Results and Recommendations of the World Summit on Physical Education

Introduction

 

Over 250 delegates from 80 countries, representing governments, inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations (NGO), and academic institutions attended the World Summit on Physical Education (Berlin, November 3-5, 1999). It was held under the international patronage of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the International Olympic Committee (IOC), and with the co-sponsorship of the World Health Organization (WHO).

On behalf of the participants of the Summit and the International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education (ICSSPE), I present this paper to the Ministers and Senior Officials of Ministries responsible for Education and Sport for discussion at the MINEPS III meeting. The paper combines the latest research, content from keynote presentations and workgroup discussions from the World Summit.

The activities of ICSSPE reflect the interests of a diverse range of multi disciplinary and international member organizations. To date, two-hundred governmental and non-governmental bodies with international, regional, national or local membership form the Council’s world-wide network. ICSSPE is a non-governmental organization in Formal Associate Relations with UNESCO.

The International Committee of Sport Pedagogy (ICSP) within ICSSPE links five international organizations with a common interest in physical education. This Committee is composed of: the Association Internationale des Ecoles Superieures d’Education Physique (AIESEP), the Federation Internationale d’Education Physique (FJ EP), the International Association of Physical Education and Sport for Girls and Women (IAPESGW), the International Federation of Adapted Physical Activity (IFAPA), and the International Society for Comparative Physical Education and Sport (ISGPES). The International Committee of Sports Pedagogy played a leading role in the development of this World Summit on Physical Education. The intention behind these plans has been to:

  • Raise awareness of the positive benefits of Physical Education;
  • Increase awareness in the public, media, governmental and private sectors about the increasingly serious situation of Physical Education world-wide;
  • Offer a platform for organizations and institutes to present the activities they are undertaking;
  • Identify areas where co-operation is necessary;
  • Compile existing research, statements and declarations;
  • Strengthen networks and co-ordinate plans of action and implementation.

We welcome the opportunity to co-operate with Ministers and Senior Officials and hope that by working together, we can extend the benefits and joys of Physical Education to more children across the world.

Prof. Dr. Gudrun Doll-Tepper
President ICSSPE

The Challenge

 

Despite the overwhelming scientific evidence on the value of physical activity, and the fact that the 1978 UNESCO Charter enshrined Physical Education as a basic human right (see page 14), Physical Education is in a perilous position in all regions of the world. Some national governments have either removed Physical Education from the curriculum, or reduced curriculum time allocation.

“. . . Physical Education is not seen as a priority in the ’90s. It is under severe attack and faces competition for time within the school curriculum. Often Physical Education is being taught by generalist teachers with little or no preparation in Physical Education methods. Additionally, budget cutbacks are having a negative impact on the time and resources required to teach a quality Physical Education programme.”
(Mo Mackendrick, President of the Canadian Association for Health, Physical Education (CAH PER3) 1996)

In order to determine the extent of the problem, a world-wide audit (which included an extensive literature survey) of the state and status of Physical Education in schools was initiated by ICSSPE and funded by the International Olympic Committee. The International Committee on Sports Pedagogy played a leading role in ensuring the survey provided the kind of information needed to address and solve current challenges.

Dr. Ken Hardpan, University of Manchester, presented his audit results to set the scene for the World Summit on Physical Education. The audit results show the critical status of Physical Education around the world, regardless of geography or socio-economic status. Five key issues clearly define the challenge Physical Education is facing:

  • Statutory requirements for Physical Education
  • Subject status of Physical Education
  • Curriculum time allocation
  • Teacher training
  • Resources

Sample quotations (in bold letters) and statistics are included. For a full copy of Dr. Hardpan’s report, please contact the International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education.

Results of World-wide Survey on the State and Status of Physical Education

1. Statutory Requirements for Physical Education

In 92% of the 126 countries sampled, Physical Education is legally required but few countries actually implement their statutory requirements. Globally around 30% of Physical Education is dropped to make way for other subjects.

In a Province of Canada, it is estimated that 97.8% of schools may not meet the allotted Physical Education curriculum time.

In an African country, “It is not enforced. Some teachers do not teach it at all and nobody seems to bother” (Physical Education Professor)

In another African country, it is a compulsory subject, “yet the majority of schools do not present P.E. at all.” (Physical Education professor)

2. Subject Status of Physical Education

In many regions of the world, Physical Education is perceived as being a non-productive educational activity, less important to a successful future than academic subjects. Physical Education occupies a low position at the bottom of the ‘curriculum barrel’. Overall 86% of countries’ respondents indicate that Physical Education has attained a similar legal status to other subjects, but this is not matched in practice.

In an Oceanian country, teachers have expressed concerns that the “image of Physical Education that perseveres with the school’s management and other teaching staff renders it as a marginal subject… not worthy of valuable timetable space.”

In a Latin American country, a Physical Education lecturer indicates that the state attaches little importance to Physical Education and continues to decrease its importance by reducing space for the subject and not providing facilities.

In a European country, the “status of Physical Education … is an essential problem – (its) legal status is revealed by a low division of time for Physical Education confirmed through central school policy (and generally), the actual exercising status is lower than other subjects”.

3. Curriculum Time Allocation

Most curriculum time is allocated when children are between 9-14 years of age, with reductions in time as age increases – especially in the upper years of schooling, when it either becomes an optional subject or it disappears from the timetable.

“Estimated activity levels increase during childhood into early adolescence, and then decline as youth pass through adolescence.” (R. Malina, World Summit on Physical Education 1999)

In one European country more than half a million hours of Physical Education have been lost in primary schools in the year 1998-’99 to make time for literacy and numeracy work.

In another European country, Physical Education time has been reduced from three hours a week to one hour a week during the last decade i.e. from 537 hours to 460 hours in the compulsory school years. “The sports days in school (have also been) canceled…(with) total reduction of movement in school … to about a third.”

In secondary schools in a Latin American country, Physical Education has been reduced from three to one or two classes per week.

4. Teacher Training

Too often Physical Education teachers in primary or elementary schools are untrained for the subject and some conduct Physical Education lessons as supervised play. Physical Education is taught by the classroom teacher who usually has had little or no training in Physical Education. There are more trained Physical Education teachers at the secondary level, but many Physical Education classes are still given by untrained teachers.

“On average post-graduate trainees do 23 hours and undergraduates 32 hours. But some do as little as seven-and-a-half.” (Office for Standards in Education – England and Wales, 1999)

5. Resources

Funding for Physical Education is being disproportionately cut as government departments try and cope with reduced funding. The result is a loss in both the quantity and quality of Physical Education programs. Both the provision of facilities and their maintenance are inadequate in many schools world-wide. Globally, only 31% of countries have adequate facilities. In the less developed countries, there are greater challenges in providing a full range of facilities; but even in countries with more established systems of Physical Education, there were reports of poor maintenance and loss of facilities.

In a European country, “decreased funding has resulted in a reduction in the number of hours for Physical Education within several cantons, even though this contravenes the federally set minimum for the subject.” (Physical Education teacher).

In a state of the USA, in some schools, shared facilities like “all purpose rooms (lunchroom, auditorium, gym) restrict accessibility; some urban schools do not have a gymnasium and have limited outdoor space”;

whilst in another state of the USA, a teacher “… lost gym space over the summer (they turned one of our gyms into a library). We have a large number of students and some classes have to take place in the cafeteria .”

 

Overall, the findings of the survey indicate a widespread scepticism and pessimism for the future of school Physical Education. Physical Education has been pushed into a defensive position. It is suffering from decreasing time in the curriculum, budgetary controls with inadequate financial, material and human resources, and low subject status and esteem. It is being ever more marginalised and undervalued by authorities.

However, despite these problems, there were many examples of good practice across the world. In all cases, such quality Physical Education is led by teachers with good training and skills.

“Physical Education is at great risk of being lost altogether in the next five years due to the diminished and marginalised position the subject has found itself in.” (Doecke, Papua New Guinea 1998)

Request to MINEPS III

At the World Summit on Physical Education (Berlin, November 3-5, 1999), 250 delegates from 80 countries representing governments, inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations and academic institutions from all regions of the world endorsed the Berlin Agenda and its Call for Action by Ministers and Senior Officials responsible for Education and Sport.

