The developmental policy aims at achieving the balanced growth in the different fields of development programs. Any retardation in these programs will heavily influence the growth of the other fields. Such balanced growth can be accomplished through creating waves of private investments in a number of various projects all at once so as to realize advancement in these fields (16).

We have to be absolutely certain that the individual does not move forward to invest unless s/he expects to make inviting earnings to the extent that it enables them to make the decision to invest. In other words, the investor is not convinced to invest unless it is anticipated to make much more profit than other alternative earnings that could be made if capital is directed to other uses (10).

The marketing position has acquired more importance and noticeable improvement in the essential efforts that aim at identifying the consumers’ needs and desires and translating these needs into a group of goods and services. These should be provided with the required quality and quantity, the prices appropriate for the nature of goods and services, and, further, appropriate for the consumer’s income. Every possible way of distribution should be exploited so that our products will reach the consumer. It is not only a matter of marketing, but of producing what is desired in the market.

Within the framework of this advanced marketing view, which is realized by the variety of investment directions whereas the profit made takes into account the variety of growth orientations, the sports field and all its activities cannot be ignored, owing to the fact that they provide the opportunity for producing diverse goods represented by contests as well as diverse services. For this reason, the sports activity has been introduced to be one of the economic investment fields, because it has been enormously increased during the late period of the 20th century because of the remarkable advancement in the sports information media.

The paramount importance of the crucial role played by the media in promoting sports in society is attributed to the characteristics and criteria such means of communication have. The media is diversified, since it works through the reading forms as well as through the visual aids, and can reach every corner of the world with suitable and effective manner. Consequently, the individual enjoys what is displayed in front of her/him (15).

The Study Problem

The use of scientific methods and the latest technological tools in administration and the different training fields in the sports sectors has been effective in increasing the levels of competitions concerning both the individual level as well as the communal one. Furthermore, this issue has contributed to spreading the professionalism phenomenon, the value of preparing champions, and maintaining their level.

This has caused a regular expansion of expenses and so it is important to search for diverse means of financial backing necessary for warranting the expected revenues that could accelerate the development of this field. To face this problem, many sports corporations, organizations, associations and clubs appoint special committees to examine the possibility of developing available resources and to investigate sports marketing as a means of supporting sports practices at all levels.

Within the functional responsibility’s framework of the researcher in the sports education field, her varied participation in numerous technical committees related to the official authorities responsible for the sports field in Bahrain; and besides her witnessing the voluntary activities in the field, she is capable of coming close to, researching, studying and examining the sports activity in actuality.

This requires organized efforts to accomplish many strategic goals to realize the constant promotion and enable the local contests’ levels and the championship field to enter the twenty first century. The researcher believes that the possibility of attaining the required development will not present itself unless we use scientific administration and take advantage of the earlier attempts at realizing the development we seek taking into consideration our local circumstances and abilities. It is also necessary that the continuous financing of these activities be provided, which cannot be supplied presently because of the State’s limited abilities and because we cannot keep waiting for a financial support from this party or that. It is also essential to study the different applications implemented throughout the world and by the countries seeking to become advanced. Looking around us, we will find that marketing in the Arab world or the gulf region positively contributes to the possibility of financing as well as it works as a motive to promote the standard level so that further success in marketing will be gained. Not only is this related to marketing the sports activities and services for those who regularly go to clubs or playgrounds, but also it has been introduced into coded channels and other means of communication.

As the sports marketing proceeds slowly in the Arab region and Gulf States because it is still in its beginning, it is the duty of researchers to conduct studies in order to identify the actual situation of sports marketing in Bahrain and participate in promoting this field as well.

This very issue has motivated the researcher to choose this topic as a beginning of a series of studies and research to identify the true status of the present sports marketing and to know to what extent the aspects of application and problems’ observations have reached. This is to be illuminated with the obstacles that impeded the process, the main activities that can be taken advantage of in marketing, the priorities of individual and group games and the various services that may help in the success of sports marketing in Bahrain. The purpose of this is to win a good position in the Gulf, Arab and international domains. It is because of the vital importance of this field and all the outcomes will be a good reflection on the Bahraini society.

