analysis and the KMO value was found to be .90. The minimum KMO value must be .60 in order for a factor analysis to be realized on the data (Pallant, 2005). The .90 KMO value, which was observed in this case, showed that the data were suitable for factor analysis. On the other hand, the Barlett test result for the factor analysis of 32 items was found to be 2837.291, (p < 0.001). The KMO and Barlett test results indicated that a factor analysis could be conducted on these data. As a result of the factor analysis, the scale was decided to be one-dimensional. The total declared variance was calculated as 46.4 %. A declared variance of 30 % or more is considered sufficient in single-factor scales (Büyüköztürk, 2002). The factor load values of the items included in the scale ranged between .37 and .83. A factor load value of .30 or more was taken as basis while deciding on including an item in the scale. None of the items was excluded from the scale in this case (see Table 1). The correlation coefficient of the items included in the scale, on the other hand, ranged between .37 and .81 (See Table 1). The total correlation coefficient of items is required to be at least .30 (Pallant, 2005). According to this, no items were excluded from the scale. All of the 32 items in the original scale were kept without any change. The internal consistency coefficient Alpha, which is calculated for the reliability of the scale, was found as .95. Therefore, the scale was considered valid and reliable.

Table 1.
Factor Load of the Items in the Scale and Their Total Correlation Values

Item

No

Factor Load

Item

Total r

Item

No

Factor Load

Item

Total r

1

.41

.39

17

.75

.71

2

.37

.37

18

.71

.69

3

.41

.40

19

.69

.65

4

.72

.68

20

.73

.69

5

.78

.75

21

.78

.74

6

.69

.68

22

.68

.64

7

.60

.57

23

.81

.76

8

.66

.62

24

.75

.71

9

.53

.50

25

.66

.63

10

.73

.71

26

.56

.53

11

.62

.59

27

.77

.74

12

.64

.63

28

.83

.81

13

.52

.51

29

.76

.73

14

.62

.60

30

.82

.78

15

.48

.46

31

.79

.76

16

.60

.60

32

.83

.80

The scale contained the 32 professional codes of ethics given chart 2 along with personal information. The options of the scale and their points were determined as, Fully disagree (1 point), Somewhat agree (2 points), Moderately agree (3 points), Mostly agree (4 points), and Fully agree (5 points). The formula (5-1 = 4; 4/5 = 0.80) was used in determining the range coefficient of the scale. According to this the option ranges were determined as Fully disagree (1.00-1.79), Somewhat agree (1.80-2.59), Moderately agree (2.60-3.39), Mostly agree (3.40-4.19), and Fully agree (4.20-5.00). Whether or not there was a difference between the opinions of physical education teacher candidates based on class and gender was tested with the unrelated t test. Whether the opinions displayed differences based on the school variable, on the other hand, was tested with the unilateral variance analysis and the LSD test.

A Physical Education Teacher must,

         A Physical Education Teacher must,

C1 – take the mental, emotional, and social developments of students into

         consideration along with their physical skills while evaluating their success.

C2 – attach importance on education and health rather than being a champion or winning a

         competition.

C3 – accept losing in competitions as natural as winning.

C4 – work in cooperation and solidarity with his/her colleagues.

C5 – help those who are new in the profession gain professional knowledge and experience.

C6 – not display an action based on violence towards his/her students.

C7 – approach the students who do not succeed in competitions with understanding.

C8 – take the necessary measures in conditions that might arise in students such as physical

         discomfort, dehydration, or fatigue.

C9 – include activities by which all students take part in sports activities rather than providing a

        group of students with the school’s facilities.

C10 – ensure that all students benefit from the tools, equipment, and facilities of the school.

C11 – not use grades as an instrument of pressure.                                                      

C12 – prefer honesty over winning in sports.                        

C13 – prefer discipline over winning in sports.        

C14 – act with tolerance towards his/her students in their lessons.  