The Call for Action asks Officials at MINEPS III to endorse the Berlin Agenda (see Appendix 1) and the Call for Action asks Government leaders to undertake the following:

  • to implement policies for Physical Education as a human right for all children;
  • to recognize that quality Physical Education depends on well-qualified educators and scheduled time within the curriculum. Both these are possible even when other resources like equipment are in short supply;
  • to invest in initial and in-service professional training and development for educators;
  • to support research to improve the effectiveness and quality of Physical Education;
  • to work with international financial institutions to ensure Physical Education is included as part of their definition of education;
  • to recognize the distinctive role of Physical Education in health, overall development and safe, supportive communities;
  • to recognize that failure to provide Physical Education costs more in health care than the investment needed for Physical Education.

Rationale

 

As scientific data from around the world has consistently shown, quality Physical Education can meet a broad range of needs for all people, especially children and youth.

Quality Physical Education:

  • is the most effective and inclusive means of providing all children with the skills, attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding for life long participation in physical activity and sport;
  • helps to ensure integrated and rounded development of mind, body and spirit;
  • is the only school subject whose primary focus is on the body, physical activity, physical development and health;
  • helps children to develop the patterns of and interest in physical activity, which are essential for healthy development and which lay the foundations for adult healthy lifestyles;
  • helps children to develop respect for the body – both their own and others’;
  • develops understanding of the role of physical activity in promoting health;
  • contributes to children’s confidence and self esteem;
  • enhances social development by preparing children to cope with competition, winning and losing; and co-operation and collaboration;
  • provides the skills and knowledge for future work in sport, physical activity, recreation and leisure, a growing area of employment.

Research Findings

At the World Summit on Physical Education 1999, international delegates presented research evidence from around the globe on benefits of Physical Education and its important role in developing healthy, active children. Additional relevant research is also included. The physical domain of Physical Education emphases (1) instruction in motor skills and the opportunity to practice these skills in a supervised setting, (2) development and improvement of physical fitness, and (3) provision of physical activity on a regular basis in the school setting.

Benefits of Physical Education (and sport):

  • enhances self esteem and reduces tendency to risk behaviors;
  • for girls, reduces likelihood of early sexual activity & teenage pregnancy;
  • reduces negative attitudes to school and dropout;
  • is an important pre-vocational subject;
  • improves health, prevents injuries from poor posture, carrying, poor balance;
  • enhances academic performance;
  • provides experience of structured activity with clear targets and outcomes;
  • provides better understanding of abstracts – speed, distance, depth, force, flight, fairness;
  • offers focus and commitment.

(R. Malina, World Summit on Physical Education 1999)

 

Positive Health Evidence

  • An active lifestyle during childhood is a direct benefit to health in later years.
    (S. Blair 1999)
  • Mainly due to modern technological developments (e.g. cars, elevators, computers, television) within almost all cultures, both children and adults have become less physically active. In some cultures, inactivity and the resultant obesity and diseases have reached ‘crisis proportions’.
    (C. Koop 1999)
  • New scientific studies indicate that fitness may contribute more-to a long healthy life than any other factor, including smoking. Moderate regular activity reduces the likelihood of high blood pressure, heart disease, colon cancer and depression.
    (C. Koop 1999)
  • The declining level of exercise has the potential to increase the burden of chronic disease in our population, indirectly through increased obesity and directly as an independent risk factor
    (O. Bar Or 1994)
  • The strength of muscles and bones and the flexibility of joints are important to produce the co-ordinations, balance and ability of movement needed to perform everyday tasks. These components all show a substantial decrease with age and this is partly due to declining levels of physical activity.
    (World Forum on Physical Activity and Sport, Quebec 1995)
  • Besides the role of physical activity on disease prevention, both physical (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, colon cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis) and mental (depression and stress), physical activity, games and sports, can play a significant role in the enrichment of social life and the development of one’s social interaction skills.
    (World Forum on Physical Activity and Sport, Quebec 1995)
  • Activity has been shown to have favorable effects on anxiety, depression, self-esteem and some measures of cognition.
    (S. Biddle 1995)

Evidence for Cognitive Development and Academic Achievement

  • Numerous studies have shown that by adding activity to the children’s curriculum, thereby reducing time in academic subjects no reduction on grades and standardized tests were found and many children were found to improve their grades and academic learning.
    (R. Shephard 1997)
  • Comparing 6-12 year old children who receive 5 hours per week to 40 minutes per week found those with more activity showed significant difference in academic performance.
    (R. Shephard and R. Lavelle 1994)

Economic Evidence

  • “Neglecting Physical Education will prove more costly than providing it….A 25% increase in participation from the initial base of 33% of the population who regularly take part in physical activity would reduce health costs by $778 million in 1995 dollars and stimulate productivity gains by from 1% – 3%, for from $2 to $5 for every dollar invested. The direct costs of stimulating that increased physical activity would only be $191 million.”
    (B. Kidd, World Summit on Physical Education 1999)
  • One year less disease over a lifetime will save (US) $3-5 billion in health care costs in the state of New York alone.
    (R. Feingold 1994)
  • Sport and leisure account for 1.5% of Gross National Product (GNP) in the European Union
    (European Union, 1998)
  • In the United Kingdom there are more jobs in sport and leisure than in the car industry and agriculture, fisheries and food put together.
    (Sports Council, London 1997)

Evidence for Inclusion

Physical Education is especially important for girls and women, special needs, and cultural groups, who are:

  • More dependent on school PE for learning physical skills;
  • See schools as safe and protected – with parental/cultural approval;
  • Less likely to have opportunities in community and in the commercial sector.
  • For these groups especially, PE teachers (especially women) can be powerful role models and PE can lead to adult jobs. The loss of school PE has the greatest effect on these groups.”
    (M Talbot, World Summit on Physical Education 1999)
  • “Increasing Physical Education in schools and in the community will remove one of the major limitations to child health, especially for children from lower socio-economic groups.”
    (V. Matsudo, World Summit on Physical Education 1999)
  • “Quality Physical Education lessons are equitable (gender, culture, race, ability in all aspects.”
    (Global Vision for Physical Education, 1996)

Quality Physical Education

At the World Summit on Physical Education, presenters (M. Talbot, W. Brettschneider, D. Solomons, B. Kidd, inter alia) outlined recommendations on quality Physical Education. This section includes the needs and components of a quality Physical Education experience.

Physical Education needs:

  • Well trained and qualified teachers, both elementary school and high school;
  • Time in the curriculum, for every child and adolescent;
  • Equipment and space;
  • Support for teachers and schools to deliver quality Physical Education;
  • Support for after-school sport and dance.
  • The understanding that Physical Education includes both ‘Learning to Move’ (the skills and understanding required for participation) and ‘Moving to Learn’ (physical activity as a way of learning).

Children and young people, whatever their abilities and despite living in a wide range of countries and cultures, material circumstances, all:

  • Need to develop physically and grow;
  • Are predisposed to be physically active;
  • Need to experience being children before they have to be adult;
  • Learn best through activity;
  • Respond best to enjoyment and achievement.

Effective Physical Education has the following characteristics:

  • Child-Centered: the focus is on the child, not sport. This demonstrates that each child is unique and worth-while and should be treated as such. Activities should be learner-paced and take into consideration the differences among children.
  • Create a Positive Environment: the educator is the motivating force – not only in planning activities, but also in creating a positive teacher-learner atmosphere.
  • Skills and Knowledge Building Toward independence and Independent Learners: in the holistic development of the learner, all learners can learn regardless of competency and skill levels. Physical Education offers each child an opportunity to make choices, develop values and attitudes that support independent learning in a self-disciplined way.
  • Human Rights, gender equity and peace education are important aspects that can the enhanced during the presentation of Physical Education activities.

“Schools reach all young people – girls and boys, the physically strong and the not so strong; the socially privileged and the socially weak – thereby avoiding social inequality and disintegration.”
(D. Solomons, World Summit on Physical Education,1999)

All learners should be provided with a sound knowledge of healthy living and a safe way of living. As education is a life-long process, sound health and human movement practices can contribute to the prevention of health-related problems and can improve the quality of life of learners.

