Student Fundraising at Beijing University of Physical Education – A Practical Experience for Chinese Sports Management Students

Abstract

With the dramatic economic changes taking place in China there is a move to promote sports and the sports industry through individual and corporate support. Curriculum must be established on the university level to accommodate these needs. The purpose of this research was to investigate the interest in a sport event fundraising program by undergraduate and graduate students at Beijing University of Physical Education (BUPE), Beijing, China. Results indicate an interest in initiating fundraising events at the respective institutions. Students require education on potential careers in sports marketing and fundraising in order to enhance their potential success in the field.

Introduction

Sport administrators and marketers with skills to organize and administer clubs and sport events could lay the basis for future community sport structures in China (Boshoff, 1997). An important part of this effort would include education. There is a diversity of opportunities for the sport fundraiser in international sport. Because technology will continue to improve and trade barriers between countries will continue to decline, the opportunities in international sport will increase. To capitalize on these opportunities, the sport management student must become knowledgeable and sensitive to cultures of other countries.

Overview of History of Sports Industry in China

Like other enterprises, the sports industry has benefited from government directed initiatives. Unfortunately, financial support has decreased in recent years forcing people who work in sports related businesses to seek new fundraising opportunities. There were two methods of management that appeared during this era, one was to encourage the sport units with incentives to diversify management. The other was to draw funds from society, to find sponsorship for sports activities and high level sports teams. Therefore, many excellent sport teams were formed with corporate ties.

In addition to the fact that China’s sport industry is in its infancy, there are many unique problems within the sports industry in China. One example is the imbalance in industry development, which is geographic-based. The sports industry has developed in metropolitan cities including Shanghai and Beijing whereas sports marketing initiatives in western and rural-China have not yet been formed. Another example is that domestic sports enterprises are relatively small and cannot compete with the larger and established foreign sports corporations (Bao Mingxiao, personal communication, October 15, 1999).

“The concept of sport marketing is new in China and the size of the Chinese sport market is enormous. China has 22% of the world’s population; even if a portion of China became spenders on sport, it would increase consumers in the global marketplace by millions” (Hong, 1997).

An urgent call for promotion and development of sports commercial markets during the 1993 Chinese Sports Ministry Conference was therefore recognized. The Minister of Sport, Wu Shaozhu, claimed that the Chinese sports system must reform without delay.

The strategy of reform is to commercialize sport and to integrate sport into people’s daily life. This includes people paying for sport and exercise, privately sponsored sport, the club system, and promotion of sport commercial market (Hong, 1997). Two specific goals of the conference were to extend sport science, technology, and research, and to reform sport training systems along market lines. The administrative structure of the Chinese Sports Ministry suggests a commitment to Sport Administration education as it includes a department of Sports Education (Hong, 1997). Hong (1997) has reported an extensive review of the history of Sport Education in China.

When sports administration education in China started in 1988, there were only two schools (Beijing University of Physical Education and WuHan Institute of Physical Education) that implemented an undergraduate major in this area. Today there are six schools that provide sports administration education. This is where most of the sports administration courses are housed. There are no uniform curriculums as each school has different courses such as Sports Science, Sports Management, Sports Marketing, Statistics, Administration, Operational Research, Computer, Sports Conspectus, Sports Administrative Psychology, Sports Information, Communication, Knowledge and Basic Skill of Sports and Foreign Language (Yang Ping, personal communication, October 15, 1999). As seen there are no programs that utilize sports fundraising opportunities as part of the curriculum or the mere offering of a fundraising course.

Methods 

In May-July 2000 a 15-item questionnaire that investigated event management and fundraising topics was administered to undergraduate and graduate students from Beijing

University of Physical Education. Due to the investigative nature of the study, the investigators designed the questionnaire from their knowledge base in international sports marketing. Administrative Personnel at BUPE approved the questionnaire and participation was voluntary.

Facility Description

Beijing University of Physical Education was opened on Nov. 1st 1953 as a College of Physical Education located in the north part of Beijing. In 1956, the name of the institution was changed to Institute of Beijing Physical Education. It was changed to the present name in order to more accurately reflect its expanding role as the leader in teaching, research, and public service for the development of the national and global sports. One vital aspect of these efforts is to understand and educate the students and the public in the science and benefits of human movement. Now it has emerged as one of the key universities in China. This university offers programs from baccalaureate through the doctorate for more than 3,000 full-time students in 5 academic areas: Department of Physical Education, Department of Traditional Folk Sport, Department of Exercise Physiology, and College of Sport Management. There are about 400 faculty. Among them, two hundred are professors and associate professors, and about 200 are assistant professors and lecturers (Zhongyi Yuan, personal communication, August 31, 2000).

Results

Demographic Information

Demographic information on respondents is listed in Table 1.

Table 1. Graduate Status, Age, and Gender of Students from Beijing University of Physical Education, Beijing China

Frequency (n)
Percentage (%)
Graduate Status
under-graduate
14
24.56
graduate
43
75.44
Age
<20-24
52
91.23
25-30
4
7.02
>31
1
1.75
Gender
male
36
36.84
female
21
63.16

 

*10RMB approximates $1.25 US
**numerical value not provided, response stated that “a proper or an acceptable price” should be charged.

 

There were a total of 57 respondents (36M, 21F) to the questionnaire, 25% (n=14) undergraduate and 75% (n=43) graduate students. The majority (91%; n=52) of respondents were 18-24 years old, 7% (n=4) were 25-30, and 2% (n=1) were over 31. The majority (81%, n=46) of respondents were majoring in sport management, although other sport-related disciplines (sport biomedicine n=1, social sport n=3, sport training n=1, sport education n=1, sport psychology n=2, sport anatomy n=1, sport dance n=1, Chinese traditional medicine n=1) were represented (Table 2).

Table 2. Course of Study of Students from Beijing University of Physical Education, Beijing China

Course of Study
Frequency (n)
Percentage (%)
Sport Management
46
80.70
Sport Psychology
2
3.51
Sport Dance
1
1.75
Sport Training
1
1.75
Sport Education
1
1.75
Social Sport
3
5.26
Sport Anatomy
1
1.75
Chinese Traditional Medicine
1
1.75
Sport Biomedicine
1
1.75
Total
57
100

Event Management and Fundraising Topics Enthusiasm

Forty Six percent (n=26) of respondents had not taken coursework that addressed event management and fundraising topics. However, this did not deter their enthusiasm for such topics, as 72% (n=41) were interested in assisting in event management for sponsoring collegiate sport competitions, 58% (n=33) would be willing to work throughout the year to plan an event, and 25% (n=14) would be willing to enroll in a US-college sponsored internet course to help prepare students for sponsorship of an exhibition at their respective university. It is noted that forty-three respondents did not respond to the internet course question as they currently do not have access to the internet.