Significance of the Study:

In the modern period, the sports field has become rich in its functions that it has taken the professional nature such as technicians, directors, experts and professionals. This criterion makes the field an esteemed profession (4).

The importance of research in the sports field is of secondary economic value regarding the individual and the state. Concerning the individual, it improves her/his health and physical abilities, lengthens the productive span and lessens the probability of work injury. For the state, sports increases the citizens efficiency and reduces the rates of remedial and rehabilitation consumption (1). Marketing is considered the main instrument for the economic and social development plan. Thus the state can achieve its goals, which are stepping up productivity, meeting the individual’s needs, increasing the national economy and enabling it to confront the international challenges, and creating new work opportunities that contribute towards raising standard of living (9). Sports is one of the most attractive fields for individuals from the different classes and ages. For this, sports playgrounds are not connected with competitive activities only, but they have become working targets for which individuals, companies and private firms pay for the investment’s sake. This is what actually occurs in various countries, whereas in the Arab countries and specifically Bahrain it is only recently that sports has been considered a subject for marketing studies and research in a limited manner, although it is a social and cultural activity that serves as a means of enjoyment, recreation, health and consumption aspects (5).

The complete development requires being concerned about the sports field. Sports marketing can be a natural way towards fulfilling it. This study is a serious attempt with which it is possible to identify the existent marketing situation of sports activities and services and see the sports scale as a marketing field besides other fields. We can also perceive its returns and economic benefits to the individual and the state besides analyzing the impediments of the private section participation in this field, which has proven to be a great success in many cases. This study also puts forward some proposals about the most important directions, activities and services that can be a productive domain for private capital.

The Study Objectives:


  1. The investors’ opinions about the impediments of sports marketing in Bahrain.
  2. The investors’ opinions about the proposed work spheres of sports marketing in Bahrain.
  3. The investors’ opinions about the most important individual and group games that bring success to sports marketing in Bahrain.

The Study Questions:

To accomplish the study objectives, the researcher formulated research questions about the investors’ points of view to articulate the true sports marketing situation in Bahrain. The study endeavors to answer the following questions:

  1. What are the investors’ views about the sports marketing impediments?
  2. What are the proposed work fields for sports marketing according to the investors’ opinions?
  3. What are the main individual and collective games that are successful in sports marketing according to the investors’ beliefs?

The Study Terminology:

“Marketing is a survey of views and trends that dominate the market so as to direct products and goods to match these views”. (14)


“It includes the organizations and individuals activities that facilitate and meet the communal relationships within a dynamic environment through presenting, distributing, merchandizing and pricing goods, services and ideas”. (10)

Sports Marketing “procedural definition”

It is the exchange of benefits between the investor and the consumer to meet the community needs for sports activities and services within an economic theory. This will achieve financing that will participate in the continuous promotion of the sports field.

“the possession of sources that will spurt out returns or capital profits”. (19)

Previous Studies:

Arab Studies:

  • Helmi Ebrahim (1995) conducted a study presenting generally the problems of financing and the methods of marketing sports in the United States. The study deals with the most important methods in sports financing and marketing. Some of the important problems are endowments, donations, carnivals, lots, charity festival, advertisements and patronage. (7)
  • Sari Ahmed & Suha Adeep (1995) made a study about the marketing methods done through the appropriate activities according to businessmen in Jordan.

This study was made in order to being acknowledged of businessmen’s opinions about preparing, organizing and defining the sports activity level they seek to involve marketing in. Besides, the study was to scope their opinions about the marketing methods in sports activities. (8)

  • Mohammed Ebrahim (1997) made a study evaluating Covered Sports Gymnasiums Block in Cairo Stadium from the sports and economic points of view. The researcher concluded that there was a deficiency in revenues in comparison with expenditures. (11)
  • Ashraf Hussein (1999) conducted a study about the impediments of sports investment in Egypt and approached numerous impediments. (2)

The Foreign Studies:

  • Handerson (1995) studied marketing of the sports recreational activities program for ladies to understand the foundations of the process of this program. (18)
  • Stolor & Bitts (1996) made a study about the foundations of sports marketing in order to conceive the principles of the sports marketing process.
  • Arnold Jay (1997) conducted a study about the sports clubs in colleges and universities to recognize the necessary procedures that should be taken on the part of the responsible directors and specialists of these clubs so as to attract financiers. (12)

The Study Procedures:

The Methodology Used:

The descriptive method is used because it is appropriate for the nature of study and because of its objectivity.