“Physical Education is the place for improving physical fitness and developing motor skills. In addition, in Physical Education classes young people are empowered to assume responsibility for developing an interest in physical activity of their own accord and for adopting an active lifestyle.”
(W. Brettschneider, World Summit on Physical Education 1999)

“(..) Unfortunately, the reality is that not only are the time mandates for Physical Education in public and private schools continually decreasing, but there are many education programmes world-wide whose curriculum does not include Physical Education at all. Further, we should not confuse athletics with physical education because they are not synonymous. […]The purpose and campaign of promoting physical activity through developmentally appropriate Physical Education has never been more compelling. We desperately need to develop an international commitment to ensure that all children receive the encouragement, training and support they need to develop and maintain active, healthy lifestyles…),”
(M. Murray, 1999)

“… We cannot meet our obligations to make the world a better place for our children without contributing significantly to their physically active health and enrichment. We should hold our leaders to that promise.”
(B. Kidd, World Summit on Physical Education 1999)
Supporting Statements

This section is designed to provide resources for Ministers and Senior Officials to build the case for Physical Education at a local, regional or national level. It includes several examples of international policy statements.

  • UNESCO – The International Charter of Physical Education and Sport
  • “… one of the essential conditions for the effective exercise of human rights is that everyone should be free to develop and preserve his or her physical, intellectual and moral powers, and that access to Physical Education and sport should consequently be assured and guaranteed for all human beings.”

“Article 1:
The practice of Physical Education and sport is a fundamental right for all .
Article 2:
Physical Education and sport form an essential element of lifelong education in the overall education system.
Article 3:
Physical Education and sport programmes must meet individual and social need.
Article 4:
Teaching, coaching and administration of Physical Education and sport programmes must meet individual and social needs.
Article 5:
Adequate facilities and equipment are essential to Physical Education and sport.
Article 6:
Research and evaluation are indispensable components of the development of Physical Education and sport.
Article 7:
Protection of the ethnical and moral values of Physical Education and sport must be a constant concern for all.
Article 8:
Information and documentation help to promote Physical Education and sport.
Article 9:
The mass media should exert a positive influence on Physical Education and sport.
Article 10:
National institutions play a major role in Physical Education and sport.
Article 11:
International co-operation is a prerequisite for the universal and well-balanced promotion of Physical Education.”

  • World Forum on Physical Activity and Sport, Quebec 1995
    Encouraging children in adolescence to engage in physical activity helps them to establish good health habits and avoid smoking or drug abuse. The enhancement of self-image and relief of boredom produced by physical activity may also enhance classroom performance.
  • World Health Organization
    The goals of Physical Education in schools are: 1) lay the foundations for life-long active living; 2) develop and enhance the health and well-being of the students; 3) to offer enjoyment, fun and social interaction; and 4) to help to prevent/reduce future health problems. Currently, most schools in most countries around the world cannot meet these goals because the time in the curriculum and the resources for teaching of quality Physical Education are inadequate.
  • The basic reason is the ignorance of the importance of physical activity for young people. This’ in turn, is largely due to the fact that policy and decision makers, teachers, other professionals, parents and various other concerned groups, have no adequate knowledge of the need for physical activity and its benefits for the present and future health and well-being of young people.
  • Schools can and should 1) allow each child and young person to take part in a structured Physical Education curriculum and in physical activity sessions of moderate to vigorous levels regularly, several times each week, and 2) offer a range of physical activities outside the school system, i.e. in the community with the support of parents, peers, community leaders and local sport and social organizations.
  • Appropriate professional development and training opportunities should be provided for all those involved in organizing physical activities in and through schools, including teachers, local leaders, coaches, and recreation and health care personnel. The aim is to increase their capacity in programme planing and in educating, motivating, guiding and building the confidence of young people.
  • “An ‘active school’ is a healthier and better-performing school and a better place to work.”
    Promoting Active Living in and through Schools – A World Health Organization Statement 1998
  • Global Vision for Physical Education 1996 (Statement by CAHPERD and AAPHERD)

All students in every grade should have the right and opportunity to experience sustained, vigorous physical activity, and participate in quality, daily Physical Education programmes.

  • Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting – Committee on Co-operation Through Sport

Physical Education:

    • should be required component on all teacher training courses
    • should be priority subject for training
    • should be essential in curriculum
    • should attract grants for equipment
      (Endorsed by Commonwealth Education Ministers 1995)
  • 3rd International Olympic Forum for Development 1998, Malaysia
    The 3rd International Olympic Forum for Development “..reinforces the need to build the case for investment in sport and Physical Education both nationally and internationally especially by critical analysis of sport’s role as a tool for development.”
  • All Africa Pre-Games Scientific Congress, September 1999
    With the endorsement of the Supreme Council for Sport in Africa (SCSA) and supported and endorsed by delegates, the following was accepted:
  • Action Plan – Prefatory Statement
    “Physical Education should be recognized as the basis of the physical activity participation continuum. School Physical Education should be seen as the most important aspect for the development of sport. If traditions of physical activity are developed in schools, children are more likely to participate in out-of-school and post-school settings.”
  • The participants “…urge all governments, inter- and non-governmental organizations involved in education and relevant associated areas to take corrective action to reverse the declining trend and to promote Physical Education.”
  • 3rd International Conference for Women and Sport (Association for Arab Women and Sport), October 1999The following Declaration was accepted by the participants:”The Physical Education of Arab girls suffers from negative attitudes towards girls’ benefitting from school Physical Education, which is a part of her life and future. In the light of the inadequacy of the human and material resources and expertise needed for practicing sport activities, and the low care shown by those responsible for girls’ Physical Education, this conference makes the following declaration: Raise standards of school Physical Education for Arab girls.”
  • National Children’s Agenda, Canada, 1999
    “…as a nation, we aspire to have children who are healthy – both emotionally and physically, safe and secure, successful at learning, and socially engaged and responsible.”

Conclusion

 

The world-wide survey on the state of Physical Education, and other international research provides an enormous challenge to address the status and resources for Physical Education. Most government Departments are working hard trying to balance the overwhelming number of requests for their limited resources However, when Physical Education is not incorporated as an integral part of education programmes, the consequences can be long-lasting and manifold.

Physical Education can provide a large number of health, social, cognitive and economic benefits. Physical Education can and does provide a Return on Investment (R013 in other areas of spending, most notably health. Based on the evidence presented in this paper, we ask the participants of the Third International Conference of Ministers and Senior Officials Responsible for Sport and Physical Activities (MINEPS III) to endorse the Berlin Agenda for Action and to implement the recommendations at the national, and local levels.

Working together we can make a difference for our most precious resource — today’s children and youth.

This is an international problem requiring international, regional and national action

Annex 1

The Berlin Agenda for Action for Government Ministers

The World Summit on Physical Education reinforces the importance of Physical Education as a
life-long process. It is particularly important for every child as articulated in the International Convention on the Rights of the Child. All children have a right to (1) the highest level of health; (2) free and compulsory primary education for both cognitive and physical development; (3) rest and leisure; play and recreation.

THE BERLIN AGENDA CALLS FOR ACTION BY GOVERNMENTS AND MINISERIES RESPONSIBLE FOR EDUCATION AND SPORT TO:

  • implement policies for Physical Education as a human right for all children;
  • recognize that quality Physical Education depends on well-qualified educators and scheduled time within the curriculum, both of which are possible to provide even when other resources like equipment are in short supply;
  • invest in initial and in-service professional training and development for educators;
  • support research to improve the effectiveness and quality of Physical Education;
  • work with international financial institutions to ensure Physical Education is included as part of their of definition of education;
  • recognize the distinctive role of Physical Education in health, overall development and safe, supportive communities;
  • recognize that failure to provide Physical Education costs more in health care than the investment needed for Physical Education.