US Sports Interest

Eighty-six percent (n=49) of respondents reported that sponsoring a US collegiate sports team would be well received by students at their respective university. Respondents indicated that the sporting events that would receive the most attendance include men’s basketball (67%), baseball (42%), soccer (40%), and tennis (39%). Other sporting events, including track and field, and bowling only received 32% interest combined. Please note that respondents could choose various combinations of sporting events. The most effective methods for advertisement of an exhibition included television (77%), on the internet (68%), and by newspaper (49%). Please note that respondents could choose various combinations advertising and marketing.

Event Fundraising and Sport Management

The majority (72%; n=41) of respondents reported that spectators should be charged a fee to view a US sport exhibition. In regard to cost for attendance, there was a wide price range (3 to 100 RMB; 10 RMB approximates $1.25 US) that respondents reported as a reasonable charge; the highest frequency response (11%; n=6) was 10 RMB (Table 3). However, 32 respondents (56% of total) did not provide a numerical value, stating that “a proper or an acceptable price” should be charged. Respondents reported favorably (77%; n=44) that spectators would buy shirts, hats, and other memorabilia and food and soft drinks (70%; n=40) during the event.

Table 3. Respondent Report on Cost of Viewing a US-Sport Exhibition

Cost (China RMB)*
Frequency (n)
Percentage (%)
3
1
1.75
5
4
7.02
8
1
1.75
10
6
10.53
15
1
1.75
20
3
5.26
30
1
1.75
50
1
1.75
100
1
1.75
>100
3
5.26
Missing**
35
61.40
Total
57
100

Discussion

It is evident from the survey responses that there is an interest in implementing a fundraising event at Chinese Universities by Chinese sports management students. The majority of students participating in this study were male graduate students. In addition, most were sports management majors with some biomedicine majors. The majority of the students have not had any formal training or practical experience in fundraising or implementing an event. The students were interested in hosting a US athletic team for the purpose of gaining practical experience in fundraising and event management. Men’s basketball was seen as the team that would provide the greatest interest for students and the general public. Students determined that television, internet, and the newspaper would be the most effective means of advertising such an event. The student respondents indicated that spectators should be charged a fee for the event and that 5 to 10 RMB would be the most affordable price. Many of the respondents did not answer this question due to a lack of understanding of the event management process. Most indicated that memorabilia and food/soft drinks should be made available. The student’s interest in the aforementioned areas has been affected by the shift in economic policies and the open trade agreement. Chinese students now see the opportunity for economic gain through sports as seen on television and the web.
Most Chinese students are interested in pursuing an internet course in sport fundraising due to the global perspective that is being stressed by the Chinese government. In addition, young students have seen the fast development of sports in China along with increases in international exchange of sports activities therefore the interest in the field has obviously increased. The high interest in an international sport fundraising curriculum may reflect strategies being implemented by the Chinese Sports Ministry. In June of 1993, a conference titled “The Urgent Promotion and Development of Sports Business” addressed administrative restructuring of Chinese sport (Hong, 1997). This information may be a factor in the high interest of undergraduate and graduate Chinese sports management students towards sport fundraising education. Student interest in fundraising has also increased from proliferation of sporting events on Chinese television and the internet. The internet has increased and thus a wealth of information on sports is at students’ fingertips.

Summary

Curriculum in international sport fundraising adheres to the structure established by the Chinese Education Ministry in regard to the number of hours of credit. Education of Chinese undergraduate and graduate sports management students in the aforementioned academic discipline will serve as a base for overall understanding of the unique nature of sports fundraising. Practical experience gained from hosting an American Collegiate team will further strengthen the understanding of the fundraising process by Chinese students.

Due to the small sample size of this study, results should be interpreted with caution. However, the findings deserve reflection and consideration because it was found that Chinese undergraduate and graduate students have expressed interest in gaining practical experience in the area of fundraising by implementing an event at their respective institutions. A curriculum to fit the needs of both entities could be met and further enhanced by offering an international sports fundraising course over the internet and by offering practical experiences to the Chinese students by affording them the opportunity to host events. Further studies should increase sample size and include representation of many more colleges and universities in China.

Reference

Bao Mingxiao (personal communication, October 15, 1999).
Boshoff, Gary. “Barefoot” Sports Administrators: Laying the Foundation for Sports Development in South Africa. Journal of Sport Management, 1997:11 (1), 69-79.

Hong, Fan. Commercialism and Sport in China: Present Situation and Future Expectations. Journal of Sport Management. 1997:11 (4): 343-354.

Yang Ping (personal communication, October 15, 1999)

Zhongyi Yuan (personal communication, August 31, 2000)

Author’s Note:

Address correspondence to Dr. Overton, Laughlin Building 217D, Morehead State University, Morehead, KY 40351, phone 606-783-2176, FAX 606-783-5058,
e mail r.overton@morehead-st.edu

Reginald F. Overton, EdD, Assistant Professor of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Morehead State University
Brenda Malinauskas-Overton, PhD, Assistant Professor of Sports Nutrition, Morehead State University
Zhongyi Yuan, Associate Professor, Beijing University of Physical Education

Upon Further Review: An Examination of Sporting Event Economic Impact Studies

As pointed out by Soonhwan Lee (2001) in a recent issue of The Sport Journal, there exists a great deal of debate about the validity of economic impact studies of sporting events. Economists widely believe that studies sponsored by leagues and events exaggerate the economic impact that professional franchises and large sporting events make on local communities. Such overstatement results from several factors.

