As the economy continues to decline, sport managers realize that discretionary spending is limited. As such, sport managers are giving more consideration to price strategies within their own marketing mix as well as their comparison to other sport teams. The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional pricing investigation of individual teams by region within a Class-AAA and Class-AA league from the minor league baseball system. Data were obtained for ticket prices and fees from baseball team websites and phone interviews. Multivariate analysis of variance was examined for both Double-A and Triple-A leagues divided into regions. This study found no significant F (1,6) = .09, p = .77 differences for the highest ticket prices, F (1,6) = .09, p = .78, or the lowest ticket prices, and F (1,6) = .07, p = .80 for the groups within the Double-A Affiliate Texas League. However, a significance F (2,13) = 8.08, p = .00 was found in lowest ticket price within the Triple-A Affiliate Pacific Coast League, unlike highest ticket prices and fees which were not measurably different. Most minor league sport managers could consider this advantageous for promoting their entertainment as a good economic value.
Key Words: Baseball, Ticket Prices, Minor League
The purpose of this study was to track and understand attitudinal changes and trends among 3 NCAA Division I intercollegiate teams at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA). We wanted to see if surveys of team efficacy would help promote self-and-team efficacy with respect to team goals and outcomes. Measures of team efficacy and locus of control were measured throughout the season: preseason, mid-season and postseason. Even though the results varied slightly for each sport, common trends were found with respect to team efficacy and their perceived chances for success and team history. Team goals did not fluctuate much throughout the season. However, results from the survey showed a significant drop in team efficacy for both the baseball and women’s basketball teams from preseason to midseason for both internal locus of control: baseball, t(15) = 3.53, p = .003); women’s basketball, t(15) = 3.67, p = .002. A significant drop in the teams external locus of control was also observed for both baseball, t(15) = 4.43, p < .001 and women’s basketball, t(15) = 2.95, p = .010. However, for the hockey team, there was not a significant drop in internal locus of control, t(15) = 1.23, p = .237 or in external locus of control, t(15) = 1.10, p= .289. As the baseball and women’s basketball teams lost more games both their internal and external locus of control dropped. Accordingly, because the Hockey team did not lose as many games from midseason on their locus of control measures did not experience any drop-off.
Key Words: team efficacy, coaching, locus of control
The Super Bowl is the largest annual sporting event in America in terms of single-game television viewership (5). In addition to the game, a tremendous amount of entertainment is intertwined into the Super Bowl telecast via commercials that can cost as much as $3 million for 30 seconds of air time (16). The consumption of the game and commercials is well documented. However, there is little evidence as to how the Super Bowl telecast is consumed by various demographic subgroups. College students, an often overlooked demographic for major sport marketing campaigns, are one group that appear to be an ideal target market for Super Bowl advertising due to their ability for discretionary spending (13) and affinity for popular culture. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the commercial and game consumption patterns for college students during the Super Bowl. A sample of 651 traditional-aged college students at a mid-size Midwestern university was surveyed within 48 hours of Super Bowl XLIV to determine such patterns. Results indicated students watched in large numbers, watched in group settings, identified humor as a primary factor in commercial enjoyment, were interested most in the game itself, identified a different favorite commercial than the USA Today Ad Meter, are strong sport fans, and demonstrated different viewing consumption patterns by gender. It can be concluded from these results that college students resemble the average adult consumer identified in previous research (1,25) in some of their game and commercial consumption patterns (e.g., watching the Super Bowl in large groups and identifying humor as a primary attribute they enjoyed in commercials), but differed in their commercial preferences, their higher level of sport fanship, and their gender differences. Sport marketers can utilize this information to create strategies that appeal to this important demographic.
Key words: Super Bowl, commercials, marketing, sport consumption
Television rights in professional soccer was, and perhaps still is, the most important and vital source of revenue for professional soccer clubs in most European countries. Much conversation and legislation was made to discuss, agree upon, and regulate the way the right to broadcast a game is sold to the TV stations and how this income is distributed to the clubs. This study examines the way this selling mechanism works in Greece. The study is carried out with questionnaires, given to at least one member of the higher management of the 34 professional soccer clubs (1st and 2nd division) whose games are on TV. According to the results, club managers think that collective selling is the optimal theoretical model to sell their TV rights, but the way it is implemented is not the optimal one, leading to lower results in income and stadium attendance than the ones anticipated by the managers. Also the Greek Soccer Federation must exploit the TV rights of the games. Moreover the participants believe TV viewers think of the soccer championship as an entity and not as a sum of certain games. Finally they believe TV viewers must pay a subscription to watch the games and that it must not be a free of charge service.
The purpose of this study was to examine and compare eating characteristics and body image disturbances in female NCAA Division I and III athletes in the mainstream sports of basketball, softball, track/cross country, volleyball, soccer, tennis, swimming/diving, and ice hockey. Female collegiate athletes (N = 118) from Division I and III universities completed the EAT-26 and MBSRQ. Personal demographics and anthropometric data including height, weight, BMI and Body Fat estimates were also assessed. The study found that 49.2% (Division I) and 40.4% (Division III) of female athletes were in the subclinical eating disorder range. Results assessing body satisfaction, reported that 24.2% of Division I female athletes and 30.7 % of Division III female athletes were either very dissatisfied or mostly dissatisfied with their overall appearance. Results also showed that Division I female athletes were less satisfied with their appearance evaluation (body areas satisfaction, and lower torso). Division III female athletes reported higher levels of bulimic behaviors and weight preoccupation. The results indicate that athletes in refereed female sports are at risk for eating disorders, and that body image risk factors vary between NCAA competition divisions. This research provides sport professionals with a better understanding of risk factors influencing the prevalence of eating disorders between female athletes’ divisional competition levels.
