A Comparison Study of the Perceptions of Athletic Administrators towards Gender Equity in the CCCU and NCCCU Schools

Authors: Martha L. Marra

Affiliations: Cornerstone University

Corresponding Author:
Martha L. Marra
Cornerstone University
4627 Ramswood Dr. NE.
Grand Rapids, MI

Dr. Marty Marra is an Associate Professor of Kinesiology at Cornerstone University in Grand Rapids, MI. Dr. Marra has been involved in education for nearly 30 years and continues to research and study in the areas of professionalism, content standards and current trends in Physical Education and Health.

Contributing Author:
Dr. Fred Cromartie
One Academy Drive
Daphne, AL 36526

The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the perceptions of intercollegiate athletic administrators regarding full compliance to Title IX in athletics through a gender equity survey. The study included 230 higher educational institutions which were represented by 115 Council for Christian Colleges & Universities (CCCU) schools and 115 non CCCU (NCCCU) schools. The study identified perceived levels of compliance in the areas of provisions, policies and procedures and perceived barriers that would inhibit full compliance to Title IX. Responses were analyzed by the researcher from the answers provided from respondents on the survey regarding their perceptions of Title IX compliance. The participants’ responses to specific questions about provisions and the perceived barriers to compliance in their respective athletic programs were scored on a Likert Scale. Perceptions of policies and procedures were scored using dichotomous questions of ‘yes,’ ‘no,’ and ‘no answer’ responses. Athletic administrators were classified in the study as members of the CCCU and those who were not members NCCCU but who were from similar, faith-based, institutions.

Keywords: Barriers to compliance, CCCU, faith-based non-CCCU, policies and procedures, provisions