C15 – reward proper behavior of students.    

C16 – evaluate the success of students objectively.  

C17 – take care to ensure that both s/he and his/her students conform to the lesson and training

           hours.

C18 – attach more importance on the health and security of his/her students than sportive

           success.                    

C19 – not intervene with the transfers of athlete students by following his/her own interest.

C 20 – show special attention to disabled students in order to ensure their participation in the

            lesson.

C21 – consider the course of physical education as an integral and complementary part of

           general education.

C22 – value the opinions of students during the lesson.                                                                                                                                                     C23 – not talk in a way to humiliate his/her athlete students.

C24 – not allow tests, measurements, or drug testing that would endanger the health of his/her

           athlete students.

C25 – keep confidential the private information concerning his/her students.                          

C26 – keep confidential the religious, political, and ethnical matters discussed within the

           classroom environment.

C27 – not conduct training exercises that would endanger the health of athlete students.                                                                                                                                                                                  

C28 – take the education and health of the athlete students into consideration during club

           transfers.

C29 – avoid applications that would hold back other lessons of the students who will

           participate in competitions.

C30 – not insult his/her students.                          

C31 – not talk in a way to humiliate the athletes and coaches of the competitor school team.

C32 – act aggressively and offensively in his/her relationships with his/her colleagues.

Figure 1. Professional Codes of Ethics for Physical Education Teachers                                                                                                                                                        

Participants

The research covered the students, who were receiving education in the Departments of Physical Education and Sports in the Gazi University School of Physical Education and Sports, Hacettepe University, School of Sport Sciences and Technology, and Ankara University School of Physical Education and Sports during the 2005 – 2006 academic year. There were 278 students in the freshman and senior classes of the three universities. The study aimed to reach the relevant segment of students fully. However, the data collection tool could only be applied to a study group consisting of 122 students. Twenty-five percent (n = 26), 53 percent (n = 64), and 26 percent (n = 32) of the students participating in the survey consisted of the students of Hacettepe University, Gazi University, and Ankara University, respectively. When the gender distribution was examined, 60 percent (n = 73) of the students were observed to be male and 40 percent (n = 49) female. 62 percent (n = 76) of the students participating in the survey were freshmen while 38 percent (n = 46) consisted of senior class students. Personal information regarding the study group of the survey has been provided in Chart 3.

Table 2
Personal Information Regarding the Study Group

Personal Information

Sub categories

f

%

    School

Hacettepe U.

26

21

Gazi U.

64

53

Ankara U.

32

26

Total

122

100

    Class

Freshman

76

62

Senior

46

38

Total

122

100

    Gender

Male

73

60

Female

49

40

Total

122

100

Results

Findings regarding the opinions of physical education teacher candidates about their agreement with the professional codes of ethics were interpreted based on gender, class, and school variables.

The mean averages of the levels by which the physical education teacher candidates agreed with the professional codes of ethics based on gender, class, and school variables have been given in Table 3. As seen in Table 3, it was observed that the teacher candidates receiving education in three universities fully agreed with the professional codes of ethics [Hacettepe University ( = 4.66), Gazi University ( = 4.64), Ankara University ( = 4.66)]. The mean average of the levels by which the students in freshman and senior classes agreed with the professional codes of ethics [freshman ( = 4.63), senior ( = 4.69)] was realized as “full.” The mean average of the levels by which the male and female students agreed with the professional codes of ethics, on the other hand [male ( = 4.62), female ( = 4.71)], was again realized as “full”.

Table 3
The Mean averages of the Levels by which the Physical Education Teacher Candidates Agreed with the Professional Codes of Ethics based on Gender, Class, and School Variables

School

N

Mean

Class

N

Mean

Gender

N

Mean

Hacettepe U.

26

4.66

Freshman

76

4.63

Male

73

4.62

Gazi U.

64

4.64

Senior

46

4.69

Female

49

4.71

Ankara U.

