The overall importance placed on an athlete’s academic eligibility can be extremely stressful for both the coach and the student-athlete. In order to compete the athlete must remain academically eligible; thus, various academic support programs have been implemented by athletic departments as a means of maintaining eligibility and ensuring academic progress. Although these programs are vital to assisting student-athletes in accomplishing the goal of academic success, the question remains ‘Are they successful?’ This study found that academic support programs were successful as they related to female student-athlete’s overall GPA. Yet, male student-athletes were not as successful. In fact, a significant difference was found between intercollegiate sports teams and overall GPA; interestingly, all of the female sports teams had significantly higher GPAs than did their male counterparts. It appears that academic support programs are not a ‘one size fits all;' male student-athletes may need a different type of program in order to achieve academic success. A standard format for study hall may not be an appropriate method for helping today’s athlete to ‘make the grade’.
Controversy continues to surround college football bowl games, especially when official championship events became the norm in professionals sports, college sports, end even college football in the lower division levels. The public demand for a “national championship game” led to the formation what is now called the Bowl Championship Series (BCS). The issue is now more than just of fan popularity, but also legality. There are public officials that believe the fact that undefeated teams from smaller universities continue to be excluded from the BCS title game, makes it a violation of the letter, if not the spirit, of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and that make advertising the BCS Championship Game as a “National Championship” is actually false advertising. The author, who has an educational background that specializes in college football bowl games, attempts to create a solution that preserves college football’s unique bowl tradition and resolves the legal and ethical issues surrounding the BCS.
This paper has provided a basis to outline some key governance features of professional baseball systems both in Japan and Taiwan. It seeks to highlight and compare with the various forms of interactions between actors in these two systems. Associated with this, the paper undertakes a qualitative content analysis method with reviewing and explaining the dynamics in the interactions among three main actors, namely, state, owners of clubs, and players. Four principal conclusions are as follows: first, this case points to evidence that owners of clubs own dominant power while players’ voices are relatively weak; second, it demonstrates how these two states adopt different attitudes to intervene or non-intervene their domestic professional baseball industry in some respects; third, it identifies the most powerful actors in the two systems are Committee Mediation and Committee Board, which represent the extended power of clubs’ owners; finally, the article suggests that the outcomes of interactions between the above actors have shaped the two sporting contexts for managerial decisions, which have made a contribution to a development of their own operating mechanisms.
Athletic departments have budgets for each team. Included within the athletic department master budget includes an athletic training budget. However, unlike sports programs, the athletic training budget goes not towards its own needs, but the needs of the sports teams. The size of the athletic training budget is proportional to the number of sports and the number of athletes’ athletic trainers’ service. For example, schools with football require more athletic training supplies, time, and people than schools without. The only research conducted that compared the size of the financial resources between athletic training budgets comes from 1992. The research indicated that the range of money available for the care of athletics at the college and high school ranged from $926 to $96. Since then the education of athletic training has changed both athletic training programs and their budgets. New research into the similarities and differences between athletic training budgets is a must.
Jagessar, M. Optimizing development of the pectoralis major. 2009. This article seeks to determine optimum body/hand position and the best exercises for development of the pectoralis major. Gaps in the field of literature are also addressed. Body/hand position, execution, width of grip, trunk inclination, dumbbells and barbells are all variables that affect the prime movers (pectoralis major, anterior deltoid and triceps brachii) of the bench press. Electromyography is a technique used for recording changes in electrical potential of muscle fibres that are associated with their contractions Payton, C. J., Bartlett, R. M. (Eds.) (2008). Electromyographic (EMG) studies are well known for determining muscle activity. Due to the overwhelming contradictory information and various variations of the bench press, EMG studies have been undertaken. The research has shown that the horizontal barbell bench press done with a grip between 165% to 190% biacromial width produces maximum EMG activity in the pectoralis major. The clavicular (upper) head produces maximum activity in the close grip incline barbell bench press. Dumbbells and barbells can be used interchangeably to overcome training plateaus.
Plyometric exercises increase muscular power and are most effective when designed to complement the specific movements required of the athletic activity. This study compared the effects of modified depth jump plyometric exercises versus a periodized weight training program on the following functional tests: one-legged vertical jump, two-legged vertical jump, 30-meter sprint, standing broad jump, and 1 RM of the seated single leg press. Sixty-four untrained participants (18-28yr) were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: hip depth jump (n = 12), knee depth jump (n = 13), ankle depth jump (n = 13), weight training (n = 13), or a control (n = 13). Experimental groups trained two days a week for 12 weeks. Statistically significant improvements were observed among the plyometric groups for functional tests of power and the weight training group for functional tests of strength and speed. Results indicate that modified plyometric depth jumps offer a greater degree of specificity related to power training in athletes.
The equestrians have played a critical role in the growth and development of the Aiken County economy. The equestrian activities in Aiken, South Carolina, consist of many different events such as polo, horse racing, horse showing, carriage driving, and fox hunting, to name a few. The input-output analysis of the Aiken equestrian industry reveals that its operations have a substantial impact on output, jobs, and income in Aiken County. Like any other industry, the equestrian industry makes a variety of input purchases that translate into flow of funds throughout the local economy. The indirect and induced effects of the equestrian industry work through numerous other sectors within the local economy and contribute to Aiken County’s economic growth and development.
Taiwan’s Chien-Ming Wang pitches for MLB’s Yankees, his performance drawing Taiwanese viewers to telecasts and making him renowned in Taiwan. The theory of planned behavior was employed to investigate why Taiwanese adolescents watch Wang’s televised games. The proposed model was analyzed with LISREL. Path analysis was performed for five hypotheses, namely (a) belief will positively affect attitude toward the act of viewing a game; (b) attitude toward the act will positively influence intention to watch; (c) perceived norm will positively influence intention to watch; (d) perceived behavioral control will positively affect intention to watch; and (e) perceived norm will positively influence attitude toward the act. The adolescents’ behavior was well explained by the theory, the data supporting all hypotheses.
An effort to develop a scale measuring coaches’ unethical behaviors included two phases. In the first, factor and reliability analyses were made of potential survey items meant to gather data from athletes describing coaches’ behavior. In the second, select items were incorporated in a survey randomly administered to 221 male and female taekwondo competitors at a national competition in 2006, for comparison of behaviors by coach gender, age, and education. Behavior was not found to differ significantly by gender (n = 219, t = 1.71, p > .05), age (n = 216, t = 1.13, p > .05), or education (n = 217, t = 1.60, p > .05).
A decline in the number of tourists visiting Cyprus from 2000 to 2007 prompted the Cyprus Tourism Organization to examine sports tourism as a means of appealing to international visitors. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at airports in the cities of Larnaca and Pafos with 802 international tourists departing Cyprus. The respondents were surveyed about their experiences with three types of sports tourism in Cyprus: competitive (elite- and amateur-level athletic training or other preparation as well as competition), recreation (competition without trophy rewards), and leisure (sports-related play or pastimes). Statistical analysis showed most respondents had engaged in swimming, water sports, or other leisure-type sports tourism, with minimal numbers participating in the other two types.