Your Financial (Life) Game Plan

Authors: Rick Johnston, Frank Messina, Stephanie Yates

Corresponding Author:
Frank Messina, PhD, CPA
1150 10th Avenue South
Birmingham Al, 35294
fmessina@uab.edu
205-934-8827

Rick Johnston is an Associate Professor of Accounting at the UAB Collat School of
Business. His research interests involve capital markets and the creation/use/regulation of
Information. He has published in the Journal of Accounting and Economics, Journal of
Accounting Research, Management Science, and Contemporary Accounting Research.

Frank Messina is the Alumni & Friends Endowed Professor of Accounting at the Collat School of Business, University of Alabama at Birmingham and a Certified Public Accountant. He is also the university’s NCAA Faculty Athletics Representative.

Stephanie Yates is the Director and Endowed Professor for the Regions Institute for Financial Education (RIFE) at UAB. The RIFE focuses on increasing financial literacy in students and adults throughout Alabama and beyond.

Your Financial (Life) Game Plan

ABSTRACT
Athletes face incredible financial uncertainty despite the potential to earn significant incomes. A key unknown is the duration of their playing career. A large body of anecdotal evidence suggests many athletes are financially challenged or bankrupt shortly after their playing career ends. This article explores some of the causes of these financial troubles and highlights some key considerations for athletes to consider to avoid such an outcome.

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The National Football League’s Brand and Stadium Opportunities

Authors: Marcos A. Abreu, Brandon D. Spradley

Corresponding Author:
Marcos Abreu
Doctoral Student
United States Sports Academy
One Academy Drive
Daphne, Alabama 36526
mabreu@students.ussa.edu
251-626-3303

Marcos Abreu is a doctoral student at the United States Sports Academy studying sports management.

The NFL Brand & Stadium Opportunities

ABSTRACT
Besides increasing shared revenue, the NFL’s popularity has helped the league establish a singular brand that continues to benefit its 32 teams by increasing brand equity, which derives from consumer perception of the brand name. The strategy has provided the league’s 32 teams bargaining power over host cities when pursuing public funding for newer stadiums that increase retained local revenue streams. Although hosting cities often provide newer stadiums to ensure teams stay and cities without teams often offer new stadiums to entice teams to relocate, in either case, cities generally justify these decisions and convince taxpayers of their importance with NFL and government analyses that numerous economists consider questionable because the studies generally overlook some basic fiscal realisms.

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the NFL’s brand equity increases shared revenue that creates new stadiums opportunities for the League’s 32 teams and how those stadiums opportunities impact; locally generated retained revenues; local economies; Super Bowl hosting opportunities and team relocation. The information presented in this paper could help individuals who work in the area of sports management better understand how an organization’s brand equity influences brand control and agreement value during the negotiation of new revenue stream opportunities.

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“So, Who’s Our New Coach?”: NCAA Student Athletes’ Perceptions After a Head Coaching Change

Authors: Emily A. Heller, Todd A. Gilson, Amanda Paule-Koba

Corresponding Author:
Emily A. Heller
Aurora University
347 S. Gladstone
Aurora, IL 60506
eheller@aurora.edu
C: 630-217-2358

“So, Who’s Our New Coach?”: NCAA Student Athletes’ Perceptions After a Head Coaching Change

ABSTRACT
Coaches play an important role in athlete’s collegiate experience, yet with the frequency of head coaching changes, athletes may find themselves at a university without the coach who recruited them. The purpose of this study was to examine athlete’s perceptions regarding the NCAA transfer rules in light of current National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) regulations. Forty-seven current NCAA Division I athletes (from 20 institutions) were interviewed about their experiences regarding a coaching change. Overall, most athletes thought there was a discrepancy between NCAA regulations regarding transfers: the regulations are lenient for coaches, whereas athletes’ ability to transfer is restricted. Athletes offered suggestions improving NCAA governance, such as implementing penalties for coaches who leave or allowing athletes to transfer if it would benefit their academic career.