32

4.66

The averages of the opinions of physical education teacher candidates concerning the professional codes of ethics based on their genders have been provided in Table 4. As seen in Table 4, a noteworthy difference was observed in three items as a result of the unrelated t test conducted among the averages regarding the opinions of physical education teacher candidates based on their genders, while no significant differences were seen in other items.

Male teacher candidates agreed at the level of ( = 4.61), and female teacher candidates at the level of ( = 4.87) with the principle stating “a physical education teacher must value the opinions of students during the lesson” (C22). There was a significant statistical difference between the averages of the opinions of male and female physical education teacher candidates [ t (120) = 2.15, p<.05]. More female teacher candidates agreed with the principle that a physical education teacher should value the opinions of students during the lesson compared to male teacher candidates.

While male student candidates agreed with the principle stating “a physical education teacher must not allow tests, measurements, or drug testing that would endanger the health of his/her athlete students” (C24) at a level of = 4.75, the level of agreement by female teacher candidates was = 4.93. There was a significant statistical difference between the averages of the opinions of male and female physical education teacher candidates [t (120) = 2.11, p < .05]. More female teacher candidates agreed with the principle that a physical education teacher should not allow tests, measurements, or drug testing that would endanger the health of his/her athlete students, compared to male teacher candidates.

While male teacher candidates agreed with the principle stating “a physical education teacher must not insult his/her students” (C30) at a level of = 4.65, the level of agreement by female teacher candidates was = 4.85. There was a significant statistical difference between the averages of the opinions of male and female physical education teacher candidates [t (120) = 2.04, p < .05]. More female teacher candidates agreed with the principle that a physical education teacher should not insult his/her students, compared to male teacher candidates.

Table 4
Descriptive Statistics on the Opinions of Physical Education Teacher Candidates concerning the Professional Codes of Ethics based on their Genders

Item

No

Gender

Mean

s

t

p

Item

No

Gender

Mean

s

t

P

1

M

4.79

.525

.231

.817

17

M

4.78

.650

.342

.733

F

4.81

.486

F

4.81

.391

2

M

4.24

.909

.255

.799

18

M

4.47

.818

1.48

.141

F

4.20

.889

F

4.67

.625

3

M

4.49

1.04

1.29

.198

19

M

4.65

.767

.738

.462

F

4.24

1.03

F

4.75

.630

4

M

4.68

.664

.847

.399

20

M

4.68

.761

.368

.714

F

4.77

.421

F

4.63

.782

5

M

4.75

.547

.631

.529.

21

M

4.68

.642

.915

.362

F

4.81

.527

F

4.79

.676

6

M

4.71

.588

1.11

.266

22

M

4.61

.810

2.15

.033*

F

4.83

.624

F

4.87

.525

7

M

4.61

.637

.521

.603

23

M

4.71

.676

1.117

2.66

F

4.55

.737

F

4.83

.472

8

M

4.68

.598

.471

.639

24

M

4.75

.640

2.11

.037*

F

4.73

.531

F

4.93

.316

9

M

4.71

.513

.518

.605

25

M

4.65

.730

1.92

.056

F

4.65

.751

F

4.85

.408

10

M

4.82

.419

.299

.766

26

M

4.42

.848

1.23

.219

F

4.79

.539

F

4.59

.642

11

M

4.46

.958

1.43

.128

27

M

4.78

.583

.052

.959

F

4.69

.683

F

4.77

.510

12

M

4.45

.972

1.93

.055

28

M

4.57

.797

1.59

.113

F

4.73

.638

F

4.77

.586

13

M

4.41

.796

.861

.391

29

M

4.46

.851

1.28

.203

F

4.53

.680

F

4.65

.693

14

M

4.50

.728

.673

.502.