The Study Sample:

The study sample was chosen randomly. The actual number is 30 investors. All of them are Bahraini businessmen who have interests in the sports field. The questionnaire was conducted in January 2000.

Information Gathering Tools:

The researcher used questionnaires of her own design to be filled in by the investors. She followed the following steps in preparing the questionnaire form (Annex 1):

  • The theoretical reading of scientific references and the studies connected with the research.
  • Defining the pivots of the questionnaire. They were as follows:
    1. Impediments concerning the sports policy issue.
    2. Impediments concerning the laws and rules issue.
    3. Impediments concerning awareness of the sports marketing importance.
    4. Impediment concerning technical and administrative aspects.


  • The investors’ proposals for some suggested work opportunities of sports marketing in Bahrain.
  • The investors’ proposals for some individual and group games that can be successful in sports marketing.

All these pivots were brought before the experts, who were 10 professionals in management. It was provided that these people were university instructors and Ph.D. holders, besides their experience in the investment field and sports concerns. The experts agreed upon these pivots after combining some phrases, shortening a number of them and deleting others. The researcher removed some phrases graded less than 70% of the experts’ support. Therefore, the final form is as follows:

Point (issue)
of phrases
The sports policy in Bahrain The laws and rules organizing the activity Awareness of the sports marketing importance Technical and administrative aspects

The researcher specified a particular space at the end of the form for the sportsmen and investors’ proposals about the work opportunities and the important individual and group games that can be befitting in sports marketing.

Scientific Correlation of the Questionnaire form:

  1. Validity
    Content Validity
    The researcher applied content validity by bringing the questionnaire form – during preparation and before application in the final form- before a number of specialized experts (Judges Validity) in the investment field. They are ten experts.
  2. Reliability:
    The reliability of the questionnaire form was calculated by performing the test and retaking it for the second time after an interval of 10 days. It was conducted on an exploratory study sample represented by 10 businessmen investors, who were chosen randomly.

The correlation coefficients of the performances is (0.80 – 1), which indicates its reliability as its manifested in Table (1).

The Study Implementation:

The researcher carried out the questionnaire form by giving it to the study sample members after verifying its validity and reliability in the period 13-17 January 2000. The researcher used the statistical processes appropriate for this kind of study.

The Results Presentation & Analysis

The Results Demonstration:

Table (1):
The correlation coefficients of the two applications of the exploratory study sample we infer from Table (1) that the correlation coefficients of the two applications is (0.80 – 1), which indicates its

Table (2):
The proportional Importance of the investors’ opinions about the impediments of sports marketing in Bahrain regarding the
Bahraini sports policy It is inferred from Table (2) that the percentage of the investors’ opinions about the sports policy impediments in Bahrain is (86.66% – 93.33%).

Table (3):
The proportional Importance of the investors’ opinions about the impediments of sports marketing in Bahrain regarding the laws organizing the sports activity in Bahrain It is inferred from Table (3) that the percentage of the investors’ opinions about the impediments of the laws organizing the sports activity in Bahrain is (82.22% – 91.11%).

Table (4):
The proportional Importance of the investors’ opinions about the impediments of sports marketing in Bahrain regarding awareness of the sports marketing value in Bahrain. It is inferred from Table (4) that the percentage of the investors’
opinions about the impediments of awareness of the sports marketing value in Bahrain is (80% – 92.22%).