First, the studies often ignore the substitution effect. To the extent that attendees at a sporting event spend their money on that event instead of on other activities in the local economy, the sporting event simply results in reallocation of expenditures in the economy, rather than in real net increases in economic activity. Next, the studies usually ignore the crowd out effect. Many large sporting events are staged in communities that are already popular destinations for tourists. If hotels and restaurants in a host city normally tend to be at or near capacity during the period in which a competition takes place, that contest may simply supplant, not supplement, the regular tourist economy. Third, the studies may fail to address whether money spent at a sporting event stays within the local economy. Much of the money spent by out-of-town visitors pays for hotel rooms, rental cars, and restaurants. To the extent that hotels, car rental agencies, and restaurants are national chains, their profits associated with a sporting event do not further the welfare of the local citizens, but rather accrue to stockholders around the country. Similarly, revenue from ticket sales is often paid to a league or to a sport’s ruling body instead of local organizers. Fourth, sporting events’ non-economic costs—traffic congestion, vandalism, environmental degradation, disruption of residents’ lifestyle, and so on—are rarely reported (Lee, 2001). Finally, since economic impact studies are often used by sports boosters to justify public expenditures on sports infrastructure, the ultimate question for anyone reading such studies is whether analysis conducted by agents with a vested interest in the research outcome can ever be considered an objective examination of events’ true economic impacts.

Empirical Analyses of Economic Impact Statements

It is one thing to point out bias that could potentially be introduced in impact studies. It is another thing altogether to examine whether actual economic impact studies are, in practice, truly flawed. One tool that can be used to determine the accuracy of economic impact studies is ex post comparisons of predicted economic gains to actual economic performance of cities hosting sporting events. Empirical studies have been conducted on the observed economic impacts of large sporting events as well as on the construction of new sport facilities.

On the sport facility side, numerous researchers have examined the relationship between new facilities and economic growth in metropolitan areas (Baade & Dye, 1990; Rosentraub, 1994; Baade, 1996; Noll & Zimbalist, 1997; Coates & Humphreys, 1999). In every case, independent analysis of economic impacts made by newly built stadiums and arenas has uniformly found no statistically significant positive correlation between sport facility construction and economic development (Siegfried & Zimbalist, 2000). This stands in stark contrast to the claims of teams and leagues, who assert that the large economic benefits of professional franchises merit considerable public expenditures on stadiums and arenas.

On the events side, nearly every national or international sporting event elicits claims of huge benefits accruing to the host city. For example, the National Football League typically claims an economic impact from the Super Bowl of around $400 million (National Football League, 1999), Major League Baseball attaches a $75 million benefit to the All-Star Game (Selig et al., 1999), and the NCAA Final Four in Men’s Basketball is estimated to generate from $30 million to $110 million (Mensheha, 1998; Anderson, 2001). Multi-day events such as the Olympics or soccer World Cup produce even larger figures. The pre-Olympics estimates for Atlanta’s Games in 1996 suggested the event would generate $5.1 billion in direct and indirect economic activity and 77,000 new jobs in Georgia (Humphreys & Plummer, 1995).

In many cases, variation in the estimates of benefits alone raises questions about the validity of studies. A series of economic impact studies of the NBA All-Star game produced numbers ranging from a $3 million windfall for the 1992 game in Orlando to a $35 million bonanza for the game three years earlier in Houston (Houck, 2000). The ten-fold disparity in the estimated impact of the event in different years serves to illustrate the ad hoc nature of these studies. Similarly, ahead of the 1997 NCAA Women’s Basketball Final Four, an economic impact of $7 million was estimated for the local economy in Cincinnati, while the same event two years later was predicted to produce a $32 million impact on the San Jose economy (Knight Ridder News Service, 1999). Such increases cannot be explained by changes in general price levels or growth in the popularity of the tournament. Instead, they are explained by the fact that economic impact studies are highly subjective and vulnerable to significant error as well as manipulation.

In further cases, the size of an estimate can strain credulity. The Sports Management Research Institute estimated the direct economic benefit of the U. S. Open tennis tournament in Flushing Meadows, NY, to be $420 million for the tri-state area, more than any other sporting or entertainment event in any city in the United States; this sum represents 3% of the total annual direct economic impact of tourism for New York (United States Tennis Association, 2001). It is simply impossible to believe that 1 in 30 tourists to New York City in any given year are visiting the city solely to attend the U. S. Open. Similarly, the projected $6 billion impact of a proposed World Cup in South Africa in 2006 would suggest that soccer games and their ancillary activities would represent over 4% of the entire gross domestic product of the country in that year (South Africa Football Association, 2000).

As in the case of sports facilities, independent work on the economic impact of mega–sporting events has routinely found the effect of these events on host communities to be either insignificant or an order of magnitude less than the figures espoused by the sports promoters. In a study of six Super Bowls dating back to 1979, Porter (1999) found no increase in taxable sales in the host community compared to previous years without the game. Similarly, Baade and Matheson (2000) found that hosting the Super Bowl was associated with an increase in employment in host cities of 537 jobs, for a total impact of approximately $32 million, less than one-tenth the figure trumpeted by the NFL. In a study of 25 Major League Baseball all-star games held between 1973 and 1997, Baade and Matheson (2001) found that, in the case of three all-star games in California (1987, 1989, 1992), the events were correlated with worse-than-expected employment growth in host cities and were furthermore associated with an average reduction in taxable sales of nearly $30 million. Finally, Baade and Matheson’s examination (1999) of the Olympic Games held in Los Angeles in 1984 and Atlanta in 1996 found total observed increases in economic activity of $100 million and of $440 million to $1.7 billion, respectively. While the range of the economic impact for Atlanta exhibits a great deal of uncertainty, even the most favorable figure is only one-third of the amount claimed by the host committee.

Discussion and Recommendation

There are theoretical reasons to believe that economic impact studies of large sporting events may overstate those events’ true impact. In addition, evidence suggests that in practice the ex ante estimates of economic benefits far exceed the ex post observed economic development of communities that host mega–sporting events or stadium construction. The best recommendation is simply for cities to view with extreme caution any economic impact estimates provided by sports franchises, sponsoring leagues, or event-organizing committees.

References

Anderson, T. (2001, January 19). St. Louis ready to raise NCAA flag if Atlanta can’t. St. Louis Business Journal.

Baade, R. A. (1996). Professional sports as a catalyst for metropolitan economic development. Journal of Urban Affairs, 18(1), 1–17.

Baade, R. A., & Dye, R. (1990). The impact of stadiums and professional sports on metropolitan area development. Growth and Change, 21(2), 1–14.

Baade, R. A., & Matheson, V. A. (2000). An assessment of the economic impact of American football, Reflets et Perspectives, 34(2–3), 35–46.

Baade, R. A., & Matheson, V. A. (2001). Home run or wild pitch? Assessing the economic impact of Major League Baseball’s All-Star Game. Journal of Sports Economics, 2(4), 307–327.