30

M

4.65

.671

2.04

.044*

F

4.59

.609

F

4.85

.408

15

M

4.39

.701

1.76

.097

31

M

4.76

.589

.295

.769

F

4.59

.574

F

4.73

.604

16

M

4.67

.727

1.36

.173

32

M

4.78

.671

.045

.964

F

4.81

.441

F

4.77

.586

df = 120 NMale = 73 NFemale = 49 N = 122 P* < .05

The averages regarding the opinions of physical education teacher candidates concerning the professional codes of ethics based on their classes have been given in Table 5. As seen in Table 5, a noteworthy difference was observed in three items as a result of the unrelated t test conducted among the averages regarding the opinions of physical education teacher candidates based on their classes, while no significant differences were seen in other items.

While freshman students agreed with the principle stating “a physical education teacher must take in consideration the mental, emotional, and social developments of students into consideration along with their physical skills while evaluating their success” (C1) at a level of ( = 4.73), the level of agreement by senior students was ( = 4.91). There was a significant statistical difference between the averages of the opinions of physical education teacher candidates in freshman and senior classes [t (120) = 2.09, p < .05]. More teacher candidates in senior classes agreed with the principle that a physical education teacher should take in consideration the mental, emotional, and social developments of students into consideration along with their physical skills while evaluating their success, compared to those in freshman classes.

While freshman students agreed with the principle stating “a physical education teacher must evaluate the success of students objectively” (C16) at a level of ( = 4.64), the level of agreement by senior students was ( = 4.86). There was a significant statistical difference between the averages of the opinions of physical education teacher candidates in freshman and senior classes [ t (120) = 2.27, p < .05]. More teacher candidates in senior classes agreed with the principle that a physical education teacher should evaluate the success of students objectively, compared to those in freshman classes.

While freshman students agreed with the principle stating “a physical education teacher must attach more importance on the health and security of his/her students than sportive success” (C18) at a level of ( = 4.46), the level of agreement by senior students was ( = 4.71) There was a significant statistical difference between the averages of the opinions of physical education teacher candidates in freshman and senior classes [ t (120) = 2.09, p < .05]. More teacher candidates in senior classes agreed with the principle that a physical education teacher should attach more importance on the health and security of his/her students than sportive success, compared to those in freshman classes.

Table 5
Descriptive Statistics on the Opinions of Physical Education Teacher Candidates concerning the Professional Codes of Ethics based on their Classes