Table (5):
The proportional Importance of the investors’ opinions about the impediments of sports marketing in Bahrain regarding technical and administrative aspects It is inferred from Table (5) that the percentage of the investors’ opinions about the impediments of technical and administrative aspects is (77.77% – 91.11%).

Table (6):
The investors’ proposals for some suggested work opportunities concerning sports marketing in Bahrain It is clear from Table (6) that the percentage of the main investors’ suggestions in sports marketing is (53.33% – 90%).

Table (7):
The investors’ proposals for some individual and group games that can be appropriate for sports marketing. It is manifested from Table (7) that the percentage of the main investors’ proposals for some individual and group games that can be appropriate for sports marketing is (50% – 80%)

The Results Analysis

The Investors’ opinions about the sports policy issue:
It is inferred from Table
that the percentage of phrases is (86.66% – 93.33%). These obstacles are ranked in a descending order according to their percentage as follows:

  • The national sports level does not encourage to invest in the sports marketing field 93.33%
  • Giving no attention to the sports field unlike the case with the other economic fields 92.22%
  • Financing the sports activities does not accomplish the State’s policy in development 92.22%
  • The marketing plans at the national level did not include a scheme for sports marketing 88.90%
  • The State does not have future prospects for increasing investment rates in sports marketing 86.66%

It is clearly manifested that the national sports’ level does not encourage investing in the sports marketing field, unlike the other fields. Besides, financing sports activities by different sources does not contribute to the sports field development and consequently sports marketing. Furthermore, there are no specific official plans to increase the investment rates through sports marketing. The sports widespread throughout the world has become a burden to the administrative authorities and organizations in order to raise the sports standard of performance so that it will meet the spectators’ needs and desires, who are not satisfied with the local situation in comparison with what they see, read, or hear about other countries.

The Investors’ opinions about the laws organizing the sports activity:
As it is manifested in Table
, the phrases gained a percentage of (82.22% – 91.11%), which indicates that they express the investors’ opinions about the impediments connected with laws and rules. They are ranked in a descending order as follows:

  • There are no laws or rules organizing work in the sports marketing field 91.11%
  • The laws organizing customs exemption do not encourage investment in the sports field 88.90%
  • There are no State’s economic laws that encourage financiers to invest in sports marketing 88.90%
  • There is no official authority responsible for offering its services for work in sports marketing 85.55%
  • Certain impediments (bureaucracy) face investors when investing in sports marketing 82.22%

Thus, it is obvious that the impediments facing the investors and connected with the laws organizing the sports activity are the absence of those laws that organize work in sports marketing and those ones organizing customs exemption. Moreover, there are no State’s economic laws that encourage involvement in marketing, which articulates the passive role of the authorities that does not conform to that role of sports in a developing community. One of the impediments also is the absence of an official body responsible for offering services in sports marketing whether in the Public Institution for Youths & Sports or official corporations, which prevents investors from entering the sports marketing field besides the other obstacles that face them such as not protecting the investor and the absence of clear contracts between dealers in marketing.

Mahmood Ebrahim (11) agreed with this when he emphasized the necessity of a creating balance among the different marketing aspects taking into consideration that sports marketing and services should be in compliance with the financial laws and the public order. Sports marketing can not be activated unless there is a complete coordination with the responsible official bodies.

The above phrases are also supported by Stolor Bitts (13), who placed a heavy emphasis on the importance of knowing the principles that sports marketing is based on and that sports has become an industrialized field based on powerful economic pillars, not a mere individual activity.

Ashraf Mahmood (2) stated that there was not any official body specialized in sports marketing. He also articulated the difficulty in having financial support for sports projects.

The Investors’ opinions about awareness of sports marketing usefulness:
It is clear from Table (4) that the impediments ranked in a descending order are as follows:

  • The investor is not convinced of sports marketing as an activity given priority 92.22%
  • Investors are not convinced that sports marketing is a source of income 86.66%
  • The officials in sports organizations do not encourage working in sports marketing. 86.66%
  • Conviction that sports marketing is done by organizations and companies for its high cost 84.44%
  • Investors do not have a plenty number of sports activities and services to be used in marketing 80%

The general investors’ opinion that does not welcome marketing in sports field and does not appreciate the importance of sports in developing the individual and society and increasing work opportunities. So, sports marketing depends on the officials’ and investors’ conviction of working in such a field. Endorsing this, Jane Adams (17) articulates in his study the extent of sports marketing significance in improving the sports standard performance in Britain and increasing thousands of work opportunities.