Baade, R. A., & Matheson, V. A. (in press). Assessing the economic impact of the summer Olympic Games: The experience of Los Angeles and Atlanta. Proceedings of the 1999 International Conference on the Economic Impact of Sports, Athens, Greece.

Coates, D., & Humphreys, B. (1999). The growth effects of sports franchises, stadia, and arenas. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 14(4), 601–624.

Enquirer Sports Coverage. (1999, March 25). Final Four’s financial impact hard to gauge. Retrieved August 30, 2001, from http://www.enquirer.com/editions/1999/02/25/spt_final_fours.html.

Houck, J. (2000, January 21). High-stake courtship. FoxSportsBiz.com. Retrieved September 14, 2000, from http://www.foxsports.com/business/trends/z000120allstar1.sml.

Humphreys, J. M., & Plummer, M. K. (1995). The economic impact on the state of Georgia of hosting the 1996 summer Olympic Games (mimeograph). Athens, GA: University of Georgia, Selig Center for Economic Growth.

Lee, S. (2001). A review of economic impact study on sport events. The Sport Journal, 4(2).

Mensheha, M. (1998, March 27). Home-court edge: Final Four promises to be economic slam dunk. San Antonio Business Journal.

National Football League. (1999). Super Bowl XXXIII generates $396 million for South Florida [Report 58(7)].

Noll, R., & Zimbalist, A. (1997). Economic impact of sports teams and facilities. In Sports, Jobs and Taxes. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.

Porter, P. (1999). Mega–sports events as municipal investments: A critique of impact analysis. In Fizel, J., Gustafson, E., & Hadley, L. (Eds.), Sports economics: Current research. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Rosentraub, M. (1994). Sport and downtown development strategy. Journal of Urban Affairs, 16(3), 228–239.

Seigfried, J., and Zimbalist, A. (2000). Economics of sports facilities and their communities. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14(3), 95–114.

Selig, B., Harrington, J., & Healey, J. (1999, July 12). New ballpark press briefing. Retrieved August 29, 2000, from http://www.asapsports.com/baseball/1999allstar/071299BS.html.

South Africa Football Association. (2000). World Cup bid details. Retrieved January 9, 2002, from http://www.safa.ord.za/html/bid_det.htm.

United States Tennis Association. (2001). 2000 U.S. Open nets record $420 million in economic benefits for New York. Retrieved January 9, 2002, from http://www.usta.com/pagesup/news12494.html.

Artists & Athletes: A Perspective on the 2002 Olympic Arts Festival

It is right and proper that cultural programs are a required part of the Olympic Games. To a certain extent, history has driven the integration of cultural programs into the Olympic Games. And, just as both Olympic and Paralympic winter games highlight the accomplishments of our athletes, it is noble and right to similarly celebrate, through Cultural Olympiads, the achievements of our artists.

Thanks to the tireless efforts of archeologists and anthropologists, we have come to appreciate the significance of the Ancient Games and their role in merging sport and culture. Surely this had influenced, in the late 19th century, Baron Pierre de Coubertin and his interest in the integration of art, principally through competitions, as an element in the re-establishment of the modern Olympic Games. Today, Conrado Durantez, president of the International Pierre de Coubertin Committee, keeps interest in de Coubertin and his Olympic legacy thriving.

David Gilman Romano, Ph.D., the gifted classical archaeologist from the University of Pennsylvania, in an essay it was my privilege to commission, said “[C]ultural programs as required elements of the modern Olympic Games are totally in keeping with the origins and history of the ancient festival, where sculpture, poetry, music, and political idealism were bound together with athletic competition and religious celebration.” Romano reminds us that the Delphi festival originated as a musical tribute to Apollo Pythios. Contests in singing to the flute appeared in the sixth century BC, and it was only later that athletic contests were added. I find it both compelling and fitting that the very earliest text in the entire Greek world is scratched into the shoulder of a terra-cotta vase found buried in an Athenian grave. It is a hexameter poem that describes the winner of a dancing contest from about 740 BC. It reads, “[H]e who dances most nimbly of all, take this [the vase] as your prize.” For me, this suggests not only a substantive chronicling of the Olympics, but the influential role artists have played, over the centuries, in the Olympic Movement. The Olympic motto, Citius—Altius—Fortius, invites artists to excel.

In his work The Forgotten Olympic Art Competitions, Richard Stanton explores the program of a conference in Paris in April 1906 called by de Coubertin, at which choreography, letters, music, painting, sculpture, and other disciplines were detailed and discussed. The inclusion of arts and letters in the modern Olympics was under way.

Today, the Olympic Charter binds organizing committees to “promote harmonious relations, mutual understanding and friendship among the participants and others attending the Olympic Games,” in part through the establishment of a cultural program. With proper latitude for local customs and traditions—combined with oversight from the International Olympic Committee’s Commission on Culture and Olympic Education—today’s organizing committees can, through a well-curated Olympic Arts Festival, impact the games and leave a cultural legacy for them.

These few examples of ancient and contemporary history have helped define the role of the 2002 Cultural Olympiad, or Olympic Arts Festival, surrounding the Olympic and Paralympic winter games of 2002. Essays on the Ancient Games, on the role of artists who live with disabilities, and on the connection of human rights within the context of Olympic ideals have all helped provide a perspective and point of view to my selection of programming for the XIX Olympic Winter Games in Salt Lake City. So, too, has a commissioned work by the 39th poet laureate of the United States, Robert Pinsky, who in his poem calls upon the ancient Greek poet Pindar.

The ancient Olympic practice of chariot racing and the forgotten Olympic art competitions of the 20th century have suggested to me the legitimate placement of ice sculpting and the cultural experience of rodeo as a part of the 2002 festival, with accompanying cultural participation medals.

With all of this, however, the raison d’être of the 2002 Cultural Olympiad is the commissioning of new works by contemporary artists. This alone will define a cultural legacy for these Olympic Games. My programming includes a new modern dance work choreographed by Judith Jaimison for the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater, the world cultural ambassador of black heritage. With music by America’s jazz great Wynton Marsalis, the inspiration behind this new work is the life of the gifted Olympian Florence Griffith Joyner. It seems to me a fine way to merge sport and art. Another example is the commissioned work of the Pilobolus dance company that will combine humor with athleticism.

In his work One Hundred Years of Olympic Congresses 1894–1994, Norbert Muller reports that the aforementioned 1906 Paris conference recommended (in point of fact demanded) that dance be returned to a “more athletic way of expression.” I suggest that the Ailey and Pilobolus works will fulfill the 1906 mandate.