Item

No

Class

Mean

s

t

p

Item

No

Class

Mean

s

t

p

1

Freshman

4.73

.574

2.09

.038*

17

Freshman

4.80

.632

.191

.849

Senior

4.91

.354

Senior

4.78

.417

2

Freshman

4.22

.946

.092

.927

18

Freshman

4.46

.855

2.09

.039*

Senior

4.23

.821

Senior

4.71

.501

3

Freshman

4.35

1.11

.519

.605

19

Freshman

4.73

.660

.796

.428

Senior

4.45

.911

Senior

4.63

.798

4

Freshman

4.71

.649

.264

.793

20

Freshman

4.59

.911

1.57

.119

Senior

4.73

.443

Senior

4.78

.417

5

Freshman

4.76

.585

.408

.684

21

Freshman

4.69

.748

.694

.489

Senior

4.80

.453

Senior

4.78

.467

6

Freshman

4.77

.665

.328

.743

22

Freshman

4.71

.745

.212

.832

Senior

4.73

.419

Senior

4.73

.681

7

Freshman

4.63

.689

.867

.388

23

Freshman

4.71

.689

1.36

.174

Senior

4.52

.657

Senior

4.84

.419

8

Freshman

4.67

.640

.924

.357

24

Freshman

4.77

.623

1.54

.125

Senior

4.76

.431

Senior

4.91

.354

9

Freshman

4.68

.657

.099

.921

25

Freshman

4.71

.708

.614

.541

Senior

4.69

.552

Senior

4.78

.467

10

Freshman

4.77

.531

1.18

.240

26

Freshman

4.46

.870

.572

.568

Senior

4.86

.340

Senior

4.54

.585

11

Freshman

4.56

.884

.138

.891

27

Freshman

4.73

.640

1.22

.224

Senior

4.54

.853

Senior

4.84

.363

12

Freshman

4.51

.901

.862

.390

28

Freshman

4.61

.815

.730

.467

Senior

4.65

.749

Senior

4.71

.544

13

Freshman

4.40

.751

.966

.336

29

Freshman

4.61

.815

1.39

.167

Senior

4.54

.751

Senior

4.41

.747

14

Freshman

4.53

.738

.031

.975

30

Freshman

4.75

.535

.297

.767

Senior

4.54

.585

Senior

4.71

.501

15

Freshman

4.39

.713

1.88

.063

31

Freshman

4.78

.617

.845

.400

Senior

4.60

.536

Senior

4.69

.552

16

Freshman

4.64

.743

2.27

.025*

32

Freshman

4.78

.717

.240

.811

Senior

4.86

.340

Senior

4.76

.480

df = 120 N Freshman = 76 N Senior = 46 N = 122 P* < .05

The averages regarding the opinions of the physical education teacher candidates based on their schools have been given in Chart 7. As seen in Chart 7, a noteworthy difference was observed in two items as a result of the unilateral variance analysis conducted among the averages regarding the opinions of physical education teacher candidates based on their schools, while no significant differences were seen in other items.

A difference of .05, which was worth noting, was found among the averages as a result of the variance analysis conducted on the averages of the points concerning agreement levels with the principle stating “a physical education teacher must not display an action based on violence towards his/her students” (C6) [F (2, 119) = 3.11, p < .05]. As a result of the LSD test, which was applied in order to find the group that created the difference, a significant difference was observed between the opinions of Hacettepe University and Gazi University students. While the students of Hacettepe University agreed with the principle stating “a physical education teacher must not display an action based on violence towards his/her students” (C6) at a level of = 4.96, those of Gazi University stated that they agreed with this principle at a level of = 4.64.

A difference of .05, which was worth noting, was found among the averages as a result of the variance analysis conducted on the averages of the points concerning agreement levels with the principle stating “a physical education teacher must reward proper behavior of students” (C15) [F (2, 119) = 5.51, p < .05]. As a result of the LSD test, which was applied in order to find the group that created the difference, a significant difference was observed between the opinions of Ankara University students and Hacettepe University and Gazi University students. While the students of Ankara University agreed with the principle stating “a physical education teacher must reward proper behavior of students” (C15) at a level of ( = 4.15), those of Hacettepe university and Gazi University stated that they agreed with this principle at levels of ( = 4.61) and ( = 4.57), respectively.

Table 6
Descriptive Statistics on the Opinions of Physical Education Teacher Candidates concerning the Professional Codes of Ethics based on their Schools