Key words: body dissatisfaction, eating disorders, NCAA division, collegiate female athletes, eating disorder risk factors
The United States Olympic Committee administers a number of programs with the objective of spreading Olympism and the Olympic Ideals. Outlined below are its two most robust Olympism programs: the Team USA Ambassador Program and Olympic Day.
The USOC considers its athletes the greatest representatives of the Olympic Movement and Olympic values. By developing the Olympic values in elite athletes, and, through sharing their stories, we aim to inspire others to seek the highest levels of excellence and to have respect for all, regardless of nationality, religion, race or background.
Started prior to Beijing 2008, the goal of the Team USA Ambassador Program is to expose U.S. Olympians, Paralympians and hopefuls to the expectations, roles, and responsibilities of representing the United States at the Olympic and Paralympic Games. This extensive athlete education program guides athletes through what it means to be an ambassador for their sport and country, how to embrace and maximize their role as a role model, and to consider the legacy and impact they hope to create.
The multi-phase program includes presentations, inspirational speakers and small group activities to cover such topics as:
Heat illnesses are of major concern. More and more high school, college, and professional athletes are suffering from and/or dying from heat related illnesses. With all of the knowledge that medical professionals have in this day-in-age, there should be fewer instances of heat illnesses. Parents, coaches, and athletes also need to be aware of prevention and treatment procedures in case an emergency occurs. Heat stroke, the most serious heat illness, is a life threatening emergency and needs to be treated immediately. Ice water immersion is the best method for lowering the body temperature quickly and effectively.
Key Words: heat illness, heat stroke, heat index, prevention, treatment
Pride is considered to be a positive emotion and is observed in human beings throughout the world. It is fostered through positive approval received from others and is associated with success and satisfaction. Feelings of pride serve to enhance an individual’s self-concept. When pride is at stake, individuals are motivated to work longer and harder to achieve success. Pride serves individuals and groups positively, however, experienced pride may lead individuals to feel special and entitled. When they are, they experience hubristic pride. Hubristic pride is sinister and dangerous. In the name of pride, sport participants cheat, engage in violence, and selfishly take advantage of others. Hubristic pride is not to be confused with the satisfaction one receives from successful performance and positive feedback. Hubristic pride is pride that has gone wrong. It allows individuals to engage in harmful acts without feeling remorse. Coaches, athletes and parents exhibit hubristic pride that causes harm to others. In this paper, examples of hubristic behavior and the harm that it causes in sport are presented. A lack of perspective enables individuals to choose to engage in hubristically motivated behavior.
Key Words: Pride, Hubris, Coaches, Athletes, Parents, Cheating, Violence, Sexual Behavior, Abuse, Hubristic Pride
This case report presents a history, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of a young tennis athlete on scholarship to Florida State University. He sustains an acute ankle injury while in a tournament in the last month of high school that jolts him into realizing the injury hurdles that may lie ahead in the college athletic world. He and his parents choose alternative and complementary sports medicine rather than traditional methods and procedures for the health care of the young athlete. This case report details the procedures used to manage the acute ankle injury - Chiropractic, Acupuncture, Cold Laser - and the latest athletic training methods for sports rehabilitation are given in the integrative sports injury care given this athlete.
Key Words: Alternative, Complementary, Integrative, Chiropractic, Acupuncture, Cold Laser
VO2max is an invaluable measure for the assessment of aerobic fitness; however, to yield accurate results direct assessment requires costly equipment, trained investigators, and that the participant produce a maximal effort to volitional fatigue. The majority of VO2max prediction equations have attempted to predict aerobic capacity without considering physiological variables other than age and body composition. As a result, a majority of VO2max prediction equations have been found to be invalid. A recent study proposed an equation accounting for additional physiological variables known to influence aerobic capacity, including blood volume, fat-free mass, urinary creatine excretion, and total body potassium. Therefore, this investigation sought to evaluate the validity of novel non-exercise prediction equations, which utilize bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to obtain an estimate of blood volume and skeletal muscle mass as predictor variables in an attempt to increase the accuracy of non-exercise VO2max prediction equations. VO2max was assessed using indirect calorimetry. Healthy male (30.9 ± 6.0 y, 179.0 ± 4.3 cm, 94.1 ± 19.5 kg; n = 23) and female (32.0 ± 6.1 y, 167.8 ± 7.9 cm, 72.0 ± 9.6 kg; n = 25) participants completed a VO2max test and a physical activity survey (PA-R) and were analyzed using bioelectrical impedance. Results indicated that each equation resulted in a significant (p ≤ 0.025) underestimation of VO2max. These outcomes suggest that the use of BIA to estimate blood volume and skeletal muscle mass does not improve the accuracy of VO2max prediction equations. Coaches and trainers will not benefit from the inclusion of BIA in an equation to predict aerobic fitness. Currently, the best methods to estimate aerobic fitness require submaximal and maximal exercise testing. Predicting aerobic fitness using non-exercise equations does not appear to be practical or valid.
Keywords: maximal, aerobic capacity, prediction, gender-specific