The monumental glass sculptures of Dale Chihuly resist categorization, yet if sculpture were an Olympic sport today, Chihuly would be an Olympian. Similar examples in theater, poetry, music, and the visual arts abound in this 2002 Cultural Olympiad.

It is fitting as well that the Olympic Arts Festival was called upon to produce the opening ceremony of the 113th session of the International Olympic Committee. This program of protocol, pageantry, and culture will reflect the vision of the 2002 Olympic Arts Festival: to highlight the achievements of athletes alongside the accomplishments of artists. This is what we aspire to. To get there, the Olympic Arts Festival established a mission to highlight Americans’ contributions to the arts and humanities, to celebrate Utah and its heritage, and to embrace the West and its cultures.

Artists live and work in community and have the singular ability to find the uncommon in the commonplace. The 2002 Olympic Arts Festival is artist driven. For, like athletes, artists live on the verge of peril.

The indigenous peoples of North America (the American Indians) play a significant and contemporary role in the arts festival. All the tribes of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau will gather together to curate an exhibition whose message is durability. The monumental sculptures of Allan Houser, a descendent of Chiricahua Apache Indians and one of America’s most influential and respected artists, will be on view throughout these Olympic Games.

While athletes inspire the world through peaceful competition at the 2002 Olympic Winter Games and Paralympic Winter Games, I have invited the 13th Reebok Human Rights Awards to the Olympic Arts Festival to recognize activists who have made significant contributions to human rights through nonviolent means. Norwegian photographer Karin Beate Nosterun will celebrate the work of Olympic Aid in an exhibition of vivid photographs documenting the organization’s efforts for refugee children in Africa.

In music, iconic American ensembles and soloists with international careers—such as the Mormon Tabernacle Choir, Itzhak Perlman, Frederica von Stade, and many others—will be featured.

For perhaps the first time, we will celebrate as well the culinary arts. Following select cultural experiences, I’ve called upon the James Beard Foundation to arrange for celebrity chefs to complement the artistic offerings. Some 50 chefs will celebrate “the art of the table.”

In addition, historical subjects will be addressed, in the light of current research. The 1936 Berlin Games are explored in an exhibition curated by the National Holocaust Museum. Another exhibition, “Homeland in the West,” traces the history of Jews in Utah. Additionally, in “Athletes in Antiquity: Works from the J. Paul Getty Museum,” art and artifacts illustrating Greece’s cultural legacy are showcased.

In all, some 15 exhibitions, 60 signature performances and special events, and 15 community celebrations will welcome both world visitors and 3,500 athletes from 80 countries. These audiences are assured, in an important way, of a place in the Olympic Movement. Their participation in the 2002 Olympic Arts Festival will help define the atmosphere of the games. If history is any judge, it will be an atmosphere fondly remembered.

Author Note

Raymond T. Grant is artistic director of the 2002 Olympic Arts Festival.

Prior to joining the Salt Lake Olympic Committee, he headed the performing arts and film area of the Disney Institute, a division of the Walt Disney Company. He previously served as general manager of the American Symphony Orchestra in Carnegie Hall in New York City.

He is a graduate of the University of Kansas and holds a master of arts degree in arts administration from New York University.

Effects Music Has on Lap Pace, Heart Rate and Perceived Exertion Rate During a 20-Minute Self-Paced Run

Abstract

The general problem of this study was to determine the effect, if any, that music had on heart rate, lap pace, and perceived exertion rate (RPE) during a 20-min self-paced run completed by a group of trained participants and a group of untrained participants. The participating subjects, all males, attended a college with an enrollment of 1,200. There were 12 participants, ranging in age from 18 to 23 years. They comprised two experimental groups. Experimental Group A consisted of 6 subjects who were considered untrained individuals, because they did not partake in exercise, or only in very limited exercise. Experimental Group B consisted of 6 subjects who were considered trained individuals, because they were in the habit of running more than three times a week to reach or exceed a target heart rate. The 12 subjects signed an informed consent form before participating in the study. No pre- or post-test capable of affecting the rate at which subjects completed the 20-min run was taken. The data were collected, condensed, and analyzed to measure performance differences when running to music and running without music. Analysis of the collected data employed Microsoft Excel as well as the t-test for the two samples’ means. Findings were that music had a noticeable effect on the pace demonstrated by both groups when running. Differences in heart rate and perceived exertion were found only in the untrained group, which may be due to source of error problems. Further research is recommended involving various styles of music and forms of athletic performance other than running.

 

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Effects Music Has on Lap Pace, Heart Rate, and Perceived Exertion Rate
During a 20-Min Self-Paced Run

In exercise performed by many children and adults, music is a consistent part of the routine. Many people report finding it easier to run or exercise while listening to music. One possible reason for this is that music allows a runner to take part in the beat or tempo of the music. When concentrating on the beat or tempo, a runner may work harder to keep pace with the music. The music may also allow a runner to forget about pain or strain endured during running, contributing to a quicker lap pace. Some individuals, furthermore, report that music excites them, and excitement increases blood pressure and heart rate, potentially providing quicker acceleration to a target heart rate. The physical state that accompanies excitement, then, means the athlete’s body warms up faster and he or she gets into the flow of the exercise or competition more quickly. A fourth potential benefit of exercising to music is that moving in a rhythmical fashion tends to eliminate wasted motion.

In general, many studies have related the use of music in exercise to improved performance, finding specifically that listening to music prior to or during exercise improves performance. Reasons given include (a) music provides a pacing advantage; (b) music is a form of distraction from exercise; and (c) music may affect mood, raising confidence or self-esteem and helping subjects enjoy exercise, thus fostering both their interest in working out and the level of exertion they put forth (Anshel & Marisi, 1979; Becker et al., 1994; Beckett, 1990; Boutcher & Trenske, 1990). In addition, Pujol and Langenfeld (1999) found, in developing their Wingate Anaerobic Test, several studies indicating music is of benefit when the physical performance is submaximal. Professional and recreational athletes alike use music for motivation and to forget about mental and emotional fatigue, several researchers have stated. Also, 10 different studies agree that “exercise endurance, performance perception, and perceived exertion levels are positively influenced by music versus non-music conditions” (Browney, McMurray, & Hackney, 1993).