Why take these actions? Quality Physical Education:

  • is the most effective and inclusive means of providing all children, whatever their ability/disability, sex, age, cultural, race/ethnicity, religious or social background, with the skills, attitudes, values, knowledge and understanding for life long participation in physical activity and sport;
  • helps to ensure integrated and rounded development of mind, body and spirit;
  • is the only school subject whose primary focus is on the body, physical activity, physical development and health;
  • helps children to develop the patterns of and interest in physical activity, which are essential for healthy development and which lay the foundations for adult healthy lifestyles;
  • helps children to develop respect for the body – both their own and others’;
  • develops understanding of the role of physical activity in promoting health;
  • contributes to children’s confidence and self esteem;
  • enhances social development by preparing children to cope with competition, winning an losing; and co-operation and collaboration;
  • provides the skills and knowledge for future work in sport, physical activity, recreation and leisure, a growing area of employment.

BERLIN, November 5, 1999


Annex 2

Appeal of the World Summit on Physical Education to the General Conference of UNESCO

The representatives of states, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, and educational institutions at the World Summit on Physical Education, held in BERLIN from November 3-5, 1999.

Considering the importance of Physical Education for every child around the world, and its role in encouraging people to remain active and healthy throughout their life-span,

Considering that Physical Education helps to ensure integrated and rounded development of mind, body and spirit and contributes to children’s confidence and self-esteem,

Emphasizing that Physical Education can enhance cognitive, academic achievement and social development including fundamental educational skills like literacy, and numeracy.

Noting that Physical Education is the most effective and inclusive means of providing children, whatever their ability, age, sex, cultural or religious background, with the skills, knowledge and understanding for lifelong participation in physical activity and sport,

Reaffirming that Physical Education provides skills and knowledge for employment in sport, physical activity, public health, recreation and leisure, a growing area of vocational opportunity,

Reaffirming that Physical Education provides an ethical and social foundation for the spirit of fair play, mutual respect, solidarity and human understanding.

  1. Call upon the General Conference to record the urgent need to promote Physical Education and the resources required for delivering quality programmes in Physical Education to be made available.
  2. Urge the Ministers of Education and the Ministers of Youth and Sport: to recognize the distinctive role that Physical Education and sport play in the education of young people and that Physical Education and sport are a human right for all children; to mandate adequate e time in the school curriculum; and to support research to improve the effectiveness and quality of Physical Education programmes.
  3. Urge the General Conference to commit to developing strategies for effective implementation of Physical Education programmes in the education system and the community, with the necessary financial and human resources.
  4. Request the General Conference to encourage the allocation of adequate human and financial resources through the inter-governmental Committee for Physical Education and Sport of UNESCO (CIGEPS!)
  5. Urge the General Conference to invite the Director General of UNESCO to mobilize intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, public and private sectors to cooperate in the promotion and development of Physical Education within the context of a culture of peace.
  6. Request the General Conference to invite the Director General of UNESCO to submit the Appeal from the World Summit on Physical Education to the Third International Conference of Ministers and Senior Officials of Physical Education and Sport to be held in Punta del Este from November 30-December 3, 1999.

Annex 3

Scientific Programme of the World Summit on Physical Education

Programme highlights / Keynotes

  • World Wide Audit Survey of the State and Status of Physical Education in Schools Dr. Ker’ Hardman, Past-President of the International/ Society for Comparative Physical Education and Sport, University of Manchester, UK
  • The Case for Physical Education Prof. Dr. Margaret Talbot, President of the International Association of Physical Education and Sport for Girls and Women, Leeds Metropolitan University, UK
  • Good Practices in Physical Education Doreen Solomons, Western Cape Education Department, South Africa
  • Nutritional Needs for Physical Activity in Young People Prof. Dr. Clyde Williams, Loughborough University, UK
  • Physical Education and its Physical Domains Prof. Dr. Robert Malina, Michigan State University, USA
  • Psychological Outcomes and Social Benefits of Sport Involvement and Physical Activity Implications for Physical Education Prof. Dr. Wolf-Dietrich Brettschneider, university Gesamthochschule Paderborn, Germany
  • Physical Education, Health and Well-Being Prof. Dr. Victor Matsudo, CELA FISCS, Brazil
  • The Economic Case for Physical Education Prof. Dr. Bruce Kidd, University of Toronto, Canada

Workshops

  • Physical Education in National Development and Reconstruction
    Marcia Oxley, Director, Commonwealth Sports Development Programme, Barbados / Doreen Solomons, Western Cape Education Department, South ,Africa
  • Managing Diversity- Inclusion and Integration
    Prof. Dr. Karen DePauw, Past-President of the Intemational Federation of Adapted Physical Activity, Washington State University, USA I J. Wilton Littlechild, WlNsport, Canada
  • Working Towards a Balanced Curriculum
    Dr. Richard J. Fisher, President of the European Union of Physical Education Associations, St. Mary’s College, Twickenham, VK / Dr. Irina Ugolkova, Russian State Academy for Physical Education
  • Making the Economic Case
    Prof. Dr. Bruce Kidd, University of Toronto, Canada / Marce/lin Dally, Physical Education and Sport Unit, UNESCO
  • Advocacy and Lobbying Strategies Prof. Dr. Ronald Feingold, President of the Association
    Internationale des Ecoles Superieures d’Education Physique, President AAHPERD, Ade/phi University – Garden City, USA I Hamadi Benaziza, Department of Health Promotion – Focal Point on Active Living, WHO
  • Physical Education for Health: Active Schools
    Prof. Dr. Ilika Vuori, Director of the UKK Institute, Tampere, Finland I Prof. Dr. Frank Fu, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong of China
  • Physical Education, Schools and Community
    Dr. Gerhard Trosien, German Sports Confederation, Frankfurt’ Germany / Christine Spain, President’s Council on Fitness and Sport, Washington, USA

 

Coaching in Foreign Lands: Denmark and Egypt

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to discuss and contrast the authors experiences coaching in the Kingdom of Denmark and the Arab Republic of Egypt. The qualitative observations are my own and obviously from the perspective of my own country. Expatriates working in the sport environment must understand the values of the people with whom they are working or training as well as the values of their colleagues and of the society in general. In addition, an expatriate must understand how their athletes and their colleagues are educated and socialized to live and conduct themselves in society. Finally they must understand the social and economic systems of the nation. A highly developed understanding of the society early in the expatriates stay will make their job much easier and lead to a greater success in each of their endeavors. Denmark is one of the poorest countries on earth but has the highest standard of living and the most educated population as well. It is the oldest kingdom in Europe and possess an interesting history. The Scandinavian countries have a state supported church but most people are not involved in religious faith. Egypt has one of the most rapidly developing middle classes in the world. Egypt has a strong upwardly mobile, economy. Egypt has a rich history an tradition of its own. Ninety-seven percent of Egypt’s population follow Islam and I characterize it as a deeply religious society while Danes do not generally have a religious faith. These experiences have been among the most rewarding in my coaching career.

Introduction
Recently, much has been written about the high standard of education in Europe and in the Far East. I do not think that Americans can compare themselves to people from another country in very many aspects of their existence. Not only is it necessary for an expatriate to understand his or her host nation in order to succeed but that they be able look at the strong points of their hosts and see if it is possible make applications for our own educational and sports systems and improve the lives of our students and athletes. The author lived and worked in Aalborg, Denmark for three years following the conferral of the doctorate in Physical Education. The position involved manager and head trainer of the swimming division of AAlborg Swimming Club, which had over 2,500 participants in various aspects of aquatics sports. The sports included Monofin Swimming, Swimming, Water Polo, Diving, Lifesaving, and a lesson program with 1800 participants. The author was also an adjunct instructor in English Language at Sofiendal Lower School as well as Noresundby and Hasseris Gymnasiums.

The Danish Experience
As most people are well aware, the social democracies of Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark and their protectorate territories have social systems that take care of their citizens from cradle to grave (1). Anyone born in these countries is literally guaranteed a very reasonable life including all aspects of medical care, child care, housing, as well as enough money to live conformably whether they choose to work or choose to remain unemployed nine months and perform community service for three months. The language is very similar to Swedish and Norwegian. There is about a 60% overlap in word usage. However, Danish is not phonetic and impossible to pronounce by looking at the spelling of the words. There are a lot of jokes about Danish language and it was a challenge to learn as well as understand. It was however a necessity and if I had it to do over again I would spend more time in language school.

