In spring 1999, almost a decade ago, the first author published in The Sport Journal an article titled “Music in Sport and Exercise: Theory and Practice.” The present article’s origins are in that earlier work and the first author’s research while a master’s student at the United States Sports Academy in 1991–92. To a greater degree than in the original 1999 article, this article focuses on the applied aspects of music in sport and exercise. Moreover, it highlights some new research trends emanating not only from our own publications, but also from the work of other prominent researchers in the field. The content is oriented primarily towards the needs of athletes and coaches.
We do not clearly understand what type and duration of recovery works best after a hard run to restore the body to peak racing condition. This study compared 72 hr of active recovery after a 5-km running performance with 72 hr of passive recovery. A sample of 9 male and 3 female runners of above-average ability completed 3 trials within 6 days. Each 5-km trial was followed by 72 hr of passive recovery (PAS) or 72 hr of active recovery (ACT), a counterbalanced protocol. The 2 initial 5-km trials constituted separate PAS and ACT baselines. Mean finishing times did not differ significantly (p = 0.17) between ACT (19:35 + 1.5 min) and baseline (19:41 + 1.7 min); nor was there significant difference (p = 0.21) between PAS (19:30 + 1.5 min) and baseline (19:34 + 1.6 min). Average heart rate for PAS (177.9 + 6.3 b/min) was significantly higher (p = 0.04) than baseline (175.4 + 6.5 b/min), but ACT average heart rate (175.9 + 6.6 b/min) was significantly lower (p = 0.02) than baseline (178.9 + 6.4 b/min). For PAS, perceived rate of exertion at ending (19.8 + 0.6) was significantly greater (p = 0.01) than baseline (19.3 + 0.9), yet for ACT, perceived rate of exertion at ending (19.6 + 0.8) did not differ significantly (p = 0.17) from baseline (19.7 + 0.7). During PAS trials, 2 individuals ran a mean 12.0 + 2.8 s slower, 2 individuals ran a mean 33.0 + 21.0 s faster, and 8 individuals ran within 5.1 + 2.5 s of their first run. During the ACT trials, 1 participant ran 13.0 s slower, 3 participants ran a mean of 34.7 + 13.5 s faster, and 8 nonresponders ran within 5.5 + 2.7 s of baseline. Results indicate that 72 hr of passive and active recovery result in similar mean 5-km performance.
Existing scholarship on competitive cheerleading’s struggle for sanctioning and recognition under Title IX supports a conclusion that, while cheerleading perpetuates certain stereotypes, it is nevertheless a sport American women created for themselves, and it offers many of the same benefits of participation as other sports do. Research on (a) acceptance of and obstacles to high school and collegiate cheerleading today, (b) regulatory controls, (c) and media interest and hegemonic implications is reviewed. Myths and issues surrounding the safety and health of competitive cheerleaders are examined, including sexual abuse and sport injury.
Plyometric activities use rapid switching from eccentric to concentric contractions to increase speed or force of muscle contractions. Training the stretch-shorten cycle by jumping enhances athletic performance. This study sought optimal box heights athletes could drop from to obtain maximal rebound height. Division-III collegiate football players (n = 55) older than18, weighing no more than 100 kg, and with no lower-extremity injury were the participants. Initial data collected measured height, weight, leg length, age, standing vertical jump, and quadriceps strength. Peak torque and work per repetition were calculated for eccentric and concentric quadriceps activity. Participants completed 3 box drops from each of 4 different box heights as vertical rebound was measured. ANOVA showed rebounds did not differ significantly by box height, nor did rebound from any height differ significantly from standing vertical jump. Little to no correlation (Pearson’s r < 0.25) was found between vertical rebound from any height and concentric or eccentric work per repetition or eccentric peak torque. Fair correlation (Pearson’s r = 0.29–0.33) was found between concentric peak torque and vertical rebound from all heights. Leg length correlated moderately (Pearson’s r = 0.56–0.61) with vertical rebound from all heights. Because results indicate greater box drop height is not statistically associated with greater vertical rebounds, using a box height above 0.12 m (the shortest tested here) is likely to increase injury risk without providing any accompanying benefits. The study is limited by the fact that jumping technique was not included as a variable, although clearly technique could be a component in rebounding.
The J-motion squat—J refers to the trajectory of the hip during the squat—is a dynamic action combining the benefits of front and parallel squatting. The J-motion squat accentuates pelvic movement and enables the lifter to better utilize the hamstrings for further strength and power development. We describe the J-motion squat and provide a review of the practical benefits of teaching it as an ancillary lift within training programs for power athletes.
plays an integral role in the prevention of youth sport injuries, as the
evidence in Part I of this paper suggested. Communication regarding
expectations, policy and procedures, and post-injury protocol can facilitate a
safe youth sport environment. However, preventing youth sport injuries also
involves several other areas, such as protective equipment, strength and
cardiovascular conditioning, environmental and facility management, proper
coaching, and proper nutrition and hydration. According to the American College
of Sports Medicine (1993), 50% of injuries that occur in children and
adolescents are preventable. Even when steps are taken to ensure safe
participation in youth sport programs, however, injuries will happen; what happens
before, during, and after an emergency can make the difference in the eventual outcome
Responding to recent highly publicized sport scandals that so often tarnish the character of athletics, this writing defends the innate sanctity and redeems the potential of sport by exploring sport as a spiritual enterprise. Spirituality, generally conceptualized at three levels of connection (to self, others, and a higher being or purpose), is explored using 10 dominant themes of the world’s sacred scriptures. Examples of these 10 themes from the domain of sport and athletics are offered, as follows: supreme being and the mystery of sport; self and play in the zone; spiritual paths and practice; knowledge–wisdom and creativity–innovation in sport; the “good life” and the team; love and service as sportsmanship; devotion and worship through love of the game; fate and free will in “miracle and madness”; death and the “big picture”; and the spiritual sage and the sport hero.
The Panhandles, a professional football team known for its toughness and athleticism, was established from workers in the Pennsylvania Railroad shops out of Columbus, Ohio. The Columbus Panhandles had its first documented season in 1901. The team played through the beginning of the 1920’s. Longtime manager and future National Football League commissioner Joseph Carr brought a unique administrative style to the Panhandles, leading the team to historic popularity during his tenure. Relying on the most famous family in pro football history, Carr utilized the Nesser brothers’ physical prowess to win games and their unmatched popularity to fill the stands.
The relationship between a professional athlete, his or her professional sports team, and a team physician is legally complex and has inherent potential for conflict. Although a physician should always consider an athlete's best interest when determining an athlete's fitness to participate in competitive sport, a physician also has a responsibility to his or her employer to act in the best interest of the team. The dual role of a team physician results in the potential for conflict if a professional sports team and the professional athlete's best interests do not coincide. The workers' compensation co-employee doctrine immunizes a professional sports team from vicarious liability in tort for its team physician's negligence. Recent judicial opinions and legal commentary suggest that the workers' compensation law barring tort suits between a professional athlete and a co-employee team physician for injuries caused within the scope of employment should not ipso facto confer absolute tort immunity for a physician. The argument being made is that if a team physician breaches the ethical and legal duty to provide the standard of care, the co-employee doctrine should not provide a shield from tort liability for harm caused to professional athletes. Physicians must be aware of legal opinions surfacing in the literature so they can understand that their most prudent approach, no matter what the circumstance, is to practice in a manner in which a professional athlete's health interest supersedes all other interests.