This paper will examine academics and athletics. In particular it will review the NCAA’s newest academic measuring tool, the Academic Progress Report. The APR was the NCAA’s response to calls for academic integrity. It is intended to ensure eligibility for student-athletes and to serve as a check and balance on athletic departments. The scores are meant to provide institutions with a clear set of goals for each team and to set a higher priority on academics in collegiate athletic departments. We will try and answer the question: Do BSC schools have an advantage over non-BCS schools in APR rankings?
The Senior Woman Administrator (SWA), originally named the Primary Woman Administrator (PWA), is a role designed to return to women a voice in the operations of intercollegiate athletic departments that was lost as a result of the takeover of the AIAW by the NCAA. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the SWA as it exists today and as it could become in the future. The Senior Woman Administrator Survey was developed and administered to all NCAA Division I SWAs. Senior Woman Administrators overwhelmingly disagreed with the statement suggesting they have been given responsibilities that are appropriate for their job. Further, in order for SWAs to have authority that is more than advisory in nature, they must have final decision making authority in budget and personnel. Finally, SWAs indicated that their primary functions were advocating for women’s athletics, gender equity, and serving as a role model.
Horror stories of outlandish behavior by coaches in the sport milieu: many have heard the stories, to one extent or another. Many have personally dealt with the accompanying emotions of dread, humiliation, discrimination, and fear that coaches have imposed during practices and games. Many have suffered immeasurably while helplessly watching their child endure torment at the hands of an abusive coach or coaches. Many have asked the same questions: What can be done? What good can possibly come from garnishing discussion with the coach, athletic director or administrator? Will the ordeal continue with new vigor because the problem was brought out into the open? Parents often struggle with these types of questions, wavering in a sea of indecision, wishing for easy solutions to unfortunate situations. And so the questions remain: what can be done; are there potential solutions; and where can one seek advice?
Skateboarders are often seen as outsiders. However, understanding the culture of skateboarding can be insightful for politicians, adults, or scholars who seek to develop stronger relationships with young people who participate in skateboarding (Freeman & Riordan, 2002). In this ethnographic study, skateboarding culture is described through observations of professional skateboarders in a segment of the DVD, Planes, Trains and Skateboards. The findings suggested themes of acceptance, energy and drive, concern for safety, self-expression of style, and progression. Leaders who understand the culture of skateboarding may be able to communicate more effectively with the younger generation.
The purpose of this study was to explore the differences among the taekwondo training hall members’ demographic variables as they related to participative motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty. A secondary aim is to verify the cause and effect relationship of participative motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty. For this study, a total of 358 members were selected from 15 taekwondo training halls in Taipei County. The instruments utilized in this research include a participative motivation scale, a satisfaction scale, and a loyalty scale. The data were statistically analyzed utilizing descriptive statistics (including a frequency distribution percentage, the mean and the standard deviation), a t-test, a one-way ANOVA, the scheffe method and structural equation modeling. The results were as follows: (a) As it related to the demographics of the members at the taekwondo training halls in Taipei county, the descriptive statistics indicated that a majority of the members were males between 9-12 years old; their total family income was around NT 40,001~NT 60,000; and a majority of the members had practiced taekwondo for less than one year. (b) The results of the analysis of the member’s demographic variables showed that a member’s gender, age, and time spent learning taekwondo indicated statistically significant differences on his or her participative motivation and satisfaction. A member’s gender, age, family income, and time spent learning taekwondo also indicated statistically significant differences on his or her loyalty. (c) According to the analysis conducted by the structural equation modeling, participative motivation had a positive influence on satisfaction and loyalty, and satisfaction had a positive influence on loyalty. Based on these findings, the researchers have provided some suggestions for taekwondo training halls.