While these social democracies are not supposed to have competitive values Denmark produced 7 Olympic Medals in 1996 of which 5 were gold. The key behind their success is not the idea that they “defeat” their opponent but that they do their very best. You will not see a Danish athlete doing little victory dances or strutting around after they have beaten someone in a competition. They accept their success graciously and with a humble demeanor.

The first major difference I noticed about Denmark compared to America was that was essentially an atheist nation. There was a state supported Lutheran church but if you ask most Danes will tell they do not believe in God. Most students are exposed to religions during their education and the typical assignment for a student is to compare the values of the world religions. The students studied the common elements of the great religions of the world. When I asked them about religion they responded that their logic told them that if the religions all had common elements there must not be a God. Consequently accountability to a higher power does not exist. The highest power they observed was their government. The other big difference was that there were a lot of unwritten rules. When someone worked in a collaborative society the entire group shared equal amounts of that work. If one person took on more work it was interpreted that the hard worker thought they were better. This and many other unwritten rules were the major challenge of this society.

The Egyptian Experience
My experience in Egypt was also very satisfying and rewarding. They have a great sense of humor which is reflected in their saying that Egypt is run by IBM. This means that they will do something if it is Incha Allah (if God wills it) or they will do it Bokra (tomorrow) or they will say Millesh which means forget it they will not do it at all. I was selected as National Swimming Team coach and during 1992 had the privilege of preparing swimmers for the Darmstadt International, the Olympic Games, the African Junior Championships in Morocco and the Men’s Arab Championships in Syria. The swimmers trained diligently and as a group were dedicated as anyone I have every coached. A major contrast between Denmark and Egypt was what I call “the rules”. The rules in Egypt were either obvious or they were explained. When I first arrived in Egypt the time for prayers at sun down was about 1700. There were no exceptions, and we started workout after prayers. This was how the society operated. Europeans tend to have more unwritten rules and an expatriate might do something unknowingly and someone may never speak to you for the rest of your life. This would never happen in Egypt. They explain their customs, the rules and expectations and one would never fall into the aforementioned situation. For instance, when I was coaching girls I never talked with them at the pool side while they stood in their wet suits. I waited until they were covered with a bath robe. It was greatly appreciated by everyone concerned. In America and in Denmark we are more casual about things like modesty and appropriate behavior around the opposite gender. In Denmark the young women would swim in men’s suits when we were at training camps.

Another contrast is the religious faith of the Egyptians. Ninety-seven percent of all Egyptians follow Islam and the rest are generally Christian. If you were to present them with the concept that all the great religions have many common values they would respond with ” that shows there is a God.” Islam is the fiber of their community and gives them structure by which to live. Its values provide an excellent background for competitive swimmers to develop. There is no alcohol use and no adolescent sub-culture. Consequently there are no competing forces to distract them from training. If the swimmers are given a good environment for training, incentives that are consistent and rewards they will train as hard an anyone in the world. Americans also have a strong religious tradition, however it does not permeate their daily lives as much it does the Egyptians. Americans have religious and secular values that govern their daily lives, where as the Danes values are entirely secular. A serious effort to understand the value systems or systems of belief are essential for success when working in a foreign land.

Structure and Ideals of the Educational System in Denmark
It is important to understand the educational system of any host country. If you are coaching young people they will be in the process of being educated and have a variety of stresses that are different from your own country. Following 1-2 years of kindergarten each student starts first grade with a class of twenty students which will stay together as a group until they finish 9th or 10th grade. The class will have projects together and each week they will be in some classes together. They grow up knowing one another, participating in social activities while taking on many values common to that group of students. The class is led by the same teacher beginning in first grade. This teacher will obviously have a significant influence on these students after having them in class for ten years. This is the first formal step by which young people are socialized by their peers and by a social institution. The students begin to live by the values of their peers rather than the values that may be unique to their family. It is a very important convention and is used for maintaining a homogeneous society (2).

The Teacher in Denmark
As an expatriate coach your closest colleagues may often be school teachers. Most of your peers will be part time coaches and in that respect may have different values. If your colleagues are teachers and you interact with them you should have some basic understanding of the educational system. The teacher in the lower school is educated at a Seminarium which is a four- year University education especially for Lower School teacher preparation. They study two academic specialties and spend four years learning these specialties as well as acquiring the ability to teach through practical experience with their peers. There are no formal education type courses in this curriculum. After graduation from Seminarium the teacher will apprentice for up to three years at full salary.

To teach in Gymnasium, the college preparatory high school, the teacher must have a master’s degree in his or her specialty and usually will only teach that specialty. In order to teach a second subject the teacher must have spent an extra year in that curriculum at the Master’s degree level. They have no education courses in their preparation and do not spend time during their university education learning to teach. However, everyone spends the first 3 years under the supervision of other faculty.

The working conditions of the teachers are outstanding. There are no more than twenty students in any class. Each class lasts 40 minutes, leaving a twenty minute break between classes. They have a maximum of fifteen student contact hours per week with the rest of the time used to grade assignments and preparation. Salary is increased every year and at the end of forty years a teacher’s the salary will be similar to that of a physician in general practice

The Educational System in Denmark.
When I first arrived in Denmark I realized the swimmers I would be coaching for the next 3 years would be involved in education. Thererfore, I needed to spend a lot of time understanding the challenges they faced. Once I mastered this I was able to maintain a good training environment while understanding what they had to do to succeed in their economic system. The school systems and curriculum are run by the Ministry of Education. Each Kommune (County) has local control over its schools. Each school is identical in curriculum, financing, facilities and teachers’ salary. No school is better or worse than another school. Since housing is not segregated by income, the schools contain the identical makeup of students from families of different occupations and or professions. The whole system is extremely egalitarian.

Primary Education or Lower School
The first nine years of education are nearly identical for everyone. The classes are completely integrated until the students begin to show certain aptitudes in 5th grade and are moved into advanced classes. In addition, 5th graders begin to study English and German in addition to their native language. In southern Jyland (Jutland Peninsula), near the border with Germany, the German language has top priority, while in the rest of Denmark, English has top priority. Students are not given grades in Lower School. They have a rating in each class but the only thing that counts are the exams at the end of the year which are given by their teacher and a teacher from another school. Evaluation is extremely discreet. The basics of mathematics, natural and social sciences, languages, arts and humanities are taught each year through either 9th or 10th grade depending on the cases explained below.

Secondary Education
After 9th grade the top forty percent of the students from lower school are able to enter Gymnasium. Some students may take 10th grade and than enter Gymnasium, however, they are in the minority and only comprise another 5% of the students in a given school. All students must be recommended for Gymnasium by their class teacher and this recommendation depends heavily on their final examinations. Gymnasium lasts three years and is a college level institution. The curriculum is demanding and requires a large degree of self-discipline because of the independent projects. The academic tracks are liberal arts, languages, mathematics, science or mathematics and science. Each student completes a core curriculum comprised of courses from each of the tracks that give them a liberal arts education in addition to their specialty. In Gymnasium, there are many cooperative projects, lectures, laboratories and individual research projects. There are opportunities for practical work in a business or government for short periods of time.

Post Secondary or University Education
Everyone accepted to a University is accepted for a five year program which includes a bachelor’s degree, awarded after three years, and a master’s degree, which is awarded after five years. Everyone studying in Universities is given a stipend of 5000 Danish Kroners or 800 US dollars per month, exactly the same as the students in vocational education. This can be extended up to two extra years if a student has changed programs. These students have a very high success rate because they have taken their time and decided what they really want to do. There is no tuition for the University or Seminarium. The students can major in almost all of the same subjects as Americans. Examples are medicine, law, business, natural and social science. The equivalent of the American liberal arts degree requires proficiency in two foreign languages as well as science and mathematics and is for students wishing to become a diplomat. Generally, after the first year of University education the students work in self-directed groups (2) working on projects with the advice and guidance of a professor. There are very few formal lectures in the last two years of the bachelor’s degree and none during the master’s degree. There are usually only 2 or 3 grades given after the bachelor’s degree and only 1 or 2 at the end of the master’s degree. Like the Gymnasium, the grading is from 0 to 13 with the same constraints on the higher and lower grades.

