Leadership Development Method: A literature review of leadership development strategy and tactics

Authors: Christopher P Johnson

Corresponding Author:
Christopher P Johnson, MS
Cpjohnson.students@ussa.edu

Christopher P. Johnson is a college lecturer and co-founder/ head strength and conditioning coach at Boston Strength and Conditioning, llc in Newton, Ma. He received his Masters of Management degree as well as his Bachelors of Science Degree in Sports Science from Lasell College, and is currently pursuing a terminal degree through the Academy.

Leadership Development Method: A literature review of leadership development strategy and tactics

ABSTRACT
This article is intended to provide young and new coaches with a comprehensive overview of existing research of a leadership development method for improving their leadership skills regardless of field. A broad range of existing literature related to leadership was compiled, examined, analyzed, and disseminated. The examined research findings suggest correlations between leaders of different fields can be made and used as advice for emerging leaders. Furthermore, existing research clearly supports a strong positive correlation between learning through experience and the art of followership as well as benefits of a method by which to teach these skills. A leadership development method serves as an excellent tool to further engage coaches desiring to improve their leadership knowledge and skills. By developing an understanding of the concepts identified and incorporating the practices prescribed within this essay, coaches may establish strategies that effectively expose them to the appropriate mentors and mentorships.
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Coubertin’s Influence on Education, Sports, and Physical Education

Authors: Edward Burgo

Corresponding Author: Edward Burgo

Edward C. Burgo, Jr.
1900 Seacrest Drive
Gautier, MS 39553
(228) 324-0439
ecbjr1980@gmail.com

In the final year of his doctoral coursework at the United States Sports Academy (USSA), Edward currently works as a counselor at Pascagoula High School in Pascagoula, Mississippi. Having run and coached the Nicholls State University cross country team, he has enjoyed working with adolescents in athletics and academics for the past 42 years. In sports, amateurism has always interested Edward; so the connection to Olympism turned into an obvious course of study making his choice to attend USSA a great decision. Son to Edward Senior and Janice Burgo, Edward was the oldest of five children and contributes his drive and passion to his parents, and gives great credit to them for encouragement to continue on the path of education. Special thanks given to Edward Douglas White Catholic High School for the education that has led to Edward’s success.

Coubertin’s Influence on Education, Sports, and Physical Education

ABSTRACT
Pierre de Coubertin, father of the modern Olympic Games, traveled to England and the United States with the hope of changing the educational system in France. His first-hand observance of the effect that sport had on education helped to create his educational philosophy. In his efforts to create an environment of learning for students that would bring a moral and healthy life to the classroom, he changed the world. With Coubertin’s vision and drive, he was able to create an event that incorporated education, art, and a moral character in the design. The growth of the Olympic Games has touched many nations leaving a legacy in host cities that will remind people for generations of the peaceful message the event brings.
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Youth Fitness Testing Practices: Global Trends and New Development

Authors:
Xiaofen D. Keating, Ph.D.
Institution: Department of Curriculum and Instruction, The University of Texas at Austin, US

Peter Smolianov, Ph.D.
Institution: Department of Sport and Movement Science, Salem State University, US

Xiaolu Liu, M.A.
Institution: Department of Curriculum and Instruction, The University of Texas at Austin, US

Jose Castro-Piñero, Ph.D.
Institution: University of Cádiz, Spain

Jed Smith, M.A.
Institution: Department of Kinesiology, University of Northern Iowa, US

Corresponding Author:
Xiaofen D. Keating, Ph.D.
Department of Curriculum and Instruction, The University of Texas at Austin, US
1912 Speedway Stop D5000, Austin, TX, 78712
xk93@austin.utexas.edu
512-232-3565

