The purpose of this study was to identify standards for effective security
management of university sport venues. Standards were developed through
a series of interviews and a three-round Delphi study. Purposeful sampling
was used to select participants for both the interviews and Delphi panel.
Four sport security personnel participated in the interview process and
an initial set of standards were developed and used for the Delphi study.
The twenty-eight member Delphi panel included the athletic facility manager,
campus police chief, local sheriff, and local emergency management director
responsible for game day security operations at seven state-supported
universities in Mississippi. Importance ratings for developed standards
were assessed on a five-point Likert scale during Round 2 and 3. This
study identified 134 standards in eleven categories: Perimeter Control,
Access Control, Credentialing, Physical Protection Systems, Risk Management,
Emergency Management, Recovery Procedures, Communications, Security Personnel,
Training, Modeling, and Simulation, and WMD – Toxic Materials Protection.
This article examines the myriad ways in which RFID (Radio Frequency
Identification) technology will impact the world of sports. In this paper,
we look at how this “weird new media revolution” will have
a transformative impact both on the games themselves and the fans’
experience at the stadium. We will examine how RFID is being used in sport
applications from golf to soccer to racing of all forms to add previously
unimaginable real-time richness and accuracy to the sports. We will also
look at the use of RFID in ticketing and payment applications that will
add security, control, and new revenue streams to sports operations, while
giving enhanced value and services to the fan. We will conclude with a
look at what this new version of Sports 2.0 will mean in the future both
in and out of the sporting arena.
World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE) is best known for its
promotion of professional wrestling as sports entertainment. Today, World
Wrestling Entertainment is an integrated media and entertainment company
principally engaged in the development, production, and marketing of television
programming, pay-per-view programming, and live events, and the licensing
and sale of branded consumer products featuring the highly successful
World Wrestling entertainment brand. As the WWE brand continues to grow,
a strategic decision has been made to place a greater emphasis on the
expansion the WWE brand globally. This paper will present an overview
of WWE from its beginnings as the WWWF (World Wide Wrestling Federation)
to its recent decision to capitalize on the significant operating leverage
of its business model through increase in its brand in markets throughout
The purpose of this study was to examine both the overall and the sports
specific gambling activity among athletes and non-athletes enrolled in
a Southern, regional National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division
II university. The findings were contrasted to the results of a 2003 NCAA
Sports Wagering study. The instrument utilized in this particular study
was an adaptation of the survey used in the NCAA 2003 study. Gambling
by athletes at NCAA member schools is a growing concern, and there are
indicators that gambling by college athletes may be more prevalent today
than described in the 2003 study as gambling activity among student-athletes,
male and female, in Division II seems to have increased dramatically from
2003 to 2006.
Gender may be a mediating factor for relationship effectiveness between
athletes and coaches (Lirgg, Dibrezzo, & Smith, 1994; Medwechuk &
Crossman, 1994). Ironically, with the increase in participation of female
athletes and sports that has occurred since Title IX, there has been a
decrease in the number of female coaches over the past 30 years (Felder
& Wishnietsky, 1990; Freeman, 2001; Pastore, 1992). The purpose of
this study was to explore twelve female athletes’ perceptions and
experiences of being coached by women and men. Semi-structured interviews
revealed four major themes: discipline and structure, personal relationships,
passivity and aggressiveness, and coach preference. Specifically, eight
of the participants stated a preference for male coaches, yet differences
were found when comparing various coaching qualities. Results are discussed
in regards to overall sport experiences.
A great deal has been written in both academic and popular periodicals
about the value of college athletic programs. While some argue that the
net outcome of college athletic programs is favorable in terms of benefits
to the institution, detractors often view these programs as financially
debilitating to the welfare of the institution (Weeth, 1994). An issue
of controversy for many institutions is the value of the benefits versus
the cost associated with operating intercollegiate athletic programs (Lehnus
and Miller, 1996). The dilemma for administrators is often more pressing
at the small-college level because funding is usually limited and the
programs themselves generally prove to be unprofitable (Helitzer, 1996).
One of the more pressing problems for many small-college athletic programs
is the lack of fan attendance, because attendance can influence support
from alumni and the administration of the school. The present study examines
what factors are key in explaining attendance at small-college sporting
This research aims to determine the effects of a six weeks pre-season
preparation training period on the physical and physiological characteristics
of a football team in the Turkish Professional First Division League.
Twenty football players participated in this study. Their ages were 22.2
± 3.41 years old, and they had 12.4 ± 4.2 years of training.
Their height was 178.9 ± 5.13 cm. (Table 1). The body weight, body
fat percentage, flexibility, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, aerobic
capacity, anaerobic power, vertical jump, and speed of these players were
tested twice; once at the beginning of the six-week pre-season preparation
training period and again at the end of the training period (Table 2).
Research data was evaluated statistically with pair-t test at a significance
level of (p‹ 0.05). There were some significant changes in weight,
body fat percent, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, aerobic capacity,
anaerobic power, and vertical jump. There were no any statistically significant
changes in elasticity and speed.
Purpose: This study describes the prevalence of physical activity
programs at Danish workplaces with one-hundred or more employees
Subjects: All private and public workplaces of the designated
Measures: A two-phase research model was used. Phase 1 consisted
of telephone interviews involving all workplaces. Phase 2 was conducted
using a structured, self-administered questionnaire which elicited more
detailed descriptions of workplaces identified as promoting physical activity
(n=449). Response rates were 92% and 69% in Phases 1 and 2 respectively.
Data Analysis: Data were analyzed using StatView statistical
During the preparation of this issue of the Sport Journal, we received a piece sent to us by Mr. Raymond Grant, the artistic director of the 2002 Olympic Art Festival, reflecting on the historic and modern cultural aspects of the Olympic Games. Although the article does not fall within the normal editorial plan of the Sports Journal, it is very insightful and we felt, as such, it would be of interest to the readership
With the permission of the author, we are reprinting the piece titled "Contrast, Culture, and Courage: A Cultural Administrator's Tribute to Pierre de Coubertin" in the form of a letter to the editor. We trust the readership will find as much value in reading the piece as we did.
Numerous organizations in the field of business have shown that great success and lucrative outcomes can be accomplished through implementing data mining. For example, Wal-Mart used data mining and found a link between the sales of babies’ diapers and beer. Based on this result, Wal-Mart placed beer close to the babies’ diapers, which resulted in a significant increase in terms of beer sales (Saban, 2001). Another salient example is American Express. American Express built a data mining model to examine millions of data and calculated “purchase scores”—customer’s propensity to make purchases, which not only provided merchants with valuable information, but also reduced American Express’ marketing expenses (Saban, 2001). As a result, research efforts made in data mining are warranted due to numerous successes accomplished while utilizing it.