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Male Athletes Perception of Coaches Behavior in University Interscholastic Middle School Athletic Programs

Authors: Raymond Tucker

Corresponding Author:
Raymond Tucker, D.S.M, CSCS, FMSL1, USATFL1, USAWLP-1
Assistant Professor of Kinesiology
University of Houston at Victoria
3007 N. Ben Wilson
Victoria, Texas 77901
Phone: (361)-570-4381

Raymond Tucker is an assistant professor of Kinesiology at the University of Houston at Victoria. He is a graduate of the United States Sports Academy with a Doctorate in Sports Management, and he is a certified strength and conditioning specialist by the National Strength and Conditioning Association. He is also a certified coach by the United States Track and Field Association, United States Weightlifting Federation, and Functional Movement Systems. He is certified by the state board of educator certification in Texas in health grades (EC-12) and secondary physical education (6-12).

Male Athletes Perception of Coaches Behavior in University Interscholastic Middle School Athletic Programs

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to determine male athlete’s perception of the behavior style of leadership used by their coaches in the treatment and daily interactions with their male athletes. The study compares male athletes at three different middle schools to determine if the perceived behavior styles of leadership are similar amongst male coaches at the respective middle schools for this study.

Results of this study detected a statistically significant difference in the behavior styles of leadership perceived by male athletes at the respective middle schools in this study in the following dimensions. 1) democratic and training and instruction, (2) autocratic and training and instruction, (3) social support and training instruction, (4) positive feedback and democratic behavior, (5) positive feedback and autocratic behavior, and (6) positive feedback and social support. This study did not reveal a statistically significant difference between middle schools in the dimensions of (1) positive feedback and training and instruction, (2) autocratic and democratic behavior, (3) social support and democratic behavior, (4) social support and autocratic behavior. Results of this study clearly indicate male coaches at the three respective middle schools in this study place more emphasis on the democratic behavior style of leadership with a mean score of 3.93, and the autocratic behavior style of leadership with a mean score of 3.65, the data shows an emphasis is also placed on the social support behavior style of leadership with a mean score of 3.59 (see Table 1).

This study does not conclude which behavior styles of leadership perceived by male athletes is superior for the overall success of a middle school athletic program. What follows is the basis for this study, procedures used to conduct the research, an analysis of the data, conclusions, application in sport, and finally, recommendations for further research on this topic.

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Taking Concussion Vital Signs Neurocognitive Test Under Varied Conditions

Authors: Scott L. Bruce, EdD, AT, ATC
Sarah Stauffer, AT, ATC
Andrew Chaney, AT, ATC
Kelsey Garrison, AT, ATC
Wright State University

Corresponding Author:
Scott L. Bruce, EdD, AT, ATC
Assistant Professor/Director of Research
Wright State University
3680 Colonel Glenn Hwy
Dayton, OH 45435
937-245-7622
scott.bruce@wright.edu

Scott Bruce is an Assistant Professor and the Director of Research for the Athletic Training Program at Wright State University.

Taking Concussion Vital Signs Neurocognitive Test Under Varied Conditions

ABSTRACT
Neurocognitive test batteries are commonly used tools for concussion assessments in the medical professions. Administered at baseline and post-injury these tests provide information on a patient’s neurocognitive ability during the recovery and return-to-activity phases. In athletics, student-athletes usually take the baseline exam as a group in a computer lab prior to the season beginning. If a medical professional believes an individual has sustained a possible concussion, they will retest them and compare their post-injury and baseline results. A deficit in one of more areas of the neurocognitive test may be indicative of a possible concussion. The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not there was a difference in neurocognitive test scores from Concussion Vital Signs when tested under two different conditions: “lights out” and with distractions. Our study was a randomized control trial performed at a Midwestern NCAA, “mid-major” Division I Institution. The subjects were 15 college-aged students with an overall mean age of 19 years (1.2). There were seven females (mean age was 19 ± 0.77) and eight males (mean age was 20 ± 1.2). A paired t-test was used to determine if a difference in the neurocognitive test section scores between the conditions existed. On three of the ten test sections, there was a statistically significant difference between the baseline and distraction condition. On four of the ten test sections between baseline and the lights out condition for males, but not for females. Testing should be done in a quiet room, with distractions minimized, as distraction hinders focus and performance. The results of this study indicate males may have a more difficult time concentrating while taking neurocognitive tests than females. Administering neurocognitive testing in a quiet, well-lit room is the best condition for the patient to take these concussion-related tests.

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