Comparison of Shotokan Karate Injuries against Injuries in other Martial Arts and Select NCAA Contact Sports

Authors: John-David Swanson, Jacquelynn Morrissey, Adam Barragan

Corresponding Author:
John-David Swanson, Ph.D.
Department of Biology and Biomedical Sciences,
Salve Regina University,
100 Ochre Point Ave,
Newport, RI 02840

John-David Swanson is an Associate Professor and Interim Chair of the Department of Biology and Biomedical Sciences at Salve Regina University. A long time Shotokan Karate Practitioner he is the Director of both the National Collegiate Karate Association and the East Coast Collegiate Karate Union.

Comparison of Shotokan karate Injuries against Injuries in other Martial Arts and Select NCAA Contact Sports

United States Collegiate Shotokan karate clubs have historically played a vital role in the spread of the art of Shotokan karate. Additionally, Karate being included in the 2020 Olympics is expected to afford an increase in participation. In recent years, however, there has been an increase in risk management policies at universities to protect the liability of the school and increase the safety of the students who participate in any kind of athletic activity. While these policies are important, they vary depending on the type of sport or activity, resulting in different athletic activities being categorized into various categories based on their perceived risk. Shotokan karate is often placed into the high-risk category, with resulting policies being implemented in such a way as to make the day-to-day running of a Shotokan karate Club difficult to impossible. Interestingly, there is very little evidence that Shotokan karate is a high-risk sport and is deserving of the policies and regulations that it is often subjected to. To date, current risk assessments for injuries in Shotokan karate exist but have not been collated and organized in a meaningful way. To this end, using the current available data for injuries in Shotokan karate, this study aims to compare Shotokan karate to other types of martial arts and other collegiate sports, while looking at parameters including, but not limited to, the duration of training and number of days of training per week, to identify the safest ranges and determine ways to help prevent injury. It is hoped that in collating these data collegiate clubs will be able to help college policy makers to reach more informed decisions regarding risk management with respect to this sport.

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Effect of Therapeutic Tape on Upper Extremity Reaction Time

Authors: Scott L. Bruce, EdD, AT, ATC
Siobhan Fagan M.Ed, AT, ATC, CSCS
Cody Cummins, AT, ATC
Brooke Kidd, AT, ATC,
Jasmin Harvey, ATC
Wright State University

Corresponding Author:
Scott L. Bruce, EdD, AT, ATC
Assistant Professor/Director of Research
Wright State University
3680 Colonel Glenn Hwy
Dayton, OH 45435

Scott Bruce is an Assistant Professor and the Director of Research for the Athletic Training Program at Wright State University.

Effect of Therapeutic Tape on Upper Extremity Reaction Time

The athletic training literature is lacking when comparing therapeutic tapes applied to the shoulder. The effect of these tapes on pain and range of motion have been studied, but their effect on reaction time has not. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of therapeutic taping has an effect on shoulder reaction time as assessed on a Dynavision™ unit. A single-blind, randomized control trial design was implemented. Participants included 23 male and 33 female, physically-active, college-aged, volunteer students. Baseline tests were performed on the Dynavision™ consisting of one warm-up activity and three reaction time tests. Participants returned a minimum of two weeks later and were randomly assigned to receive either Kinesio Tape®, RockTape or a sham tape applied to the slowest, baseline tested, shoulder. All tapes were applied by the same certified athletic trainer trained in both Kinesio Tape® and RockTape applications. Participants were blind folded to prevent them from seeing which tape was being applied. At the conclusion of the tape application participants rested for a minimum of 30 minutes, as per manufacturers’ recommendations, before repeating the same set of Dynavision™ tests. A chi-square test found no statistical differences across the three tape groups (2 = 0.426, p = 0.808). A paired t-test was used to assess each of the five different testing conditions for both shoulders of which 18 were the three different taped conditions. Although the RockTape condition was found to have the greatest difference in mean time across all three tests, only 4 of the 18 taped conditions assessed reached statistical significance. These results suggest, regarding shoulder reaction time, RockTape may be more beneficial than Kinesio Tape® or a sham tape.

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Utilizing Imagery to Enhance Injury Rehabilitation

Author: Marty Durden

Marty Durden, Ed. D., United States Sports Academy
M. Ed., Troy University

Athletic Director
Presbyterian School
5300 Main Street
Houston, TX
(706) 681-5904

Marty Durden is the Director of Athletics and Director of the Presbyterian Outdoor Education Center in Houston, TX. He serves as adjunct professor in Sports Management for Concordia University, Austin TX. He also serves as adjunct professor in Educational Leadership at Bellhaven University in Jackson, MS.