Method

Participants

The study involved 12 male participants ranging in age from 18 to 23 years. All were enrolled in a college having about 1,200 students. The 12 subjects were divided into two experimental groups. Experimental Group A consisted of 6 subjects who were considered untrained individuals, because they did not partake in exercise, or only in very limited exercise. Experimental Group B consisted of 6 subjects who were considered trained individuals, because they were in the habit of running more than three times a week to reach or exceed a target heart rate. Subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire to provide information on age, weight, height, and body fat quotient (each subject’s body fat was measured by the researcher). Participants were also asked to complete an informed consent form developed by the researcher but typical of such forms used in standard research settings.

Procedure

No pre- or post-test capable of affecting the rate at which subjects completed the 20-min run was taken. The subjects were instructed to refrain from eating or drinking for 3 hours before the test (drinking water was, however, allowed). They were asked to wear a pair of jogging shorts and a tee shirt during the assessment, which was completed at a 160m indoor track during the work week and the hours 9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. This ensured the consistency of the environment across assessments, for which a four-week scheduling window was established. (The month-long window was necessary both for the participants’ convenience and due to scheduling conflicts at the track facility.) The 12 participants were asked to arrive individually, on the day and at the hour best fitting their daily schedules.

When a participant arrived at the indoor track, his resting heart rate was determined by the researcher, before the start of a pre-run stretching period. During that stretching period, a participant was guided individually by the researcher through a 15-step stretching routine. At the end of the stretching period, a subject received instructions from the researcher on the run to be performed: to run for 20 minutes at his own pace in the innermost lane of the three-lane track. Before beginning the run, a participant was fitted with a heart-rate monitor and was given a cassette tape and portable cassette player that could be held in hand or attached to the jogging shorts. Participants heard the music through headphones connected to the portable cassette player. Each was informed of the cassette tape’s contents before beginning the run. Each was instructed to adjust the sound volume of the player to a comfortable level before beginning the run and not to adjust it during the run. Each was asked to turn on the cassette player at the start of the run.

At this point, a participant was showed a card presenting a perceived exertion scale; the contents and use of the scale were explained. Each participant was told that, every 2.5 min during the run, he would need to point to the card as he continued running. The card would be presented to the participant by the researcher, who would be located on the inside of the track and would come to the runner (participants were told not to worry about coming to the researcher to see the card). The participant was told that the researcher would not offer spoken encouragement, and it was reiterated that the 20-min run should be at his own pace.

At this point, a participant was instructed about the location of the starting point and ending point of a lap around the track. The spot was clearly marked on the track with red tape. The final instruction given a participant constituted a brief explanation of how the runner would be told to stop running via a signal (both arms raised straight overhead) from the researcher indicating completion of the 20-min assessment period. When the run had been completed, 15 min were allowed to elapse and then the researcher measured the participant’s heart rate again.

Instruments

Prior to the assessment period at the track, each participant’s body fat was measured using the Tanita Body Fat Monitor/Scale (TBF-612). Equipment used at the track was the Polar Pulse heart rate monitor; a White-Westinghouse portable cassette player with connecting headphones; and a Fuji cassette tape (DR-I) playing 5 min of recorded music, followed by 5 min of no music, another 5 min of music, and another 5 min of no music. Music played consisted of two songs in a techno, or electronic dance music, style. The research also used a perceived exertion scale (Borg, G.A.V-4). The researcher worked with one assistant, who used a handheld stopwatch to record the time a participant took to complete each lap around the track (i.e., the lap pace). Data on heart rate and perceived exertion were collected every 2.5 min during the 20-min assessment. In addition, each subject’s heart rate was determined both prior to the assessment and again 15 min after completing the 20-min run. During the run, the lap pace was recorded each time a subject completed 1 full lap.

The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis to identify differences in heart rate, perceived exertion, and lap pace when running to music and when running without music. The analytical process employed was Microsoft Excel, using the t-test for the two samples’ means.

Results

Figure 1 illustrates the results pertaining to the first research question: How is the lap pace of untrained participants and trained participants affected by listening to music? Among both trained and untrained participants, listening to music increased lap pace to a statistically significant degree. With music, a trained participant’s lap pace averaged 52.25 s; without music, trained participants on average took 55.22 s to complete a lap. Similarly, with music, an untrained participant’s lap pace averaged 49.75 s; without music, untrained participants on average took 54.63 s to complete a lap, some 5 s slower. For trained participants, the average difference in lap pace when running to music versus running without music was just 3.03 s. This result suggests that the untrained participants were less able than the trained participants to set a constant pace for themselves throughout the run.

Figure 2 shows the results pertaining to the second research question: How is the perceived exertion reported by untrained participants and trained participants affected by listening to music? In Figure 2, the RPE (rate of perceived exertion) averages reflect the measurements recorded for the two sample groups each 2.5 min throughout the 20-min run. Among the trained participants, no significant relationship was observed between RPE and the presence or absence of music. Among the untrained participants, however, a significant relationship resulted. This group’s average RPE while listening to music was 13.4, compared to an average of 17.5 without music. The group perceived themselves to be exerting more effort to run when they did not hear the music.

Figure 3 shows the results pertaining to the third research question: How is the measured heart rate of untrained participants and trained participants affected by listening to music? In Figure 3, the average heart rate per 2.5-min interval is illustrated for the group of trained participants and the group of untrained participants, both with and without music. For the trained participants, no significant relationship was observed between heart rate and listening to music. Among the untrained runners, however, a significant relationship was found, namely that average heart rate fell by almost six beats per 2.5-min interval when music was played.

Table 1 details, for the group of trained participants and the group of untrained participants, the mean values for height, weight, body fat, and pre- and post-run heart rates.

 

Table 1

   
     
Average Trained Untrained
Height 5’10” 6’0″
Weight (lbs) 188.83 202.67
Body fat (%) 14.7 19.3
Pre-run heart rate 82.83 98.33
Post-run heart rate 113.50 113.20

Conclusion

The data collected by the study indicate that listening to music while running decreases the lap pace of both trained and untrained participants. The research clearly demonstrates that playing music had a profound effect on the male college students in the study. Among trained participants, listening to music while running slowed lap pace by an average 3 s, for an average of 52.25 s per lap. Untrained participants exhibited a larger change, slowing average lap pace by almost 5 s when listening to music (Anshel & Marisi, 1979; Becker et al., 1994; Beckett, 1990; Brownley, McMurray & Hackney, 1995; Schabort, Hopkins, & Hawley, 1998).