Structure and Ideals of the Educational System in Egypt
I have less understanding of the system in Egypt because I was there just under a year. The young people attended regular school but there was a very flexible schedule. Students in the social stratum of the swimmers have tutors and special study groups. Many attend private schools and receive an International Baccalaureate from Cambridge University. The educated people in my environment were multilingual. Most were fluent in English, French or German and their own language. I encountered many young people who spoke more 3 languages fluently by the time they were 17 years old. One of the interesting things they get to do is read books from their Nobel Prize winner Nagib Mahfouz. They will read the book in their native language and than in French and English or in German and English etc. The student then learns to see how perspectives can be changed by language. I considered the Egyptian young people the best educated relative to America and Europe.

In Cairo there are many international schools which have a very reasonable tuition or can often be free to qualified student. There are several American schools, a British school, a French school, a German school that many young Egyptians attend. With the exception of the American schools they are subsidized by the governments of these countries as a method of spreading the language and culture of the given country. There are many Catholic schools in Egypt and the middle east. I asked many Muslims why they send their children to Catholic school. They told me that the Catholic educational system helped create an empathy for poor people and people who were disadvantaged. The Catholic schools prepare people for success at the university level and give the young Egyptian a broader view of the world. When students finish high school they have one month of examinations to determine if they are eligible to attend University and which University they will attend.

The Teacher in Egypt
In this case my colleagues were not teachers but primarily other coaches. Most of them were former swimmers who came from every walk of life. Teachers are well educated and prepared but they were not working in my environment. The teachers are well educated, multilingual and many have had overseas experience. The best teachers make good money tutoring students in the evenings. The tutors work with groups of students and they do not do homework assignments for the students, they only teach. Often times private school teachers were educated in another country.

Post Secondary or University Education
The University education is also very rigorous in Egypt compared to America. Only the very best students go to the University. There are many examinations at the end of each term. The examinations last for as long as one month. Athletes attending universities in most countries including Egypt have a much more rigorous curriculum than the typical university in America. It is important to understand this and work with the athletes so they can accomplish their goals. You can bet that in Egypt if  university athletes are competing in sports they are dedicated and will devote as much time as their studies will allow.

Observed Values in Egypt in Contrast to Denmark and America
Value 1. Faith and religious belief.

The Danes will tell you they are atheists and do not have a faith or religious belief. As previously stated their educational system teaches them religion and shows the common values of the great religions. Their conclusion is dramatically different from the Egyptians. The faith of the Danes however is rooted in their social system which provides for and sustains their life if they are unable to sustain themselves. Trying to use concepts like having faith that their training will lead to success is a somewhat foreign concept to the Danes. The Egyptians follow Islam, which sustains their entire life. Their faith is that anything can happen as long as it is God’s will or “Incha Allah”. The Egyptians who have trained for many months and are preparing for their big competition will acknowledge they are well prepared and can succeed only if it is “Incha Allah”. They have faith because they have faith in God.

Value 2. The family and society:

In Egypt, like America, the family is the most important influence in socializing the children. If you are going to have support as a coach you will have to have the support of the family. The mother is in charge of the house and the education of the children. However, one would usually discuss training with both parents. This is quite similar to America where the family is also the primary socializing agent. In Denmark, young people are socialized by their peers and the social institutions. The students class (previously described) has a strong effect on the student/athletes and their training. If they happen to have a majority of low achievers their is potential for them to pull the athlete from the training program into the “alcohol program”. There is a lot of pressure to conform and if the athletic team is not strong enough the student/athlete will easily be dominated by the cultural norm known as “Jentelavn,” which excludes ambition and hard work. Jentolovn principles reduce the self esteem of the young child and discourage individual initiative and enforce conformity (2).

Value 3. Color Blind Society – Children of God:

Both Egypt and Denmark are free from racial prejudice. It was really great to spent so much time in these environments. The Danes certainly recognize differences in skin tone and other ethnic characteristics. Their lack of prejudice is rooted in their egalitarian culture which considers everyone equals. It would be illogical for them to think otherwise. Recently, there have been problems with first generation refugees not integrating into the Danish culture. But the Danes are persistent with forcing immigrants to learn the language and accept Danish customs and values if they are going to stay. The Egyptians are the same but for different reasons. First there is hardly any recognition of differences of skin color or other anthropological variation. Egyptians have large variations in skin color and people really do not evaluate what skin tone people have. The reason is that everyone is created by God and they were made that way. To say that one of God’s creations was inferior or even different because of skin color would be very wrong in the eyes of a follower of Islam.

Value 4. Foreigners remain in Egypt but they leave Denmark

If you read the history of Egypt you will see that the title of this section is true. The most famous person to become an Egyptian was Mohammed Ali (we are not talking about the former Cassias Clay here). Mohammed Ali was a Turkish Sultan who ruled Egypt during the time of the Ottoman Empire. He eventually fought and liberated Egypt from the Ottoman Empire. The pace of life and the customs are relaxed and easy to accommodate into the life of an expatriate. It is an accepting society and you only need to follow the easy to understand customs. You are never in fear of breaking an unknown rule. In contrast, Denmark was not as easy. As previously discussed, there are many unwritten rules and customs. Danes are extremely attentive to the tone of voice used and often receive comments as insults based on their interpretation of tone. This problem is difficult to overcome particularly because the interpretation of tone in the English language comes from the meaning of tone in the context of Danish language. From the American point of view Denmark is a conformist society. On one trip to the U.S., Danish swimmers they would not purchase American Levi pants for $22.00 because the dye was slightly different than the levis which were imported from England and sold for $100. They were afraid to be different. (2) You must conform or be uncomfortable

Value 5. Trust:

Trust is something the expatriate must gain while residing and working in a foreign land. The expatriate must gain the trust of all individuals who can influence the outcome of the athletes being coached. In Denmark many of the sport governing bodies have been strongly influenced by the former East German training system which has now been completely discredited because it the results were dependent on steroid use by female athletes. However, the idea of these systems of training still exist today and the trust is based on a proper system. Because Denmark is a collective society, the faith and recognition often go to a “staff” of people rather than one responsible person. Consequently the trust must always be with the staff, not because it is a functional concept but because it is the nature of the society. In the case of trust there are similar ideas in Egypt probably because of the former Soviet influence. However, the trust must also come from the family of the athlete as well as from the athletes themselves. This trust can be built without the idea that the coach has a “system” of training. In this case Egypt was again more similar to America than to Denmark.

Value 6. Respect:

Most coaches in American gain respect from hard work and results. There are the only requirements and we as Americans tolerate a wide range of behaviors from a coach if they work hard and win. In Denmark people respect one another and verbalize this regardless of the work they are willing to put in on a coaching job. The respect comes from being a person and one cannot achieve a higher degree of respect for any amount of success. This comes from the “Jentelavn” which is translated as the Law of Jente. It is a series of sayings that sets down the rules for conformity in the society and sets up the idea in the child’s mind that everyone is equal in every way. This is a very strong opinion but my opinion is that Jentelove has a negative effect on the child’s self esteem and makes them completely dependent on the group for survival, robs them of their willingness to excel individually. Jentolovn creates many failures in the sporting arena. The Egyptians have the mentality that God’s creations deserve respect. They do not teach their children to respect each other by reducing their self esteem. They do through their religious faith and the rules by which they live. A person who works hard, sticks with the values in which they believe (Christians also) and shows respect and consideration to other people will receive respect. In either case the mutual respect is important. In Egypt you respect their way of life and faith. In Denmark the same rule applies. You cannot openly oppose institutions like Jentelove or you will fail because too many people will be against your endeavors. You have to do the best you can under the circumstances and try to restore the swimmers self-esteem as best you can.