Item

No

School Averages

F

P

Item

No

School Averages

F

P

1

2

3

1

2

3

1

4.76

4.82

4.78

.162

.850

17

4.73

4.84

4.75

.514

.600

2

4.26

4.14

4.37

.756

.472

18

4.61

4.57

4.46

.322

.725

3

4.26

4.40

4.46

.270

.764

19

4.69

4.70

4.68

.006

.994

4

4.73

4.71

4.71

.004

.996

20

4.53

4.67

4.75

.548

.579

5

4.76

4.78

4.78

.005

.995

21

4.80

4.70

4.71

.238

.789

6

4.96

4.64

4.84

3.11

.048*

22

4.92

4.60

4.78

1.94

.148

7

4.53

4.59

4.62

.117

.889

23

4.69

4.73

4.87

.798

.453

8

4.69

4.68

4.75

.134

.875

24

4.80

4.82

4.84

.031

.969

9

4.65

4.70

4.68

.058

.944

25

4.73

4.70

4.81

.323

.725

10

4.80

4.79

4.84

.106

.900

26

4.46

4.56

4.37

.647

.525

11

4.65

4.50

4.59

.329

.721

27

4.69

4.82

4.75

.612

.54

12

4.62

4.50

4.65

.401

.670

28

4.69

4.65

4.62

.061

.941

13

4.50

4.39

4.56

.603

.549

29

4.61

4.56

4.43

.405

.668

14

4.57

4.53

4.53

.045

.956

30

4.73

4.70

4.81

.379

.692

15

4.61

4.57

4.15

5.51

.005*

31

4.76

4.78

4.68

.274

.761

16

4.65

4.71

4.81

.470

.626

32

4.84

4.78

4.71

.285

.753

df (Between groups: 2, Within groups: 119, Total: 121) P* < .05
N1 = 26 N2 = 64 N3 = 32 N = 122
1 = Hacettepe University 2 = Gazi University 3 = Ankara University.

Discussion and Conclusion

According to the results of the survey, it was determined that physical education teacher candidates in different universities fully agreed with the professional codes of ethics for physical education teachers based on school, gender, and class averages. However, it was observed that they thought differently in some codes of ethics according to these variables.

More female teacher candidates agreed with the principles that a physical education teacher should value the opinions of students during the lesson and should not insult his/her students, compared to male teacher candidates. Again, female teacher candidates agree with the principle that a physical education teacher should not allow tests, measurements, or drug testing that would endanger the health of his/her athlete students, more than male teacher candidates. It may be said that the female teacher candidates approached their students with more tolerance and compassion. Training applications that would ensure that the male teacher candidates think as the female teacher candidates should be included during pre-service education.

Teacher candidates in senior classes agreed with the principles that a physical education teacher should take the mental, emotional, and social developments of students into consideration along with their physical skills while evaluating their success, and that s/he should evaluate the success of students objectively, more than those in freshman classes. In addition, more teacher candidates in senior classes agreed with the principle that a physical education teacher should attach more importance to the health and security of his/her students than sportive success, compared to those in freshman classes. According to this result, it is possible to say that the physical education teacher training program has resulted in positive changes in the opinions of teacher candidates.

The teacher candidates in Hacettepe University agreed with the principle that a physical education teacher should not display an action based on violence towards his/her students, more than those in Gazi University. Applications of these findings would ensure that the teacher candidates in Gazi University become more sensitive with regard to application of violence towards students.

The teacher candidates in Gazi and Hacettepe Universities agreed with the principle that a physical education teacher should reward proper behavior of students, more than those in Ankara University. Activities that would strengthen the knowledge of teacher candidates in Ankara University that rewards constitute an important and useful instrument in education.

The fact that a difference exists among the opinions of physical education teacher candidates concerning some codes of ethics makes us think that training programs for physical education teachers are not effective enough in ensuring that students acquire behaviors related to professional codes of ethics. Physical education teacher candidates are expected to be more sensitive about the professional codes of ethics. Techniques such as case study analysis and role playing may be used in order to provide higher quality training on professional codes of ethics.

It is known that theoretical and practical information concerning ethical dilemmas are increasing and solutions and recommendations for ethical problems are becoming more successful in the formal education received by teacher candidates (Bergem, 1993). Therefore, more efficient ethical training must be included in pre-service education (Fain & Gillespie, 1990; Priest, Krause & Becah, 1999). Some problems may be encountered in applying ethical principles. It is always possible for a teacher to find himself/herself in an ethical dilemma and experience conflicts with the roles s/he has undertaken. In this context, ethical behavior is a hard job. This difficulty will be alleviated if teachers acquire the characteristics that constitute ethical conduct, such as doing the right thing and being fair, honest, and helpful, during the pre-service education (Frank, 1996; Oser & Althof, 1993).

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   Author’s note:

Correspondence for this article can be sent by email to oozbek@sports.ankara.edu.tr, by telephone at: +90-312- 221-16-01 or by fax: +90-312-212-29-86;


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