Success in marketing depends entirely on the degree of the individual’s and corporations’ awareness of sports value concerning the individual’s lifestyle, the mass engagement in many games, and attracting investors to marketing in services, programs and various games.

Studies have demonstrated that profitability and revenues heavily influence the marketing process and so it is important to apply the scientific theories in determining expenditures and the expected revenues. This goes with what Mohammed Ebrahim (11) and Ashraf Mahmood (2) believe in. The latter stressed the importance of studying profit, the existence of specialized centers to gather information to lessen to the minimum the probability of problems taking place during implementation, and understanding the successful attempts taking into account the significance of seeking specialists’ assistance. While agreeing with this, Helmi Ebrahim (7) emphasizes the scarcity of specialists in sports marketing means, the importance of raising the employees and employers standards so that better work in sports marketing is guaranteed. Having shown this, we have answered the first question, which is: What are the investors’ opinions about the impediments of sports marketing?

Investors’ opinions about the technical and administrative aspects:

As Table (5) shows, the investors’ opinions about the impediments connected with the technical and administrative aspects are ranked in a descending order as follows:

  • Media coverage of sports events in Bahrain does not contribute to success in sports marketing. 91.11%
  • Financial organizations do not grant investors fiduciary facilities to invest in sports marketing 88.90%
  • The multiplicity of authorities that grant permits, for a lack of coordination 88.89%
  • The standard of work & activities of the main clubs discourages investors from entering the sports marketing field. 86.66%
  • There are no technicians specialized in the economic sector to work in sports marketing 86.66%
  • There is no previous experience in Bahrain concerning sports marketing. 85.55%
  • There is no special centers for making studies about the benefits of sports marketing 80%
  • There is no available data that help making research and studying the benefits of sports marketing in Bahrain. 77.77%
  • It is difficult to determine and realize the amount of profit in the long run 77.77%

It is obvious that the main impediment to marketing in the sports sectors, according to investors, is the absence of media coverage of sports events. This is because not giving media focus causes a difficulty in sports marketing like marketing matches, sports projects, the corporations events, installations and so on. This media deficiency might be attributed to the lack of scientific planing to be used in sports media, improving the means of communicating with the public, and creating integration between the media and comprehensive sports activity plans. This is what both Amima Munir Jado (3) and Jameel Abultayyeb (6) agree with. They mentioned the importance of the mutual understanding and healthy relations between the organization and its outside by means of reliable media so that consistency between the public and the organization will be realized. Sami Alseesi accepts this and adds it is essential that financial organizations grant loans’ facilities so that they will investment instead of hindering it.

One of the obstacles along with the above-mentioned is the multiplicity of authorities that grant permits as a consequence of the lack of coordination and the absence of a specific official body for this kind of investment. Unlike the other kinds of investment, granting permits takes a long time and the investor is faced with complicated administrative procedures because of the dealing difficulties between investors and the responsible sports corporations, which results in hindering marketing in the sports field. Mohammed Ebrahim (11) and Arnold Jay agree with this through placing a heavy emphasis on the importof simplifying the required procedures and that the different authories should have a good coordination. It is also manifested that the standard of work and sports activities does not encourage investors to introduce marketing in this field. What enters the equation also is the deficiency of technicians specialized in the economic sector to work in sports marketing. The lack of those skilled and experienced people in this field results in a scarcity of specialized centers that serves marketing and balance the proportion of benefit, the thing that depends on information-gathering. This difficulty in the availability and accuracy of data concerning sports marketing will cause a difficulty in defining the cost and revenue of any possible project, which, in its turn, will result in a trouble commanding or controlling prices or realizing them in the long term only.