Conclusion and Discussion
I have tried to explore some of the aspects of this society that allows young people to become extremely well educated in their area. It is truly amazing to hear a fourteen year old speak 3 languages. The education of Americans is often compared to Europeans and people living in the far east. The fact is that all Americans in high school are compared to only the most outstanding or elite students who enter Gymnasium in other countries. If vocational students were included in these studies you would see many similarities except for the outstanding language proficiency and the ability to function in the society. Comprehending the values of the society early on made it easy to develop a swim club that had declined to 30 swimmers over a 4 year period to a robust participation of 170 competitors A clear understanding of the society and of the segments with which I was involved helped me significantly. I recommend all expatriates develop an intellectual and scholarly attitude and become a student of their host nation. First and foremost to this is acquiring the language and being able to understand what people around you are saying. The rest will fall into place if you are interested in making it happen.

References
Allardt, Erik: Nordic Democracy. Det Danske Selskab, Copenhagen, Denmark 1981.
Dyrbye, H., Harris, S., Golzen, T. Xenophobes Guide to the Danes. Ravette Publishing Co. Horsham, West Sussex, United Kingdom.

Entering “The Zone” : A Guide for Coaches

Ask any champion athlete whether their state of mind is an important component of sporting performance and the answer will always be the same – a resounding “YES!”. At the highest level, mindset is the crucial factor that separates winners from losers. The ideal mindset enables the body to function automatically with little conscious effort. In this optimal state, complex tasks appear to be easily accomplished and time can either stand still or rush by as the performer is completely immersed in what he or she is doing.

Coaches and sport psychologists often refer to this optimal mindset as “The Zone”. For some athletes, performance in the zone is achieved only a few times in their careers; however, with systematic training using sport psychology techniques, the zone can be entered almost at will. The aim of this article is to outline the theory, which underlies optimal psychological state, and to provide 10 techniques that can safely be recommended to athletes.

Theories of optimal performance

There have been two pioneers in sport psychology research who have devoted their lives to the investigation of optimal psychological state. First, the Hungarian Prof. Mihalyi Czikszentmihalyi introduced the concept of flow state in 1975 while the Russian, Prof. Yuri Hanin, proposed the zone of optimal functioning theory in 1980.

The concept of flow entails a state in which there is a perfect match between the perceived demands of an activity and the abilities of the performer. During flow, a performer loses self-consciousness and becomes completely immersed in the task at hand. This engenders a state in which performance is very pleasurable and intrinsically gratifying. Hence, Czikszentmihalyi refers to flow as being an autotelic experience. The term autotelic is derived from the Greek word auto which means self and telos which means end. Hence, an autotelic experience is one which is an end in itself or intrinsically rewarding. The concept of autotelic experience serves to highlight the need for emphasis on the enjoyment one can derive from participation rather than extrinsic rewards such as medals, trophies and public recognition.

Hanin’s theory is slightly different as it states that each athlete has an optimal zone of anxiety at which he or she performs at her peak. If an athlete’s anxiety leaves this zone, performance levels will invariably decrease. Prof. Hanin, who leads the Finland Research Institute for Olympic Sports, has published a great deal of empirical evidence in support of his theory. My opinion is that Hanin’s theory is useful in terms of establishing the right level of mental and bodily anxiety for peak performance to occur, while Czikszentmihalyi’s theory is useful in identifying key psychological components of flow. Once a phenomenon can be identified, it is easier to manipulate. In psychology, we refer to such manipulations as interventions and here are ten examples of interventions that you should find useful.

10 Techniques to attain optimal psychological state

Centering

Centering is an attentional control technique, which helps to calm athletes and get them focused at critical moments during their sport. It is typically used in sports which involve continuous breaks such as volleyball (during side-outs), and tennis (in-between games and sets). Centering can also be useful at the start of a short duration event such as a 400m sprint or a downhill ski race.

Instruct the athlete to begin by standing with his or her feet at shoulder width with arms at the side. The athlete should breathe deeply using the diaphragm and exhale very slowly. On breathing in, the athlete must focus attention on the area behind the navel. He or she will notice that on each in-breath, the tension in the upper body increases slightly, while on each exhalation, there is a calming sinking feeling. Once mastered, centering is a quick and effective way to attain calmness and counter the destructive effects of over-arousal.

Mental Rehearsal

Creating a mental blueprint for success is one of the best ways in which to enter the zone. Athletes should be encouraged to practice key aspects of their sport in their mind’s eye both prior to competition and, given the opportunity, during breaks in competition. Britain’s top 400m runner, Iwan Thomas, sees himself performing the perfect race before getting into his blocks. This is one of the ways in which he manages to maintain consistently high level performances.

The secret of high quality mental rehearsal involves bringing all the senses into play and using them to create life-like images. The effective combination of senses is called synaesthesis. Encourage athletes to run through sequences from their sport as if looking out through their own eyes noticing all the shapes, colours and textures. They should immerse themselves in the smells, sounds and general feel of their competitive environment. These images should be in real time and it is a good idea to play through a series of “what if” scenarios; for example, when something does not go to plan. Visualise different situations involving poor conditions, tough opponents, late starts and minor mishaps. Preparing mentally for any adversity ensures that athletes will not be stifled in competition when such situations arise. Failing to prepare is preparing to fail. Mental rehearsal is a cornerstone of success in sport.

Error Parking

Sometimes making a silly mistake or getting frustrated in competition can lead to a complete loss of concentration and a departure from the zone. To regain a state of flow after an error, you should advise athletes to “park it” by wiping it away on their shorts or on their playing implement (e.g., racquet, bat, club, etc.). Some sports people like to spit the mistake away although this is clearly not the most hygienic option! Parking an error is a way by which the error can be forgotten to enable athletes to focus on the here and now.

There are many examples of sports stars getting caught up in their mistakes or frustrations and allowing a momentary lapse of concentration to bring about a collapse in their game. A fairly recent example involves the Manchester United and England soccer star, David Beckham. Beckham was representing his country at the 1998 World Cup Finals in France. England had made it through to the second round of the finals and faced formidable opposition in the form of their old adversary, Argentina. Having been brought down by the Argentinean striker Simione, rather than wipe his frustrations away into the turf, Beckham lashed out at Simione with his heel resulting in a red card and an early departure for England from the Championships. The control of anger and frustration is an important lesson, which Beckham needs to learn. Such psychological control would be a perfect compliment to his abundant technical skills.

Losing Self-consciousness

Many sports people report that they become very distracted by the presence of spectators, officials and other competitors. The anxiety provoked by onlookers at competitions is induced by a natural fear of evaluation. Some competitors are able to turn this to their advantage, while others are completely debilitated by it. If an athlete finds it difficult to distract his/her mind from the fact that people will judge them, suggest these three simple strategies:

First, consider that any attention given to onlookers is wasted mental energy, which can be channelled into sporting performance. Channelling attention into performance will ensure that physical capabilities are maximised. Second, just prior to the competition, withdrawal from the other competitors and avoidance of communication with them is a sound strategy. This will demonstrate appropriate focus and may even cause the other competitors to feel anxious. Finally, use of a self-affirmation statement, which reinforces the required positive mindset. For example, “Fear is negative. Desire is positive”, “When the going gets tough the tough get going” or “Be cool like the Fonz”. Remember, if you can talk the talk you can walk the walk!

Using Keywords

As well as using self-affirmation statements, the use of keywords to reinforce what it is that you are trying to achieve can be very useful as part of an armoury of sport psychology techniques. For example, the world champion canoeist, Britain’s Steve Harris uses the phrase “Keep it smooth” to emphasise the smooth entry of the paddle into the water. Many golfers report using a swing thought just prior to striking the ball such as “fluid”, “relaxed” or “loose”. You should advise athletes to find one word which encapsulates what they are trying to do and to use it at critical times just to get them completely focused on what they should be doing. Hence, sprinters may use “explode”, swimmers may use “glide” and cyclists may use “spin”.

Self-hypnosis

Self-hypnosis can be used as an effective way of calming pre-competition nerves. It promotes activation of the right hemisphere of the brain and limits the conscious mental activities of the left hemisphere. Thus, self-hypnosis has a prophylactic effect against the disruptive influences of cognitive anxiety and negative self-talk.