Furthermore, untrained subjects showed a decrease of more than 4 points in rate of perceived exertion when they listened to music as they ran. Thus, an untrained participant listening to music reported feeling a level of exertion (13.04 on average) only .21 points higher than a trained participant (reporting 12.83 on average) under the same conditions.

The contrast in heart rates between the trained and untrained subjects was similarly slight when music was played. When listening to music while running, an untrained subject recorded an average heart rate of 176.38 beats per minute (over the 2.5-min interval); while a trained subject recorded an average heart rate of 174.00 beats per minute (over the 2.5-min interval)—just 2.38 fewer beats (Potteiger, Schroeder, & Goff, 2000; Pujol & Langenfeld, 1999).

Interestingly, among the untrained subject pool, listening to music was associated with a decreased lap pace, one averaging 49.75 s and ranking 2.5 s quicker than the trained subjects’ average lap pace. With music playing, untrained subjects’ average heart rate fell by more than 13.00 beats per minute (over the 2.5-min interval), while trained subjects’ average heart rate slowed by just 2.88 beats per minute (over the 2.5-min interval).

Limitations

The choice of participants for the study may have introduced a source error in the research, in that it is uncertain whether all students exerted themselves equally during the 20-min observation period. Future research might involve setting some goal tending to elicit maximum exertion. Each participant’s personal characteristics may also have constrained his performance. For instance, neither experimental group had been actively “matched” or “balanced” by the researchers in terms of athletic ability or height and weight. It may be important to consider physical stature during selection of participants.

More subtle personal characteristics may have come into play in the form of participants’ relative enjoyment of the selected music, which comprised upbeat techno tunes. Future research might consider offering runners (or other participants) a choice of music, in an attempt to preclude boredom or irritation that could affect performance.

To summarize, the research showed music to exert a noticeable effect on lap paces of both trained and untrained runners. Significant differences in heart rate and perceived exertion in the presence or absence of music were observed for the untrained participants. That these significant differences were not seen for the trained participants likely reflects source errors in the study. This general type of performance research should be continued, focusing on various musical styles’ effects on various types of athletic performance and standardized test results, for a range of study participants.

References

Anshel, M. H., & Marisi, D. (1979). Effects of music and rhythm on physical performance. Research Quarterly, 49, 109–112.

Becker, N., Brett, S., Chambliss, C., Crowers, K., Haring, P., Marsh, C., & Montemayor, R. (1994). Mellow and frenetic antecedent music during athletic performance of children, adults, seniors. Perceptual Motor Skills, 79, 1043–1046.

Beckett, A. (1990). The effects of music on exercise as determined by physiological recovery heart rate and distance. Journal of Music Therapy, 27, 126–136.

Boutcher, S. H., & Trenske, M. (1990). The effects of sensory deprivation and music on perceived exertion and affect during exercise. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12, 167–176.

Brownley, K. A., McMurray, R. G., & Hackney, A. C. (1993). Effects of music on physiological and affective responses to graded treadmill exercise in trained and untrained runners. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 19, 193–201.

Potteiger, J. A., Schroeder, J. A., & Goff, K. L. (2000). Influence of music on ratings of perceived exertion during 20 minutes of moderate intensity exercise. Perceptual Motor Skills, 91(3 Pt 1) 848–854.

Pujol, T. J., & Langenfeld, A. E. (1999). Influences of music on Wingate Anaerobic Test performance. Perceptual Motor Skills, 88(1): 292–296.

Schabort, E. J., Hopkins, W. G., & Hawley, J. A. (1998). Reproducibility of self-paced treadmill performance of trained endurance runners. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 19(1): 48–51.

Drug Use by College Athletes: Is Random Testing an Effective Deterrent?

Abstract

Incidence
of anabolic steroid use among college athletes is about 1%,
with another 12% considered at-risk in that they would use
such drugs under the right circumstances. This study aimed
to determine if volunteer drug testing, without fear of penalty,
would result in positive identification of drug use, or if
the testing alone is a deterrent. A group of 197 college athletes,
all of who denied drug use, voluntarily and anonymously supplied
urine samples. Average T/E ratio was 1.33 ± 0.86, with
two cases (1.1%) above the accepted ratio. We conclude that
T/E ratio testing is effective in detecting use of performance-enhancing
drugs and that testing itself, although an effective deterrent
to drug use, may not eliminate drug use among college athletes.

Introduction

Athletes
have used performance-enhancing drugs for decades. In 1968
the International Olympic Committee (IOC) banned the use of
performance-enhancing substances to promote fair play in competition.
At that time the banned substances were primarily anabolic
steroids and amphetamines. Other athletic associations and
sport governing bodies soon followed suit by adopting similar
bans, including the National Collegiate Athletic Association
(NCAA) which adopted a drug-testing program to promote fair
and equitable competition and to safeguard the health and
safety of student-athletes. Since then the specified number
of banned substances has risen dramatically as athletes are
driven to finding new ways to obtain a competitive edge and/or
to avoid detection. Currently the NCAA promotes drug education
and mandates that each athletic department conduct a drug
and alcohol education program once a semester, presumably
to increase the athletes’ understanding of the drug-testing
program and to promote the avoidance of drug use.

Despite
these regulations, the incidence of anabolic steroid use among
athletes has not decreased, and, in some instances, has increased
(Catlin & Murray, 1996). In general, the decision to not
use drugs is felt to be related more to the fear of reprisal
than to health issues, and users continue to look for ways
to avoid detection rather than decide not to use these banned
substances. Tricker and Connolly (1997) reported an 8% rate
of anabolic steroid use in college athletes over a lifetime
and a 1% use within the past six months. In addition they
identified about 12% at-risk athletes, i.e., they would use
steroids under the right circumstances. Those circumstances
were largely defined as the ability to achieve their athletic
potential without testing positive for use.

The
purpose of this study was to examine T/E ratios in a group
of college athletes who volunteered for testing under the
conditions of anonymity and therefore had no fear of reprisal.
The T/E ratio was chosen because of its low false-positive
rate (0.1%). We aimed to determine if the anticipated results
of no positive test results would occur, or if there might
be any positive test results with the threat of reprisal removed.

Method

Subjects

A
group of 206 male varsity or junior varsity NCAA Division
I college athletes identified themselves as not currently
taking nutritional supplements or performance-enhancing drugs
and volunteered to provide a urine sample for testing. Because
the testing was done anonymously, there was no fear of reprisal
from submitting to the testing. Nine samples were contaminated
during processing and were eliminated, leaving a study group
of 197 college athletes, all of whom would presumably have
negative test results.

