The purpose of this study was to determine whether a significant
difference existed between the perception of the National
Collegiate Athletic Association male and female athletes regarding
various types of abusive behaviors by their coaches. This
research examined whether or not athletic departments in the
United States of America should develop policies and procedures
to educate all persons involved in the athletic setting, as
well as the prosecution of coaches who sexually harass or
emotionally abuse student-athletes.
The area of Olympic Volunteerism is a relatively new one for
researchers and the Olympic Movement. It was not until the
1980 Lake Placid Olympics that that the “Olympic Volunteer
Movement” commenced. To date, the Olympic Movement has
not established a policy on volunteerism and multiculturalism.
Moreover, none of the main IOC Commissions has a primary mandate
for volunteerism and multiculturalism, while the responsibility
for the recruiting and training of volunteers falls within
the hands of the National Olympic Committees. This paper examines
the linkage between volunteerism and multiculturalism for
the Olympic Movement. While reflecting upon the experiences
of Canada’s Multiculturalism Policy, a policy for volunteerism
and multiculturalism is developed for the Olympic Movement.
This policy emphasizes (1) equal recognition of all volunteers,
(2) equal opportunity for personal growth through the volunteer
experience, (3) a chance to experience the “spirit of
the Olympics”, (4) an avenue of cultural exchange and
interchange amongst each other, and (5) a “common cultural
environment.” It is concluded that such a policy should
be implemented in an IOC main commission (i.e., Commission
for Culture and Olympic Education) and/or in the Olympic Charter.
Self-confidence and sport confidence (SC) have been viewed
as some of the most important factors that influence the sport
performance. Many studies had shown that athletes with high
sport confidence would possess better concentration, game
strategies, healthy emotions, control of tempos, and performance
(Chi, 1996; Gould, 1981; Mahoney, Gabriel & Perkin, 1987).
Therefore, the relationship between sport confidence and performance
should be a critical topic for sport psychologists to investigate.
concept of leadership has gained a large amount of attention
in recent years. This paper investigated the relationships
between transformational leadership and organizational effectiveness
in the field of recreational sport and leisure. First, it
reviewed a discussion on the problem of organizational leadership
from the perspective of the transactional-transformational
model, particularly the arguments of researchers such as Burns
and Bass. It examined the components of transformational leadership,
then investigated several approaches regarding the conceptualization
and measurement of organizational effectiveness. Finally,
it looked at the controversy concerning the impact of transformational
leadership upon organizational effectiveness. It argued that
greater transformational leadership seems to be at least indirectly
related to a higher degree of organizational effectiveness.
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this paper, we describe a study in which we investigate attitudes
held by student-athletes and non-athlete students towards
academic and athletic success. Athletic success is largely
viewed in the United States as a vehicle for disadvantaged
students to attain higher education. Most colleges and universities
in the U.S. have admittance programs in which a designated
percent of students who do not meet standard admissions criteria
are allowed to enroll. According to the National Collegiate
Athletic Association (1995), about 3% of all students enter
college under these programs. However, more than 20% of college
football and basketball players enter universities under special
admittance programs (Lapchick 1995). Thus, athletic prowess
may allow for an increased opportunity for education.
and the administration of athletics at the collegiate level
are undergoing a continual metamorphosis. No longer is athletics
seen as just "fun and games" for the entertainment
of fans. Nor can it be considered only big business, making
large amounts of money for the sponsoring institution. It
has become a combination of the two, entertainment and business,
all within the structure and mission of higher education.
this study, the effects of physical exercise to eliminate
the anxiety in university youth was investigated. The study
covered 311 students who had never involved in physical exercise
or any form of physical exercise. They were from 7 different
departments of Education Faculty of Konya Selçuk University.
State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) by Spielberger was applied
to the students. The first 60 who had the highest anxiety
scores were determined. Half of 60(30 student) participated
in physical exercise while the other 30 were accepted as the
control group. Pre, mid and post-test were administered to
both the test and control group. Results were estimated by
ANOVA. As a result ; the anxiety level of female students
was found to be higher comparison to males' depending upon
the gender. In addition, the results also showed that participation
physical exercise and physical activities decreased the anxiety
level of both sexes. According to the age, a similar level
of anxiety was seen at the beginning. It appeared that these
activities had a reduction in anxiety levels of all age categories.
The reduction mentioned above was found highest in 19-20 age
group. According to fields, the physical exercise activities
played a very important role in minimizing the anxiety. This
effect was the most reliable on the students of music department.
As a result, it has been concluded that physical exercise
activities played a very notable role to eliminate anxiety
of the university youth.
since hits and home runs increased significantly after a leading
aluminum bat manufacturer introduced the ABlack Magic@ bat
in 1985, a controversy has raged in the National Collegiate
Athletic Association (NCAA) concerning the use of aluminum
baseball bats. The first Abat summit@ with members of the
NCAA Baseball Rules Committee and executives of aluminum-bat
manufacturers was held in the summer of 1994. From this point
on it was evident that the ability of manufacturers to manipulate
the size and weight of baseball bats created an injury hazard
and a player-development problem for collegiate-level baseball
players. Although small steps have taken place to limit the
hazardous equipment, a final solution would be found in a
mandate by the NCAA for its member institutions to make a
permanent and exclusive switch from aluminum bats to wooden
bats. Specifically, this mandate should be directed to those
programs at the Division I level where the baseball players
are strong enough, fast enough, and skilled enough to injure
one another by their use of aluminum bats.
history of public relations is littered with confirmations
and allegations of unethical behavior
demonstrated by coaches and athletes. The latest firing of
Indiana University's notorious
Bobby Knight and the suspension of baseball's John Rocker
are two recent cases that involved
poor decision making on the part of Knight and Rocker. Professionals?
One often wonders
from what moral foundation do participants in the world of
sport chose to make their decisions
and subsequently act (1). Their ethical conduct was in question
and steps were taken to
remedy the situation.