Once mastered, hypnosis can be implemented very quickly to bring a calm and relaxed state. It simply involves focusing attention on one thought at a time. For example, you could focus on the regularity of your breathing and concentrate on breathing slowly from the diaphragm. Alternatively, as in centering, you could focus on your mid-point — the area just behind your navel. Further ways of attaining a hypnotic state involve continuously repeating a mantra such as “relax” or “easy”. Some athletes enter a trance-like state by listening to music. This will be covered in detail later, however, it should be noted that Prof. Czikszentmihalyi contends that flow is a “semi-hypnotic state”. In a sporting context, self-hypnosis is about taking control of yourself so as not to be vexed by the demands of competition.

Simulated Practice

An easy way for athletes to learn about the rigorous demands of competition so that they are able to enter the zone at will is through the use of simulated practice. This involves contriving situations, which accurately reflect what goes on in competition. Simulated practice helps athletes by once again creating a mental blueprint for how to react in particular situations. One method which we have found to be effective with young tennis players is to have one member of the group serving while the remainder attempt to create as much noise and disruption as possible. This forces the server to focus intently on the task at hand, and, over time, greatly improves their powers of concentration. I like to call this drill Mr or Ms Concentration. Crowd noise can also be played through loud speakers to simulate a competitive environment. Similar practices are useful for sprint starts, football kicks and basketball free throws. In fact, in any situation where there is emphasis on an individual, distraction practices such as this can be helpful. Other types of simulated practice involve practicing with 10 vs. 11 in team sports to emulate situations in which a player is sent off. Also, rather than practicing indoors, having sessions in cold and wet conditions builds mental toughness. Being strong mentally increases the chances of successfully entering the zone. The opportunities for simulated practice are only as limited as your imagination.

Pre-event Routine

Having a routine that is standardised but also flexible enough to adjust to differing competitive conditions can put athletes in control and make them feel both psyched and confident. For some athletes, the pre-event routine will start from the evening before a competition; however, being in control of the three minutes just prior to the start of competition is absolutely essential. You could suggest that athletes write down their pre-event routine, indicating what they do, what they are thinking and how they should feel in the hours and minutes leading up to competition.
Such routines involve the following checkpoints:

  • What is eaten and how long before competition it is consumed
  • What is packed in the kit bag
  • What mode of transport is to be used
  • How long before competition to arrive
  • What are the reporting-in procedures
  • What exactly does the warm-up routine consist of
  • What will the psych-up consist of e.g., imagery, self-statements, music etc.
  • What actions will be taken in the minute prior to start of competition
  • What is the ideal mindset on commencement of competition

The Winning Feeling

Ask athletes to think about their most successful performance ever. Encourage them to see themselves performing ……..; what were they wearing?; who were they competing against?; what was distinct about their movements? It is important for them to recreate exactly how they felt inside during their best performance and to write down every detail so that this feeling can be recreated at will. For some athletes, time speeds up when they are performing at their best and the performance is over before they really have a chance to appreciate it. For others, time will slow down and they will feel as if they have all the time in the world to perform. Either way, the winning feeling will be a unique experience which, once identified, can be recreated at will.

The Power of Sound

Music has the ability to inspire, motivate and relax the competitive athlete. Choosing the “right” music is dependent upon what you wish to gain from the listening experience: if your goal is to psych-up, it is advisable to select upbeat music with a strong driving rhythm and lyrics that reinforce what it is that you are trying to achieve. For example, “Eye of the Tiger” (Survivor), “You’re Simply the Best” (Tina Turner) “A Kind of Magic” (Queen). Conversely, if you want music to control your pre-competition anxiety it can be both sedative and inspiring at the same time. For example, “One Moment in Time” (Whitney Houston), “My Heart Will Go On” (Celine Dion) or “Easy” (Lionel Richie). Either way, rather than have specific pieces of music imposed upon them, athletes should be encouraged to make choices which reflect their own musical preferences.

Author’s note

Dr. Costas Karageorghis is a BASES accredited scientific support and research sport psychologist. He is a member of the British Olympic Association Psychology Advisory Group and is head of sport psychology at Brunel University’s Department of Sport Sciences. Further, Dr. Karageorghis is an alumnus of the USSA MSS program and acts as the United Kingdom academic representative.
E-mail: costas.karageorghis@brunel.ac.uk.

Centennial Anniversary of the International Olympic Movement and Modern Olympic Games

This scholarly history of the International Olympics and modern Olympic games will be an outstanding source for scholars interested in the Olympics and all its glory. Oleg A. Milshteyn is particularly qualified as a researcher through his former affiliation in the Moscow Institute of Sport, where he was a professor of sport sociology. Some of his former students there read like a Who’s Who in the rarefied world of Olympic champions.

In preparation for this unique historical tome, Dr. Milsteyn conducted sociological interviews with 500 leading world experts from more than 80 countries regarding the Centenial Anniversary of the International Olympic Movement and Modern Olympic Games. Among those polled were outstanding Olympians; participants in the Games from 1932 in Los Angeles to 1996 in Atlanta, as well as famous coaches, scientists, journalists, IOC members, heads of the ISF, NOCs and other international and national sport bodies; culture, art, religious figures, managers, businessmen, and sponsors involved in the Olympics.

Altogether, 230 audio recorded hours in 12 languages were made. In 1997-’98, all of this unique information was translated, processed and analyzed in the Jubilee Olympiad International Research Project. This work is still ongoing as Dr. Milsteyn is working on a manuscript of a book with the same title. The collected material is so voluminous, that only one tenth has been utilized to date. There are strong indications that, when completed, Milsteyn’s work will be studied intensely by sport scientists, journalists, sport historians, and students.

Dr. Milsteyn would like the opportunity to finish writing his book and translate it into English and/or other languages. To realize this, he is looking for any creative cooperation, including coauthorship.

Individuals or organizations interested in working with Dr. Milsteyn may contact him at:

Dr. Oleg Milshteyn
Proufsoyuznay 144-131
Moscow 117321, Russia
Home phone: (7 095) 429-5790
Office telephone: (7 095) 242-8452
Fax: (7 095) 247-0844
Email: olm98@dol.ru (for Dr. Oleg Milshteyn)

Centennial Anniversary of the International Olympic Movement and Modern Olympic Games

This scholarly history of the
International Olympics and modern Olympic
games will be an outstanding source for scholars interested in
the Olympics and all its glory. Oleg A. Milshteyn is particularly
qualified as a researcher through his former affiliation in the Moscow Institute
of Sport, where he was a professor of sport sociology. Some of his
former students there read like a Who’s Who in the rarefied world
of Olympic champions.

In preparation for this unique
historical tome, Dr. Milsteyn conducted sociological interviews with 500 leading world experts from more
than 80 countries regarding the Centenial Anniversary of the
International Olympic Movement and Modern Olympic Games. Among
those polled were outstanding Olympians; participants in the
Games from 1932 in Los Angeles to 1996 in Atlanta, as well as famous coaches,
scientists, journalists, IOC members, heads of the ISF, NOCs
and other international and national sport bodies; culture, art, religious
figures, managers, businessmen, and sponsors involved in the Olympics.

Altogether, 230 audio recorded
hours in 12 languages were made. In 1997-’98, all of this unique information was translated,
processed and analyzed in the Jubilee Olympiad International Research Project.
This work is still ongoing as Dr. Milsteyn is working on a manuscript
of a book with the same title. The collected material is so voluminous,
that only one tenth has been utilized to date. There are strong indications
that, when completed, Milsteyn’s work will be studied intensely
by sport scientists, journalists, sport historians, and students.

Dr. Milsteyn would like the
opportunity to finish writing his book and translate it into English and/or other languages. To realize
this, he is looking for any creative cooperation, including coauthorship.

Individuals or organizations interested in working with Dr. Milsteyn may
contact him at:

Dr. Oleg Milshteyn
Proufsoyuznay 144-131
Moscow 117321, Russia
Home phone: (7 095) 429-5790
Office telephone: (7 095) 242-8452
Fax: (7 095) 247-0844
Email: olm98@dol.ru (for Dr.
Oleg Milshteyn)