Testing
Procedure

Urinary
specimens were examined for the ratio of testosterone (T)
to epitestosterone (E). The accepted standard for identifying
anabolic steroid use was used with a T/E ratio above 6:1 as
a positive indication of doping (Catlin et al.,1996; International
Olympic Committee, 1982). All urine specimens were run on
HP 599SC gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (Hewlett Packard
Company, Avondale, Pennsylvania) using standard testing procedures
(Borts & Bowers, 2000; Dehennin, 1994; Ismail & Harkness,
1966; van de Kerkhof, De Boer, Thijssen, & Maes, 2000).
Because there is a small incidence of false positive results,
it is recommended that additional testing be done on those
whose T/E ratios exceed 6:1 before legal action is considered
(Dehennin & Scholler, 1990). However, in this study, no
additional testing was done as the athlete could not be identified
and there would be no punitive action. It is also known that
there are athletes who use exogenous testosterone, yet their
T/E ratio never exceeds 6:1 (Garle, Ocka, Palonek, & Bjorkhem,
1996).

Results

The
average testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio was 1.33:1
± 0.86 (mean ± standard deviation). Two of the
197 (1.1%) athletes tested had T/E ratios greater than the
accepted international standard (12:1 and 9:1) and, thus,
had positive test results. Thus, the specificity of the T/E
testing in this study group was 195/197 (98%) as all subjects
were presumably drug-free.

Discussion

Our
data confirms that the T/E ratio testing is at least 98% accurate,
depending upon the true drug status of the two individuals
who had abnormal T/E ratios in this study. The two specimens
with ratios higher than the accepted norm were not verified
with further testing, and, therefore, it is not know whether
these two cases represented true or false positives. If we
assume that those two athletes were, in fact, taking performance
enhancing drugs, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, of
the T/E ratio testing becomes 100%.

The
fact that two athletes tested positive under the study conditions
is interesting. Although only those who professed that they
did not use any performance-enhancing drugs were recruited
for the study, perhaps those two athletes thought they might
draw attention by their lack of participation and possibly
be singled out for sanctioned testing in the future if they
chose not to participate. Since there was no fear of personal
identification or of reprisal for positive test results, they
may have felt participation was risk-free regardless, or they
simply may have felt that they could beat the system or wanted
to test the system to see if they might go undetected.

Confirmation
or refutation in the two positive cases was not pursued. However
it is felt that most likely these were true positives. The
reasons for this assumption are based on known percentages
of drug use among college athletes and previous reports of
the incidence of false positive results on initial testing.
Tricker and Connolly (1997) reported a 1% use of anabolic
steroids within the past six months in their survey of 563
college athletes. Catlin and Murray (1996) reported a similar
percentage in Olympic athletes over a nine-year period and,
over a three-year period in NCAA football players, the average
was also approximately 1%. On the other hand, Dehennin and
Scholler (1990) reported the incidence of false positives
at 15 per 10,000 (0.15%). The two positive results in this
group of 197 college athletes represented 1.1% of the study
group, and this percentage would be consistent with the anticipated
number of positive results in a random sample of male college
athletes.

The
more important issue is that the use of anabolic steroids
among athletes, although not increasing, has not diminished
under the current testing programs. Even in this study, where
volunteer athletes were recruited to participate only if they
were non-users, positive test results occurred. This is not
to say that the testing programs are ineffective, but they
are not entirely effective in acting as a deterrent to drug
use. The fear of testing positive and risking disqualification
or sanction clearly deters a certain percentage of athletes
considered at risk for drug use, but others continue to use
drugs and either hope to or try to beat the system. Testing
programs vary among sports governing agencies. At the 1996
Olympics Games in Atlanta, approximately 18% of athletes were
tested after their events including all medallists and one
or two others at random (Catlin and Murray, 1996). Random
testing leaves a chance for an athlete to avoid detection,
yet testing of all athletes one or more times during a season
is cost-prohibitive. In addition, those motivated to gain
a competitive edge, legal or otherwise, will seek novel ways
to avoid detection, including taking masking substances.

Drug
use is a serious concern, not only for the concepts of integrity
and fair play in competitive sports, but because of the health
threats to the athletes. Certainly drug testing programs should
continue with increasing numbers of athletes being tested
and increasing penalties for detection, since these are most
likely means of deterrence. Drug education programs must also
continue in a further attempt to curtail the use of illegal
performance-enhancing drugs by empowering the young athlete
with the information and skills to make responsible and healthy
decisions.

Conclusion

Drug
testing programs are designed to promote fair play and deter
drug use among athletes. Under conditions of anonymity a group
of professed non-user athletes volunteered for drug testing.
Two positive results were identified indicating the importance
of continued testing and need for further testing and education,
as testing alone is not a sufficient deterrent to eliminate
drug use among college athletes.

Acknowledgement

This
study was supported by a student institutional grant by and
performed at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah.
References

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    high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
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    M., de la Torre, X., Norli, H., Geyer, H., & Walker,
    C.J. (1996). Urinary testosterone (T) to epitestosterone
    (E) ratios by GC/MS. I. Initial comparison of uncorrected
    T/E in six international laboratories. Journal of Mass Spectrometry,
    31, 297-402.
  3. Catlin, D. H., & Murray, T. H. (1996). Performance-enhancing
    drugs, fair competition, and Olympic sport. Journal of the
    American Medical Association, 276, 231-237.
  4. Dehennin, L. (1994). On the origin of physiologically high
    ratios of urinary testosterone to epitestosterone: consequences
    for reliable detection of testosterone administration by
    male athletes. Journal of Endocrinology, 142, 353-360.
  5. Dehennin, L., & Scholler, R. (1990) Detection of self-administration
    of testosterone as an anabolic by determination of the ratio
    of urinary testosterone to urinary epitestosterone in adolescents.
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  6. Garle, M., Ocka, R., Palonek, E., & Bjorkhem, I. (1996).
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    in Swedish athletes in connection with a national control
    program. Evaluation of 28 cases. Journal of Chromatography
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  9. Tricker, R., & Connolly, D. (1997). Drugs and the college
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    at risk. Journal of Drug Education, 27,105-119.
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Russell
Meldrum, MD, and
Judy R. Feinberg, PhD
Indiana University
School of Medicine
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
541 Clinical Drive
Suite 600
Indianapolis, IN 46202-5111
Phone: 317-274-8318
Fax: 317-274-3702
Email: rmeldrum@iupui.edu