An in-depth study of the current football industry in Cyprus was undertaken to evaluate the financial situation of the first division football clubs, the competitive balance of the national league, the management practices of the football clubs and national league, and the negative effects of football hooliganism on the industry. Research involved both an extensive literature review of secondary sources from the Cyprus Sport Organization, the Cyprus Football Association, and the football clubs, as well as a qualitative data collection tool which included personal interviews and focus groups. Challenges and opportunities facing the football industry in Cyprus were identified.
Recovery from a hard running effort determines when a runner can run at an intense level again. Overtraining is often caused by insufficient recovery, which ultimately hurts endurance performance. The number of recovery hours needed to sufficiently restore the body back to peak racing condition is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare 5km running performance after 24 hours and 72 hours of recovery. Twelve well-trained runners (9 males and 3 females) completed two successive 5km performance trials on two separate occasions. Immediately following the baseline 5km trial, runners recovered passively for 24 hrs (R24) and 72 hrs of passive recovery (R72), and then performed a second 5km trial. The 5km time trial sessions were separated by 6-7 days of normal training and performed in a counterbalanced order. R24 (19:59 + 1.9 min) was significantly (p = 0.03) slower than baseline (19:49 + 1.9 min). However, no significant differences (p = 0.21) were found between R72 (19:30 + 1.5 min) and baseline (19:34 + 1.6 min). HRave for R24 (177.3 + 6.3 b/min) was the same as baseline (177.3 + 7.3 b/min), yet R72 HRave (177.9 + 6.3 b/min) was significantly higher (p = 0.04) than baseline (175.4 + 6.5 b/min). RPEend for R24 (19.5 + 0.8) was not significantly different (p = 0.39) than baseline (19.6 + 0.8), but R72 RPEend (19.8 + 0.6) was significantly (p = 0.01) greater than baseline (19.3 + 0.9). For the R24 trials, 9 participants ran a mean 17.4 + 12.1 secs slower and 3 participants ran a mean of 13.3 + 6.8 secs faster than baseline. During R72, three individuals ran a mean 10.3 + 5.7 secs slower, five individuals ran a mean 17.4 + 12.9 secs faster, and four individuals ran within 3.3 + 1.8 secs of their first run. Results indicate that 72 hrs of passive recovery, on average, permits maintenance of successive 5km time trial performance, yet individual variability existed regarding rate of decline of 2nd trial performance. Future research is needed to determine if a longer or shorter recovery time will maintain or improve 5km racing performance.
The purpose of this study was to determine the levels by which the students in Departments of Physical Education agree with the professional codes of ethics for physical education teachers. One hundred twenty-two students receiving education in Departments of Physical Education and Sports in three universities participated in the research. A questionnaire consisting of 32 items was used as the data collection tool. Physical education teacher candidates studying in different universities stated that they fully agreed with the professional codes of ethics for physical education teachers. However, they were observed to have different opinions regarding some ethics codes depending on gender, class, and school variables.
This study examined alcohol related behaviors among college athletes and the impact of a one year, alcohol responsibility intervention program on reported behaviors. A sample of 150 athletes was selected to go through three specific alcohol responsibility intervention programs, funded by an NCAA Choices grant. The interventions involved the establishment of a peer mentoring and counseling program to encourage alcohol responsibility and address behavioral concerns; educational opportunities; and alcohol free socials associated with athletic events. Findings of this study indicated a decrease in problematic issues in two of the six indicator areas examined.
With respect to physical education, increased participation in sport equals success. One of the main goals of physical educators is to enable individuals to become proficient in lifelong activities. Hopefully, this proficiency will lead to a healthier and more fulfilling life. Beginning with Title IX and continuing over the last two decades, there has been an explosion of youth sports opportunities. As children have begun to participate in sports programs at earlier ages, parents have started feeling pressure to enroll their children in similar programs in order for them to remain competitive. As a result, children become increasingly proficient at their respective sports at earlier ages. This proficiency, while benefiting the respective sport, is not without its consequences. One of the most notable consequences of increased participation in sports at an earlier age is in the area of sports injuries (Rentrom, 2008).