Youth Fitness Testing Practices: Global Trends and New Development

ABSTRACT
The purpose of the study was to compare the most widely implemented youth fitness tests in China, European Union (EU), Russia, and the US to provide guidelines for future youth fitness testing in school settings. Constant content comparison method was used to identify differences. The data from the study indicated that the above four tests undertook a few revisions from their inception, varying among the tests. There were three shared test components (i.e., aerobic fitness, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility). However, only push-ups/modified push-ups and sit-ups/curl ups were the testing items that were used in all tests. The cut-off value for each test also varied for the same gender and age. Fitness knowledge and physical activity assessment were only included in youth fitness test battery in Russia. New technologies emerged in youth fitness test batteries, changing how tests were implemented in schools.
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The Benefits of Bidding and Hosting the Olympic Games are Difficult to Justify Due to the Overall Costs

Authors: Edward Burgo and Fred J. Cromartie

Corresponding Author:
Fred J. Cromartie
Director of Doctoral Studies
One Academy Drive
Daphne, AL 36526
cromarti@ussa.edu

In the final year of his doctoral coursework at the United States Sports Academy (USSA), Edward currently works as a counselor at Pascagoula High School in Pascagoula, Mississippi. Having run and coached the Nicholls State University cross country team, he has enjoyed working with adolescents in athletics and academics for the past 42 years. In sports, amateurism has always interested Edward; so the connection to Olympism turned into an obvious course of study making his choice to attend USSA a great decision. Son to Edward Senior and Janice Burgo, Edward was the oldest of five children and contributes his drive and passion to his parents and gives great credit to Dr. Fred Cromartie for encouragement to continue on the path of education. Special thanks given to Coach Eddie Cole, Coach M.T. Tatum and Brother John Hotstream for mentorship and contributions to the success Edward has been blessed to receive.

Dr. Fred J. Cromartie, is the Director of Doctoral Studies at the United States Sports Academy.

The Benefits of Bidding and Hosting the Olympic Games are Difficult to Justify Due to the Overall Costs

ABSTRACT
In examining the high cost of placing a bid or hosting the Olympic Games, cities face a dilemma. Benefits and risks may not be worth the investments. Data were used from past Olympic successes and failures with the addition of comparable events and outcomes. Tangible and intangible results were considered in establishing benefit justification. Studies find that bidding cities as well as host cities seem to benefit through world recognition; however, the cost is extreme and creates questions about financial risks. Poor countries seem to be apprehensive due to the capital investments involved leaving opportunity for the affluent countries to invest money in infrastructure. The attraction of world-wide attention allows the wealthy countries an opportunity to risk capital with the possibility of stimulating the economy through tourism and trade.
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Incorporating Professional and Executive Coaching with Sport Coaching

Authors: Jonathan Armold

Corresponding Author:
Jonathan Armold
1721 Riviera Drive
Plano TX, 75034
Jarmold24@gmail.com
954-261-8851

Jonathan Armold is a current professional baseball coach in the Texas Rangers baseball organization. He has graduated with a Master’s Degree in Organizational Behavior with a specialty in Professional and Executive Coaching from the University of Texas at Dallas.

Incorporating Professional and Executive Coaching with Sport Coaching

ABSTRACT
Sport coaching has long been a very traditional and dogmatic field that is often directive-oriented with a base of instruction that is very “one-size fits all.” Undoubtedly, there have been incredible improvements in the past couple of decades as it relates to sport and exercise sciences; our physical training methods and techniques have been enhanced as we develop world-class athletes at higher and higher levels. While the systems and methods for athletes’ physical development have been improved by coaches, the traditional method of coaching has remained somewhat unchanged. Through my own experiences as a former amateur and professional athlete, as well as a former amateur and current professional coach, sports athletes are often very specifically told what to do and how to do it, rather than allowed the freedom to learn and discover for themselves. While this type of coaching and instruction still may lead to success, as indicated by the wide number of professional athletes across multiple sports who have been coached and instructed in such a fashion, it is my contention that this coaching model is neither the most effective nor the most enjoyable for the athlete. Contrary to the generic, traditional method of coaching that occurs in sport coaching, executive and professional coaching is an inquiry-based approach to personal and professional development that aims to allow for self-discovery and awareness, eventually creating action and growth.
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