Recovering from injury is an unfortunate byproduct of athletic participation. The rehabilitation process can be an arduous experience full of discouragement. The athlete who approaches rehab with a positive attitude and a goal-oriented plan can turn the tough task of recovery into an affirmative experience. Therapy can result in the athlete being better prepared for future obstacles and in a better position to succeed. The athlete who takes charge of the rehabilitation process in a proactive manner has an improved chance to overcome the debilitating effects of injury.

A proven method that enhances the rehabilitation process is the utilization of mental imagery. Wise use of imagery techniques streamlines the recovery period and minimizes the psychological damage to the athlete. Imagery allows the athlete to participate actively in the progression and assume ownership for recovery. Utilizing imagery techniques allows a locus of control that lends hope for a timely return to competition. Visual imagery allows the athlete to see the movements that lead to restoration. Emotive imagery allows the athlete to see the possibilities that lead to recuperation. Healing imagery allows the athlete to sense and see the transformational process of recovery as the body responds via the natural effects of the healing. Utilization of imagery allows the athlete to be stronger than before, armed with a positive self-image, and satisfied with the efforts that brought them through this tough struggle.

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DIY Sport Leadership Development Academies & Institutes: An Investigation of NCAA Division I Athletic Departments

Mike Voight, Ph.D.
Central Connecticut State University
PEHP Kaiser Gym 1804
New Britain, CT 06050

Ann Hickey, Ph.D.
Whittier College
Whittier, CA

Author Note
Correspondence regarding this article should be directed to the first author at

DIY Sport Leadership Development Academies & Institutes:
An Investigation of NCAA Division I Athletic Departments

Over the past decade, leadership development (LD) has been a popular pursuit in collegiate athletics. In 2004, the first leadership development program, or academy, in collegiate athletics was the Carolina Leadership Academy ( Even the governing body, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), has instituted formal LD programming for student-athletes, coaches, and administrators (NCAA, 2016). At individual universities, there has been an increase in the adoption of leadership development (LD) initiatives across NCAA Division I athletic departments. The general purpose of this investigation was to search for then analyze NCAA Division I athletic departments who have implemented “in-house” DIY LD programs and academies. A content analysis of the departmental websites was conducted (similar to the methodology employed by Hayden, Kornspan, Bruback, Parent, & Rodgers, 2013), to gain a frequency of the number of LD programs offered, the names of the LD initiatives, the nature of the facilitator positions, the mission and particular programming, and uniqueness’s of each program. A total of sixty-two LD academies were revealed, which consists of a range of program types, including monthly workshops and/or guest speakers for selected student-athletes, to programs for different classes (e.g., freshmen, sophomores, juniors, seniors), to programs specific to team captains, even fully integrated leadership processes which includes courses, mentoring, service projects, and global citizenship challenges. Future directions in leadership academy research include a more thorough review of programming, qualitative analysis of experiences and curricula, and a greater emphasis on evaluating the effectiveness of the LD initiatives.

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A Review of the NCAA’s Business Model, Amateurism, and Paying the Players

Authors: Joshua Senne, MBA, MS, SCPM

Corresponding Author:
Joshua Senne, MBA, MS, SCPM
5068 Argus Dr. Apt 1
Los Angeles, CA 90041

Joshua A. Senne is a doctoral student at the United States Sports Academy located in Daphne, Alabama. His doctoral emphasis is sports fitness and health, with a specialization in sport marketing. He currently holds a master of business administration from Frostburg State University, a master of science in recreation and sport management from Indiana State University, a business credential from the Harvard Business School, and is a Stanford Certified Project Manager.

A Review of the NCAA’s Business Model, Amateurism, and Paying the Players

This paper presents an overview of five topics related to the NCAA as a sport governing body. These topics include (a) the NCAA as an organization, (b) NCAA revenue generation and distribution, (c) amateurism, (d) policy formation and adoption, (e) and key issues with pay-for-play. For each topic, this paper presents an overview as well as a reason for selecting the topic. Further, this paper presents information about the importance of each topic related to the NCAA as a sport governing body, plus any relevant social, ethical, or legal concerns.

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