The investors’ proposals for some work opportunities concerning sports marketing in Bahrain:
As it is shown in Table
, there is a number of work opportunities that have gained high percentages according to the investors’ view. The local and international championships got a less percentage maybe because of the weak technical standard and the absence of sufficient media coverage. Furthermore, the financial support on the part of the State of these championships do not help in a remarkable sports preparation and cannot introduce the limited local abilities to the international arena. For sports marketing to succeed, there must be capable and active media coverage that follows every sports event. Moreover, scientific methods must be used in administration by having fully awareand experienced persons as leaders in such activities. This is besides an actual participation on the part of economists. There should be organizing objectives, financial sources and administrative skills to determine the levels of competition, leading the training issue and selecting players so as to give fresh impetus to the marketing process regarding the local and international championships. Handerson (18), while agreeing with this, made it clear that the marketing process should bring into existence those services that specify the amount of profitability that individuals make. Stolor and Bitts (13) stress the importance of the sports marketing process as a comprehensive field.

Having covered this issue, we have answered the second question, which is: What are the investors’ proposals for some suggested work opportunities concerning sports marketing in Bahrain?

The investors’ proposals for some individual and group games that can be appropriate for sports marketing:
Table (7) shows that the weight percentage is (50% – 80%). By ranking it in a descending order, it will be as follows:

  1. Football 80% 3- Volleyball 66.66%
  2. Horse racing 70% 4- Track & field events 50%

Football obtained a high percentage because of its popularity followed by horse racing, volleyball and track & field. The other individual and group games did not obtain a high percentage in sports marketing. The investors think that football is an inestment field of 80% value while horse racing obtained 70%. The other individual and group games got low percentages due to the fact that they are not that popular. Since the Bahriani community is multinational, sports interests differ from one game to another. This is attributed to the weak technical and administrative aspects, the unsound financial support of clubs, and the insufficient media coverage of such games. We have to exploit the events that are more affective and popular. We should also seek to find the consumer and meet her/his needs in sports marketing by presenting the excellent standard. Having achieved this, sports events and sectors will be closely connected with economics and development. We should also open the door to researchers to benefit from this field and enrich it with their research efforts in order that the process required will take off sports marketing among the Arab countries in general and the Gulf States and Bahrain in particular.

Sari Ahmed (8) agrees with this and adds that the sports marketing process is connected with the level of championships and the performance level of players, teams and clubs. The investors’ opinions are limited to four games that procure success in sports marketing of a percentage of 80% to 50%. They all agreed that football is one of the most successful games among the individual and group ones. This is in accord with Sari Ahmed and Maha Adeep (8), who said that the most efficient activity in sports marketing was football, while the least one was gymnastics.

Thus, we have answered the third question, which is: What are the investors’ views about some individual and group games that can be successful in sports marketing?


In the light of the research results, the sample opinions, the tools used and the objectives of the study, the researcher could reach the following conclusions:

There are a number of impediments that hinder work in sports marketing from the points of view of the investors centering around the following issues or pivots:

  1. The sports policy aspect:
    This aspect focuses on the absence of concerns about the sports field, deficiency in financing and the absence of a long-term policy. This is besides the fact that the sports level does not assure investment and there are no future prospects for investment in this field.
  2. The laws & rules issue:
    This is summarized in the unavailability of laws and rules that organize work in sports marketing, the nonexistence of a specific official body and bureaucracy that faces investors.
  3. Awareness of sports marketing importance:
    This centers on the unawareness on the part of sportsmen, the investors’ uncertainty of sports marketing value, not popularity of sports and the withdrawal of responsible authorities.
  4. The technical and administrative aspect:
    This aspect is summed up as the lack of media coverage of sports events, the weakness of the technical standard, a deficiency of experienced sports management, the weak standard of clubs, the absence of specialized centers in studying and conducting research, and the unavailability of information.
  5. Some suggested work opportunities concerning sports marketing concentrated on commercial markets, marketing sports equipment and hiring out playgrounds.
  6. Concerning the order of the main games that are useful in marketing, football is ranked the first because of its popularity and media coverage of this game like in satellite channels and other means, which had an effect on its being selected as the first. Following football are horse racing, volleyball and track & field.


