Profiling the Mental Characteristics of Sub-Elite Marathon Runners

Submitted by J.E. Coumbe-Lilley1PhD*, K.L Hamstra-Wright. & A. Weidner.

1* Sport Studies, Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago

There has been considerable increase in the number of participants running marathons between 1990 and 2014 with the majority of runners between 23-54 years of age (Running USA, 2015). With the increase in the number of people and the range of abilities running marathons, it is important to the field of sport psychology to understand the preparatory, performance, and recovery needs of this group of athletes. The primary purpose of our institutional review board approved study was to describe the psychological skills profile of sub-elite marathon competitors to understand the important mental qualities leading runners to complete a marathon. The secondary purpose was to draw conclusions for future applied sport psychology intervention research.

Healthy adults participating in an 18-week marathon training program were recruited for the study (N=125; 30M, 95F; 20-70 years of age). Participants received electronic surveys at four time points corresponding with the training program: pre-training, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and post-training. Participants completed the nine mental skills survey (9MS) (Lesyk, 1998). The 9MS uses 30 items, rated 1-10 with three subscales: Basic (attitude; motivation; goals and commitment; people skills), Preparatory (self-talk; mental imagery), and Performance (dealing with anxiety; dealing with emotions; concentration).

After exclusion of incomplete surveys, 43 (9M, 34F) surveys were analyzed. An analysis of the mean response for the 9MS subscales across each training time point was conducted via t-tests (p<0.05) The results of the analysis demonstrated attitude and goals commitment strengthened from week 6 to week 12. Perceived ability to cope with anxiety and manage emotions decreased from pre-training through post-training. Motivation, self-talk, and imagery were inconsistently rated over time.

Key Words: sub-elite, marathon, profiling, mental skills, pain, coping

2015-07-24T14:03:23-05:00June 9th, 2015|Contemporary Sports Issues|Comments Off on Profiling the Mental Characteristics of Sub-Elite Marathon Runners

The Experience of Media and Race in the National Football League – An Existential Phenomenological Study

Submitted by David D. Biber 1*, Jocelyn A. Fisher2*, Daniel R. Czech3*, Rebecca Zakrajsek4*, Noah Gentner5*, Trey Burdette6*, Jonathan Metzler7*, Kimberly Coleman8*, Willie Burden9*, & Terrence A. Jordan II10*

1* David D. Biber, Georgia State University, Department of Kinesiology and Health, Atlanta, GA 30303


With over 67% of the current NFL population of African American descent (Lapchick, Costa, Sherrod, & Anjorin, 2012), there is a disparity between sport reporters, with 79% of the radio and television announcers being White and 7% being Black (Lapchick, &, Sherrod, 2011). This study examined the interactions between African American NFL players and veteran NFL reporters from a phenomenological perspective. While using one open-ended question for each population, the data were transcribed and analyzed, and main themes were identified. The players revealed themes of: (1) the players’ view of how media coverage affects the NFL players, (2) the players’ perceptions of media personnel, and (3) the athletes’ perception of black quarterbacks. The analysis of the veteran sport reporters’ interviews exposed three major themes: (1) perceptions of how the media covers the NFL, (2) interrelationships with NFL players, and (3) playing quarterback in the NFL.

Keywords: NFL, Media, Race, radio, television announcers. NFL reporters (more…)

2016-10-12T15:14:04-05:00June 1st, 2015|Contemporary Sports Issues|Comments Off on The Experience of Media and Race in the National Football League – An Existential Phenomenological Study

Canadian Women’s Hockey: Concerns and Concerns

Submitted by Marianna Catherine Locke1*, George Karlis PhD2*

1*  Marianna Catherine Locke, Ph.D. Student, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario

2* George Karlis, Ph.D, Full Professor, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario


For Canada hockey is not merely a sport, a game, or a pastime, rather it is a way of life that millions of Canadians are absorbed in. Each year hundreds of Canada’s most talented athletes leave Canada to play hockey in the NCAA. The routine loss of these dynamic individuals not only effects Canadian women’s hockey, but more significantly it impacts Canadian society. The paper provides the current state of condition of the mass exodus of Canadian women’s hockey players to the NCAA while also addressing concerns and challenges. Roughly 400 Canadian women’s hockey players currently play in the NCAA (The Canadian Press, August 21, 2014). The concern is that this number will continue to grow in the future based on the benefits offered by playing in the NCAA versus the CIS. The challenge will undoubtedly become greater for Canada to maintain its top Canadian women’s hockey players in Canada, not only for the betterment of Canadian hockey but also to help sustain cultural pride through its national winter sport.

Key Words: Canada, Women’s Ice Hockey, NCAA, CIS, Nationalism (more…)

2018-10-25T10:22:23-05:00May 29th, 2015|Contemporary Sports Issues|Comments Off on Canadian Women’s Hockey: Concerns and Concerns

Determinants of NBA Player Salaries

Submitted by Dr. Robert Lyons Jr.1*, Dr. E. Newton Jackson Jr.2*, Dr. Aaron Livingston3*

1* Associate Professor, Sport Management, Queens University of Charlotte, Charlotte, NC

2* Professor, Sport Management, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL

3* Assistant Professor, Sport Management, Hampton University , Hampton, VA


Determining the factors that influence National Basketball Association (NBA) owners to pay players is of great importance in light of financial constraints such as the NBA salary cap. The purpose of this study was to identify the performance variables i.e. scoring, assists, and fouls that significantly contributed to determine a NBA player’s salary. It was hypothesized that scoring performance variables such as points per game; field goal, free throw, and three point percentage would be significant contributors to player salaries. The authors utilized multiple regression to analyze the 2013-2014 salaries of 243 NBA players and their career performance variables. Results indicated that points per game, rebounds, and personal fouls contributed significantly to a player’s salary. Implications of these findings are discussed in this investigation.

Keywords: National Basketball Association, salary cap, player salaries


2018-07-13T08:49:03-05:00May 29th, 2015|Contemporary Sports Issues|Comments Off on Determinants of NBA Player Salaries

Ethical Considerations of Genetic Manipulation in Sport

Submission by Dr. John T. Ehrbar1*

1* Student of doctoral studies in sports management at the United States Sports Academy


New technologies are currently being developed that will enable medical professionals to modify genes for medicinal purposes.  As the process continues to be refined, the emergence of a controversial new use for this technology has ignited some serious debate.  Scientists have submitted that genetic modification could potentially be used as a method of performance enhancement in sport.  There are different schools of thought on this type of performance enhancement, and researchers and theorists have argued the advantages and disadvantages of using such a technology.  These arguments are discussed in the present review.  Though the ethical debate on this matter is in its infancy, a general consensus is that the allowance of genetic modification for the purpose of enhancing performance in sport will most certainly create a new look, along with new concerns, for sport in the future.

Key words: ethics, gene doping, sport, performance, enhancement (more…)

2015-05-28T10:08:23-05:00May 27th, 2015|Contemporary Sports Issues|Comments Off on Ethical Considerations of Genetic Manipulation in Sport