  1. Calling
    for a national conference at the state level whose participants
    include officials, sports-people, investors and media officials
    so as to discuss the present sports position, how to develop
    it, and the role of sports marketing in improving it. It
    must be taken into account the others’ experience in this
    field and that this study is to be the pivot that the whole
    discussion rotates about.
  2. The official bodies in the state should sketch a national
    strategy for the sports events taking place in sports associations,
    companies and school. This strategy should give more attention
    to young and novice people, expanding the practice opportunities
    and local or international competitions, and a good coordination
    with the tourist strip and investors in order to exploit
    tourist advantages in establishing festivals and competitions.
  3. Conducting
    a thorough review of those organizing laws and rules ithe sports strip, besides the manner by which we could better invest in the marketing field in a sense that it goes along with the progress required in this field.
  4. Giving more importance to preparing those people who have abilities, those can shoulder the burdens of functional and voluntary work in the sports strip as well as sports marketing and taking advantage of previous experiences conducted by those countries who are the pioneers in this field.
  5. Reexamining the role of the media, the techniques of supporting the sports process and presenting it in a way that it serves investors in sports marketing and benefits the sports strip.
  6. Considerable concern for what has been studied in sports marketing, for those games that are prioritized and for popular competitions and sports festivals.


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  2. Ashraf Mahmood Hussein: The Impediments of Sports Investment in Egypt, doctorate, unpublished, Physical Education (Boys), Halwan University. 1996.
  3. Amima Munir Jado: Educational Programs, published by Dar Alma’arif, Read series, Cairo 1989.
  4. Ameen Alkhawli: Sports & Society, The National Council for Culture, Arts & Literatures. The World Knowledge series, issue 216, Kuwait, December 1996.
  5. UNESCO: Sports, its Political, Social & Educational Manifestations, translated by Abdulhamid Salama, the Arab Publisher of Books, Tripoli, 1986.
  6. Jameel Abultayyeb: The Arab Sports Association, Secretariat-General, the fifth session for organization and management, Rabat, Morocco, 1987.
  7. Helmi Ebrahim: A General Presentation of Sports Financing & Marketing in USA, the scientific conference ” Human Development & Sports Economy”, College of Physical Education (Boys), Halwan University, 1995.
  8. Sari Hamdan & Maha Adeep Marketing Methods Concerning Sports Activities according to Jordanian Businessmen, the scientific conference ” Human Development & Sports Economy”, College of Physical Education (Boys), Halwan University, 1995.
  9. Sami Alseesi The Effect of Economic Liberation on Investing the Egyptian Agricultural Field, doctorate, unpublished, College of Agriculture, University of Cairo, 1998.
  10. Mohammed Ebrahim: An Evaluating Study of the Covered Sports Gymnasiums Block in Cairo Stadium from the Sports and Economic Points of View, master’s thesis, unpublished, Physical Education for Boys, Halwan University, 1997.
  11. Arnold Jay: Clubs Sports in Colleges & Universities, for Sport and Physical Education was Hington, USA, 1997.
  12. Bitts, B. G: Stolor, D. K Fundamentals of Sports Marketing, Fitness in formation technology, Inc, Mor Go town, 1996.
  13. Bonnie, Park House: The Management of Sport Foundation & Application, Mosbey, 1994.
  14. George Azeushi: On Criteria for Assessing an Information Theory, Puter Journal, vol., 28, July 1985, p. 75.
  15. G. W. P. K. K. OG Zattan: Marketing Management, New York, 1987, p.67.
  16. Jane Adams: Sport Sponsorship in Britain, the Institute of Sports Sponsorship, Nov 1997.
  17. Handerson, K. A: Marketing Recreation & Physical Activity Program of Females, Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, Aug 1995.
  18. HORNE V: Financial Market Rate & Flows, Cprantic Hall, Inc, 1987.
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